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# Profit & Loss

IMPORTANT FACTS Cost Price: The price, at which an article is purchased, is called its cost price, abbreviated as C.P. Selling Price: The price, at which an article is sold, is called its selling prices, abbreviated as S.P. Profit or Gain: If S.P. is greater than C.P., the seller is said to have a profit or gain. Loss: If S.P. is less than C.P., the seller is said to have incurred a loss. IMPORTANT FORMULAE 1. 2. 3. 4. Gain = (S.P.) - (C.P.) Loss = (C.P.) - (S.P.) Loss or gain is always reckoned on C.P. Gain Percentage: (Gain %) Gain x 100 Gain % = C.P. Loss Percentage: (Loss %) Loss x 100 Loss % = C.P. Selling Price: (S.P.) (100 + Gain %) SP = x C.P 100 Selling Price: (S.P.) (100 - Loss %) SP = x C.P. 100 Cost Price: (C.P.) C.P. = 9. 100 (100 + Gain %) x S.P.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Cost Price: (C.P.) C.P. = 100 (100 - Loss %) x S.P.

10. If an article is sold at a gain of say 35%, then S.P. = 135% of C.P. 11. If an article is sold at a loss of say, 35% then S.P. = 65% of C.P. incurs a loss given by: Common Loss and Gain % 2 Loss % = = 10

12. When a person sells two similar items, one at a gain of say x%, and the other at a loss of x%, then the seller always

x 10

2

.

13. If a trader professes to sell his goods at cost price, but uses false weights, then Error Gain % = x 100

PxR (ii). Work from Days: If A can do a piece of work in n days. R1 R2 R3 Then. 4. Time and Work 1. x due n years hence is given by: 7. 2. PxT 100 x S. R3% for 1st. say 3 3 years. Compound Interest 1. Rate = R% per annum. Simple Intereest = 100 x S. Time = n years.I. Amount = 1 + 100 1 + 100 1 + 100 . Interest: Extra money paid for using other's money is called interest. 2. Let Principal = P. say R1%. RxT 100 100 x S.): If the interest on a sum borrowed for certain period is reckoned uniformly. When interest is compounded Annually but time is in fraction. then A's 1 day's work = Days from Work: If A's 1 day's work 1. R2%.R= and T = . Let Principal = P. P = . then it is called simple interest. x Present Worth = R 1 + 100 . Rate = R% per annum (p. When Rates are different for different years.I.I. then A can finish the work 1 n . Amount = P 1+ R 100 x 1+ R 100 6. P Present worth of Rs.Simple Interest 1. 2ndand 3rd year respectively. .) and Time = T years. Simple Interest (S. 5. 3. When interest is compound Annually: R n Amount = 1 + 100 P When interest is compounded Half-yearly: (R/2) 2 n Amount = 1 + 100 P When interest is compounded Quarterly: (R/4) 4 n Amount = 1 + 100 P 3.a. Principal: The money borrowed or lent out for a certain period is called the principal or thesum. 2. Then PxRxT (i).I.

Also. Ratio: n in n days. x m/sec to km/hr conversion: 18 x km/hr 5 x m/sec = x . Time and Distance 1. 4. Rule: The multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by the same non-zero number does not affect the ratio. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a. a b Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km/hr and an equal distance at ykm/hr. Ratio and Proportion 1. consequent = 9. The ratio 5 : 9 represents 5 9 with antecedent = 5. 2xy the average speed during the whole journey is x+ y km/hr . b. If A is thrice as good a workman as B. Time and Distance: Distance Speed = 2. a : b :: c : d (b x c) = (a x d). then the ratio of the 1 or b : a the times taken by then to cover the same distance 1 : is . 3. Here a and d are called extremes. 5. Speed. while b and c are called mean terms. 3. we call a as the first term or antecedent and b. Product of means = Product of extremes. Time . c. Thus. Time = Distance Speed . km/hr to m/sec conversion: 5 x 18 x km/hr = m/sec. Distance = (Speed x Time). Eg. Then. 4 : 5 = 8 : 10 = 12 : 15. 2. In the ratio a : b. Fourth Proportional: . If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a : b. Eg. 4 : 6 = 2 : 3. Ratio of times taken by A and B to finish a work = 1 : 3. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1.= 3. the second term or consequent. Ratio: The ratio of two quantities a and b in the same units. If a : b = c : d. d are in proportion. is the fraction and we write it as a : b. Proportion: The equality of two ratios is called proportion.

Duplicate Ratios: 6. x m/s to km/hr conversion: 18 a km/hr 5 a m/s = x . we write. 8. (e : f) is (ace : bdf). Compounded Ratio: The compounded ratio of the ratios: (a : b). 3. if xy = k for some constant k and 1 y. Mean Proportional: Mean proportional between a and b is ab. x y. Third Proportional: a : b = c : d. c. Sub-duplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a : b). If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in opposite directions at um/s and v m/s. Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in opposite directions at u m/s and v m/s. (c : d). Comparison of Ratios: a b We say that (a : b) > (c : d) > c d . then their relative speed is = (u + v) m/s. Duplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a2 : b2). then: (a + b ) The time taken by the trains to cross each other sec. 2.v) m/s. where u > v. 5. Formulas for finding Speed. 7. then d is called the fourth proportional to a. 5. Variations: We say that x is directly proportional to y. if x = ky for some constant k and we write.If a : b = c : d. b. then: 9. [componendo and dividendo] 8. then their relative speed is = (u . then c is called the third proportion to a and b. 7. x Percentage 1. km/hr to m/s conversion: 5 a 18 a km/hr = m/s. then a+ b a-b = c+ d c-d . Time and Distance Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a pole or standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train to cover l metres. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a stationery object of length bmetres is the time taken by the train to cover (l + b) metres. If a = c b d . . Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in the same direction at u m/s and v m/s. Triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a3 : b3). 4. Sub-triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a1/3 : b1/3). 6. 4. = (u + v ) If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in the same direction at um/s and v m/s. We say that x is inversely proportional to y.

8. then their relative speed is = (u . vi. Average: Sum of observations Average = 2. 5. ii. Angle traced by hour hand in 12 hrs = 360° Angle traced by minute hand in 60 min. 6. vii. x m/s to km/hr conversion: 18 a km/hr 5 a m/s = x . = (u + v ) If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in the same direction at um/s and v m/s. If two trains (or bodies) start at the same time from points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b sec in reaching B and A respectively. In 60 minutes. if it indicates 7. they are 15 minute spaces apart. If a watch or a clock indicates 8. 2. If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in opposite directions at um/s and v m/s. they are 30 minute spaces apart. where u > v. the smaller one is called the hour hand or short hand while the larger one is called minute hand or long hand.15. the minute hand gains 55 minutes on the hour on the hour hand. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a stationery object of length bmetres is the time taken by the train to cover (l + b) metres. both the hands coincide once. the average speed druing the whole journey is x+ y kmph. Problems on Trains 1.The time taken by the faster train to cross the slower train = (a + b ) sec. viii. Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in opposite directions at u m/s and v m/s. it is said to be 15 minutes too slow. In every hour. 3. The hands are in the same straight line when they are coincident or opposite to each other. . On the other hand. when the correct time is 8. 9. km/hr to m/s conversion: 5 a 18 a km/hr = m/s. Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in the same direction at u m/s and v m/s. Clock 1. 7. (u . i. 4. When the hands are in opposite directions. then: (a + b ) The time taken by the trains to cross each other sec.45. when the correct time is 8. Average Speed: Number of observations Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x kmph and an equal distance at ykmph. iii. 2xy Then. v. 2. Time and Distance Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a pole or standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train to cover l metres. called minute spaces. iv. Minute Spaces: The face or dial of watch is a circle whose circumference is divided into 60 equal parts. then: (A's speed) : (B's speed) = (b : a) Average 1. When the two hands are at right angles.v) m/s. then their relative speed is = (u + v) m/s. Formulas for finding Speed. it is said to be 15 minutes too fast. then: The time taken by the faster train to cross the slower train (a + b sec. Hour Hand and Minute Hand: A clock has two hands. = 360°.v) 10.

units. CONE Volume = ( r2h) cubic units.= ) (u . If two trains (or bodies) start at the same time from points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b sec in reaching B and A respectively. Then. units. Then i. CYLINDER Volume = a3 cubic units. units. r2) sq. ii. Diagonal = l2 + b2 + h2 units. 5. 4. Volume = r3 cubic units. i. rl + r2) sq. Then. Curved surface area = (2 Total surface area = 2 r(h + r) sq. Then. then: (A's speed) : (B's speed) = (b : a) Volume and Surface 1. Volume = r2h cubic units. l = h2 + r2 units. ii. Then. rl) sq. units. iv. breadth = b and height = h units. CUBE Volume = (l x b x h) cubic units. Surface area = 2(lb + bh + lh) sq. SPHERE Slant height. iii. 6. i. 3. Surface area = (4 HEMISPHERE Let the radius of a hemisphere be r. . Let radius of base = r and Height = h.v) 10. i. ii. Curved surface area = ( Total surface area = ( Let the radius of the sphere be r. rh) sq. ii. Volume = r3 cubic units. iii. Surface area = 6a2 sq. Diagonal = 3a units. iii. Let each edge of a cube be of length a. 2. CUBOID Let length = l. Then. iii. i. units. units. units. Let radius of base = r and Height (or length) = h. ii. i.

1. Area of a square = (side)2 = (diagonal)2. 2. IV. Each diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into triangles of the same area. Results on Triangles: i. where R is the radius. a 3 . Area of a triangle = x Base x Height. x (side)2. iii. iv. iii. the parallelogram which is a rectangle has the greatest area. 2. 2. 1. 4 Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = 3 a 23 . vi. 2. The median of a triangle divides it into two triangles of the same area. Results on Quadrilaterals: i. vii. vi. units. ii. the altitude from the vertex bisects the base. 3. 1. v. Area FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. vii. Area of a trapezium = x (sum of parallel sides) x distance between them.ii. 6. VII. c are the sides of the triangle and s = (a + b + c). Note: 1 litre = 1000 cm3. (Hypotenuse)2 = (Base)2 + (Height)2. Area of a triangle = s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) where a. III. 1. The point where the three medians of a triangle meet. units. II. viii. Radius of incircle of a triangle of area perimeter s = and semis VI. IMPORTANT FORMULAE I. v. The diagonals of a rhombus are unequal and bisect each other at right angles. Of all the parallelogram of given sides. ii. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2(Length + Breadth). Circumference of a circle = 2 R. Area of parallelogram = (Base x Height). 2. The diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right angles. Curved surface area = (2 Total surface area = (3 2 r2) sq. In an isosceles triangle. Area of an equilateral triangle = 4. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. 3. . Area of a rectangle = (Length x Breadth). The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side. is called centroid. Pythagoras Theorem: In a right-angled triangle. The line joining the mid-point of a side of a triangle to the positive vertex is called the median. The centroid divided each of the medians in the ratio 2 : 1. A parallelogram and a rectangle on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. The area of the triangle formed by joining the mid-points of the sides of a given triangle is one-fourth of the area of the given triangle. Area of a circle = R2. Area Length = Breadt h and Breadth = Area Lengt h . Area of a rhombus = x (Product of diagonals). b. iii. The diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other. 5. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (Length + Breadth) x Height. Sum of the angles of a triangle is 180°. iv. V. r ) sq.

y = y y y y x Problems on Numbers Some Basic Formulae: i. 196 = 14. 2.of.3abc) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 .b)(a2 + ab + b2) (a3 + b3 + c3 . We. xy = x x y 2 . v. we say that the square root of y is x and we write y = x.ac) When a + b + c = 0. A . Cube Root: The cube root of a given number x is the number whose cube is x.Bracket.Division. Thus. 1. where R2 360 is the central angle. M . 1(arc x R) = 2 VIII. Note: 1. Square Root: If x2 = y.3.b) = (a2 . Area of semi-circle = R2. O . Length of an arc = Area of a sector = 2 R 360 .b3) = (a .ab + b2) (a3 . ii.b2) (a + b)2 = (a2 + b2 + 2ab) (a . iii.Subtraction . .bc . 4. 4 = 2.2ab) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) (a3 + b3) = (a + b)(a2 . Simplification 1. 9 = 3. 2 Square Root and Cube 1. 'BODMAS' Rule: This rule depicts the correct sequence in which the operations are to be executed. Here B .ab .Addition and S . x x = x x y = y. iv. vi. (a + b)(a . then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc. 8 = 2 x 2 x 2 = 2. 343 = 7 x 7 x 7 = 7 etc. 2. Thus. denote the cube root of x by x. vii. so as to find out the value of given expression. viii. Circumference of a semi-circle = R. D .Multiplication.b)2 = (a2 + b2 .

Similarly.C. of more than three numbers may be obtained.F.C.F.C. is 1. There are two methods of finding the H. H. strictly in the order (). Product of two numbers = Product of their H.F. first of all the brackets must be removed.C.C. of two or more than two numbers is the greatest number that divided each of them exactly. Factorization Method: Resolve each one of the given numbers into a product of prime factors. of a given set of numbers: I. After removing the brackets. of a given set of numbers: I.C. L.F.F. of Numerators 1.C.C.): The H.M. H. and L.C.) or Greatest Common Divisor (G. of two given numbers.M.M. of more than two numbers: Suppose we have to find the H.) or Greatest Common Measure (G. Highest Common Factor (H. Factorization Method: Express the each one of the given numbers as the product of prime factors. Now.C. Virnaculum (or Bar): When an expression contains Virnaculum. b is called a multiple of a. H. of Numerators 2. Modulus of a Real Number: Modulus of a real number a is defined as a. of the given numbers. of three given number. Problems on HCF and LCM 1.F. Factors and Multiples: If number a divided another number b exactly.F. of Fractions: H.Thus.C. of three numbers.C.C.F. The product of the divisors and the undivided numbers is the required L. 3. 4. |5| = 5 and |-5| = -(-5) = 5. if a < 0 Thus. 3. . Then. L.M.D. divide the larger by the smaller one. There are two methods of finding the L. Repeat the above process till no two of the numbers are divisible by the same number except 1. is the product of highest powers of all the factors. H. if a > 0 |a| = -a.): The least number which is exactly divisible by each one of the given numbers is called their L. in simplifying an expression. we say that a is a factor of b. then. of = Denominators L.F. before applying the 'BODMAS' rule.F.C. the H. we must use the following operations strictly in the order: (i) of (ii) Division (iii) Multiplication (iv) Addition (v) Subtraction. 2.F. and L.C.F.F.F.C.C. II. The last divisor is required H.F.M. In this case. The product of least powers of common prime factors gives H. Division Method (short-cut): Arrange the given numbers in a rwo in any order. L. we simplify the expression under the Virnaculum.C.C.C. Finding the H.F. II.C. 2. Least Common Multiple (L.C.C. divide the divisor by the remainder.C. of = Denominators 5.C. of [(H.M. 6.C. of any two) and (the third number)] gives the H. {} and ||.C.M.M.M.M.C.F. Repeat the process of dividing the preceding number by the remainder last obtained till zero is obtained as remainder.C. Divide by a number which divided exactly at least two of the given numbers and carry forward the numbers which are not divisible.F. Co-primes: Two numbers are said to be co-primes if their H. Division Method: Suppose we have to find the H.M.C.

32. 0. 1. and L. etc. Thus. in the result.007.0204 Ã· 17). Conversion of a Decimal into Vulgar Fraction: Put 1 in the denominator under the decimal point and annex with it as many zeros as is the number of digits after the decimal point. Dividend contains 4 places of decimal. 9.8. 0.2 x 0.C. 2 x 2 x 2 = 8.0204 Ã· 17 = 0.F. So.C. 99 100 1 = 1 tenth = . Thus.002 = . in the quotient. make the same number of decimal places by annexing zeros in some numbers. = 1 hundredth = . of the denominators of the given fractions. .. Comparison of Fractions: Find the L. 0. H.M as the denominator. 3.9 9 = 184 299 = 8 13 . = 7 thousandths = .1.073 x 10000 = 730. find H. by the given counting number.C. Suppose we have to find the quotient (0. in the product. Now.0012 .800. Annexing Zeros and Removing Decimal Signs: Annexing zeros to the extreme right of a decimal fraction does not change its value.002).M.M. if necessary. etc. ii. The numbers so arranged can now be added or subtracted in the usual way. Sum of decimal places = (1 + 2 + 3) = 6.C. then we remove the decimal sign. or L. 01.8 4 2. put the decimal point to give as many places of decimal as there are in the dividend. Thus. 5. 4. Multiplication of Decimal Fractions: Multiply the given numbers considering them without decimal point.80 = 0. Convert each of the fractions into an equivalent fraction with L.9632 x 100 = 596. iii. Dividing a Decimal Fraction By a Counting Number: Divide the given number without considering the decimal point. Now. If numerator and denominator of a fraction contain the same number of decimal places. 1 100 7 1000 10 = 99 hundredths = . Thus.99. Suppose we have to find the product (.008 = 2008 1000 = 251 125 .02 x . Now. by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the same number. Multiplication of a Decimal Fraction By a Power of 10: Shift the decimal point to the right by as many places as is the power of 10.M. 4 2. mark off as many decimal places as are there in each of the given numbers. Decimal Fractions: Fractions in which denominators are powers of 10 are known as decimal fractions. Operations on Decimal Fractions: i. of Decimal Fractions: In a given numbers. as the case may be. remove the decimal point and reduce the fraction to its lowest terms. 0.C.8 = 0. Decimal Fraction 1.C.02 x . 2. Considering these numbers without decimal point. Thus. Now. Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Fractions: The given numbers are so placed under each other that the decimal points lie in one column.F. Now.25 = 25 100 = 1 . Now. the decimal point is marked off to obtain as many places of decimal as is the sum of the number of decimal places in the given numbers. 204 Ã· 17 = 12.2 x . The resultant fraction with the greatest numerator is the greatest.000008 iv.

= 3. proceed as above. 0. ii. 0. and 5 7 9 7 = 9 0. then it is expressed by putting a dot on it. then convert each one of the given fractions in the decimal form. Let us to arrange the fractions Now.16 = 16 . 9900 7.. = 0.ab .5 = 5 9 .. > 0. (a + b)(a .067 = 67 .. 3 6 7 .857 > 0. if a single figure is repeated.bc .006 11 5.v. a figure or a set of figures is repeated continuously. Converting a Mixed Recurring Decimal Into Vulgar Fraction: In the numerator. If a set of figures is repeated.00066 x 100 0.333. 0. Thus.2273 = 2273 22 9900 = 2251. 5 7 Since. is called a mixed recurring decimal. iv. Experiment: .066 = .. take the difference between the number formed by all the digits after decimal point (taking repeated digits only once) and that formed by the digits which are not repeated. then such a number is called a recurring decimal.. 0.53 = 53 99 . Thus..b) = (a2 + b2) (a + b)2 = (a2 + b2 + 2ab) (a . Now. 0. Pure Recurring Decimal: A decimal fraction. Comparison of Fractions: Suppose some fractions are to be arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude. 0.1733333. Converting a Pure Recurring Decimal into Vulgar Fraction: Write the repeated figures only once in the numerator and take as many nines in the denominator as is the number of repeating figures.b3) = (a .1 = 15 = 1 90 90 6 . it is expressed by putting a bar on the set. vii. Some Basic Formulae: i. 1 3 = 0. Mixed Recurring Decimal: A decimal fraction in which some figures do not repeat and some of them are repeated.142857142857. So.00066 = 0. take the number formed by as many nines as there are repeating digits followed by as many zeros as is the number of non-repeating digits.777. and arrange them accordingly. viii.173.3. vi. Recurring Decimal: If in a decimal fraction. 3 6 = 0.2ab) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) (a3 + b3) = (a + b)(a2 . v.3abc) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 . in which all the figures after the decimal point are repeated..ab + b2) (a3 . 999 etc.857. 0. Thus.b)2 = (a2 + b2 .ac) When a + b + c = 0.11 0.6. 22 7 = 3.142857. 0. then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc. Probability 1. n a recurring decimal. . Eg..6. = 0. 6. In the denominator. iii.b)(a2 + ab + b2) (a3 + b3 + c3 .11 x 100 = 0. is called a pure recurring decimal.. 6 7 > 7 9 > 3 5 in descending order. = 0.777.. Dividing a Decimal Fraction By a Decimal Fraction: Multiply both the dividend and the divisor by a suitable power of 10 to make divisor a whole number. Thus.

T} If two coins are tossed. Drawing a card from a pack of well-shuffled cards. 3. Sample Space: When we perform an experiment. the outcome is the number that appears on its upper face. E S. then the set S of all possible outcomes is called thesample space. Random Experiment: An experiment in which all possible outcomes are know and the exact output cannot be predicted in advance. 2. Then. then P(A) = 1 . S = {H. is called a random experiment. A pack of cards has 52 cards. 6}. 2. 2. v. There are 4 honours of each unit. HT. 3. A dice is a solid cube. 2. Tossing a fair coin. 4. P(E) = n(E) n(S) . vii. Clubs. Surds and Indices 1. It has 13 cards of each suit. Queens and Jacks. am x an = am + n . vi. Rolling an unbiased dice. having 6 faces. iii. 5. When we throw a die. Examples: 2.P(A B) 1 For any events A and B we have : P(A If A denotes (not-A). i. the S = {HH. S = {1. 4. then either a Head (H) or a Tail (T) appears. TT}. 6 respectively. When we throw a coin. name Spades. 3. In rolling a dice. we have. Results on Probability: ii. 3. Picking up a ball of certain colour from a bag containing balls of different colours. Examples: i. 5. Cards of spades and clubs are black cards. 4. 1. TH. Cards of hearts and diamonds are red cards. marked 1. iv. ii. These are all called face cards. Laws of Indices: i. Details: v. Any subset of a sample space is called an event. iv. Event: In tossing a coin. There are Kings. 3.An operation which can produce some well-defined outcomes is called an experiment. ii. P(S) = 1 0 P( P (E) )=0 B) = P(A) + P(B) . iii. Probability of Occurrence of an Event: Let S be the sample and let E be an event. Hearts and Diamonds.P(A).

Amount x Rate x Time 4. 10.G. (a)n = a (a)m = am Banker's Discount: Suppose a merchant A buys goods worth. 3. . on T.. x B.D.n iii. say Rs.D. iv.D. grace days are not to be added. Amount = T. known as legally due date.).I. v.D. B. v. = 100 + (Rate x Time) B. = 7.) = S. paid by the banker) and the legally due date. 3.D. B. = 100 Amount x Rate x Time 5. T. A signs this bill and allows B to withdraw the amount from his bank account after exactly 5 months.D.(T.I. Three days (known as grace days) are added to it get a date.D. x T.) = (B. = (T. B.G. The date exactly after 5 months is called nominally due date. who deducts S. P.D.T. a = a(1/n) ab = a x b a = b iv. . Note: When the date of the bill is not given. B prepares a bill.I.W. IMPORTANT FORMULAE 1.) for the unexpired time. Surds: a0 = 1 Let a be rational number and n be a positive integer such that a(1/n) = a Then. ii.D.D.D. Suppose B wants to have the money before the legally due date.) . Thus. This amount is know as Banker's Discount (B. Then he can have the money from the banker or a broker.D. T.a m = am . Then. iii.e.D.e.G. vi. B.D.I. on the face value for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted and the legally due date.G..D.000 in this case) for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted (i. = S. B. is the S. = (B. on bill for unexpired time. 10. 2. called the bill of exchange. on the face vale (i. 2.) .D. Banker's Gain (B.)2 P.(T. an (am)n = amn (ab)n = anbn n a b = a n b n vi.W. x 100 Rate x Time 6. Rs.D. a is called a surd of order n. Laws of Surds: i.000 from another merchant B at a credit of say 5 months. B.