“An Interesting Educational Tool”
Swapnil Kumar Sharma ‘Former Child Scientist’
Trained and Developed by:
Voluntary Institute for Community Applied Science – VICAS, India
HD-86, ADA Colony, Naini, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh PIN: 211008 e-mail: email@example.com Visit us at: www.vicasindia.com OR http://vicasindia.blogspot.com Cellphone No.: +91 – 94509 61953
THINGS TO LEARN AND UNDERSTAND BY THE MODEL ROCKETRY ACTIVITY Through this activity the participants will easily understand the concepts of Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics and will know some facts about space which are as follows: PHYSICS: • • How Thrust helps a rocket to fly? Practical aspect of Center of Gravity and Center of Pressure i.e. how they are related with each other, their role and importance in a flight of a rocket. How to find the Center of Gravity and Center of Pressure of an object? Factor affecting the flight of a Rocket and how? Brief discussion on the wind, gravitational pull, air friction and thrust and their role. How stability is attained and its role? How to determine and check whether an object is balanced/stable by Center of Gravity and Center of Pressure. Practical application of Newton’s Third Law. Practical application and realization of force, mass and acceleration with their relation (Newton’s Second Law). Application of equations of motion i.e. v = u + at, S = u + ½ at2 and v2 = u2 + 2aS
• • • • • •
CHEMISTRY: • Learn and understand the types of fuels used in propellants. • Role of Oxidizer and fuel and basic difference between them. MATHEMATICS: • Practical application of Trigonometry and Geometry in real life. • Calculating in determining the approximate height of a flying object in free space with the help of geometry. SPACE: • By the videos being displayed the students will get a feel of different situations and conditions faced by the astronauts in space. • Biological effects on the body of the astronauts in space and detail discussion on their cause. • Technical aspect of countdown before any launch. • Comparison between a Model Rocket & Real Rocket and Rocket & Airplane. TEAM WORK: • Experience of working in a team/group while developing model rocket. • Experience of coordinating with different teams/groups while the launch of model rocket i.e. at the time of launch there are two recording teams, two tracking teams, one launching team monitored and instructed by the resource person.
It is measured in Newtons.
Thrust of the Engine: This is the reaction Produced due the action of the hot gases coming out of the nozzle.
. This force acts in the direction opposite of the gas coming out.
Maximum Thrust: It is the highest amount of push produced by the engine during the whole operation. The instant when the engine ceases to produce thrust is known as 'Burn Out'
Total Thrust: It is the total impulse by the engine.e. the time from state of ignition to the time when the ceases to produce thrust.
Burn out Time or Thrust Duration (tB): It is the length of the time for which thrust is produced by the engine i. If the thrust duration is broken in small time intervals and thrust is found out for every small interval.THRUST: Thrust (T): This is the instantaneous force or push produced at a given time by the operating engine. The Thrust may or may not remain constant throughout the operation of the engine but follows curve path. then sum of the products of the small time interval and thrust at that time upto all small time intervals give the total thrust.
Average Thrust (Tav): It is the equivalent constant thrust which would act for the same total duration and produces same amount of total thrust. but they are physically different concepts. we can still describe its motion. If the object is confined to rotate about some other point. Engineers try to design a sports car’s center of mass as low as possible to make the car handle better. and this property can be exploited. The center of mass of a body does not generally coincide with its geometric center.
CENTER OF GRAVITY AND CENTER OF PRESSURE: Center of Gravity/Balancing point: The center of gravity is a geometric property of any object. objects can be replaced by masses located at their mass centers for the purposes of analysis. such as angular momentum or the moment of inertia. such as orbital mechanics. A specific center of momentum frame in which the center of mass is not
. In the case of a rigid body. but where gravity is not uniform center of gravity refers to the mean location of the gravitational force acting on a body. They happen to coincide in a uniform gravitational field. The center of momentum frame is an inertial frame defined as the inertial frame in which the center of mass of a system is at rest. they bend their body in such a way that it is possible for the jumper to clear the bar while his or her center of mass does not. In the case of a loose distribution of masses in free space. both airplanes and rockets rotate about their centers of gravity The center of mass or mass center is the mean location of all the mass in a system. the position of the center of mass is a point in space among them that may not correspond to the position of any individual mass. such as shot from a shotgun or the planets of the solar system. This results in small but measurable gravitational torque that must be accounted for in the operation of artificial satellites. When high jumpers perform a “Fosbury Flop”. The term center of mass is often used interchangeably with center of gravity. In flight. The center of gravity is the average location of the weight of an object. In many applications. like a hinge. It is the total thrust divided by the burn out time. and it is a convenient reference point for many other calculations in physics. The use of the mass center often allows the use of simplified equations of motion. We can completely describe the motion of any object through space in terms of the translation of the center of gravity of the object from one place to another and the rotation of the object about its center of gravity if it is free to rotate. the position of the center of mass is fixed in relation to the body.
the velocity of the fluid varies around the surface of the object. the projected area of the body tube is a rectangle. is sometimes called the center of mass frame. We call the average location of the pressure variation the center of pressure in the same way that we call the average location of the weight of an object the center of gravity. it is necessary to know the location of the center of pressure of the entire aircraft. there is a simple mechanical way to determine the center of pressure for each component or for the entire rocket. The variation of velocity produces a variation of pressure on the surface of the object. For example. A * cp = [a * d](nose) + [a * d](tube) + [a * d](fins) The “location” of each component is the distance of each component’s center of pressure from the reference line. The projected area A of the rocket is the sum of the projected area a of the components. We can consider this single force to act through the average location of the pressure on the surface of the object. To trim an airplane. lift and drag. or
. Integrating the pressure times the surface area around the body determines the aerodynamic force on the object. So you must calculate or determine the center of pressure of each of the components. Mechanically determining of Center of Gravity and Center of Pressure: For a model rocket. The center of pressure is on the axis. of each of the major parts of the rocket: the nose. and fins. half way between the end planes. The aerodynamic force can then be resolved into two components. body tube.only at rest. Calculation of cp: The figure shows a simplified version of the calculation procedure that you can use to calculate the cp of a model rocket. Determining the center of pressure is very important for any flying object. Make a two dimensional tracing of the shape of the component. Center of Pressure: As an object moves through a fluid. We assume that we already know the projected area and location. or to provide stability for a model rocket or a kite. but also at the origin of the coordinate system. we can say that the area of the whole rocket times the location of the center of pressure cp is equal to the sum of the projected area of each component times the distance dof that component from the reference location. which act through the center of pressure in flight. or center of mass coordinate system. A = a(nose) + a(tube) + a(fins) Since the center of pressure is an average location of the projected area. relative to some reference location.
and determine the point at which it balances. Therefore it is said that the difference of the distance of center of gravity from the bottom of the model rocket to the distance of the center of pressure from the bottom of the rocket must be less than the diameter of the tube of the model rocket. Thrust is generated by the engines of the rocket through some kind of propulsion system. This is just like balancing a pencil with a string! The point at which the component. In the same way that the weight of all the rocket components acts through the center of gravity (cg). the thrust is generated in the opposite direction from the accelerated gas. The engine does work on the gas and accelerates the gas to the rear of the engine. aerodynamic forces act on all parts of the rocket.
Relation between Center of Gravity and Center of Pressure:
As a model rocket flies through the air. The type of propulsion system used on an aircraft may vary from airplane to airplane and each device produces thrust in a slightly different way. Thrust is used to overcome the drag of a rocket. we have to expend energy. Hang the cut out shape by a string. Thrust is generated most often through the reaction of accelerating a mass of gas. But it works quite well for a model. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FLIGHT OF A ROCKET: Thrust:
It is the force which moves a rocket through the air. on a piece of cardboard and cut out the shape.rocket. The magnitude of the thrust depends on the amount of gas that is accelerated and on the difference in velocity of the gas through the engine. The thrust equation describes how the acceleration of the gas produces a force. and to overcome the weight of a rocket. the aerodynamic forces act through a single point called the center of pressure (cp). To accelerate the gas.
. The relation between center of gravity and center of pressure plays a major role in the stability of the model rocket. Thrust is a mechanical force. so the propulsion system must be in physical contact with a working fluid to produce thrust. is balanced is the center of pressure. The energy is generated as heat by the combustion of some fuel. The physics involved in the generation of thrust is introduced in middle school and studied in some detail in high school and college. You obviously could not use this procedure for a very large rocket like the Space Shuttle. it is a vector quantity having both a magnitude and a direction. or rocket. Since thrust is a force.
The mass of an object affects its gravitational pull. times the time-rate at which the mass is expelled. drag forces depend on velocity. or in mathematical terms:
T = (dm/dt)v
where: T is the thrust generated (force) dm/dt is the rate of change of mass with respect to time (mass flow rate of exhaust). Drag forces act in a direction opposite to the oncoming moving velocity. Air Friction/Resistance (Drag Force): Astrodynamic drag force is sometimes called air resistance or air friction refers to forces that oppose the relative motion of an object through air. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction the accelerated mass will cause a proportional but opposite force on that system.
. the drag is the component of the net aerodynamic force acting opposite to the direction of the movement. which is nearly independent of velocity. Thrust at zero speed is zero power. Therefore the power of a rocket or aircraft engine is thrust times forward speed. but opposite in direction. Power requires work to be done. v is the speed of the exhaust gases measured relative to the rocket. The component perpendicular to this direction is considered lift. This is the exhaust velocity with respect to the rocket. Therefore drag opposes the motion of the object. In context of a rocket it is very important factor as the rocket has to move above in the space working against the gravitational pull of the earth and to make it to the space it has to overcome the gravitational pull of it. For vertical launch of a rocket the initial thrust must be more than the weight. Power (watts) = thrust (newtons) x speed (metres/second)
Gravitational Pull: The attraction that one object has for another object due to the invisible force of gravity. to the time-rate of momentum change of the exhaust gas accelerated from the combustion chamber through the rocket engine nozzle.It is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton’s second and third laws. and in a powered vehicle it is overcome by thrust. Unlike other resistive forces such as dry friction. For a solid object moving through air. A rocket is propelled forward by a thrust force equal in magnitude. so zero velocity indicates zero work and zero power.
and depending on the situation. atmospheric drag can be regarded as an inefficiency requiring expense of additional energy during launch of the space object or as a bonus simplifying return from orbit.
. In order to reduce the drag force we have to make the consideration in designing the shape of the nose and fins of a rocket.In astrodynamics.
A Model Rocket must be stable. ground for the security reasons.Wind: In order to maintain the stability of a rocket to move in the desired path it is best that not to make a launch of a rocket where the flow of wind is not favorable to us i.e.e. Basic Rule of Stability – A Model Rocket will be Stable if its center of Pressure is behind its center of gravity.
. if the wind is blowing at very high speed then the launching of the rocket must not be done. It is also safe not to launch rocket when it’s cloudy and raining. Rockets Motion is a simultaneous combination of Translational and Rotational Motion. STABILITY: In order to fly a straight and predictable trajectory. The rocket must be launched in an open space i.
Force = Mass * Acceleration 2nd Law in simple terms:
. Engine’s thrust Act through center of gravity of Rocket Gives how high & how Far away lands
ROTATIONAL MOTION Always points different direction One force gives this force Wind Force Act perpendicular to the Rocket’s center line Gives Stability of the Model Rocket
Stability depends on following factors: 1.S. Newton’s Second Law of Motion: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. Now try to swing the model rocket above your head and try to notice the direction of the movement of the model rocket that whether it is moving at which of the following conditions: a) with nose at the front b) fins at the front c) at some angle with nose pointing upwards d) at some angle with fins pointing upwards If the model rocket is moving in the pattern a and c then the model rocket is balance or else there is some error while the development of the model rocket. 03. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. 04. Speed Determine whether the rocket is balance/stable or not: To determine this just tie the thread at the center of the gravity point determined by balancing the hanging model rocket through thread. Drag.NO.
TRANSLATIONAL MOTION Always points same direction Three forces give us this motion Weight. For a stable rocket at least 4 out of 5 times must satisfy the conditions of stability. Static Margin – Difference between Center of Pressure & Center of Gravity. 02. 01. 2. Before coming to the conclusion regarding the stability of the rocket try to repeat the swing test for at least 5 times and make a note of the pattern of the movement.
Unbalanced force acting on an object causes it to accelerate. Basically. the mass of the object and the acceleration that is produced: unbalanced force = mass x acceleration or F = ma. and the reaction is that the ground pushes the rocket upwards with an equal force. The unbalanced force F is measured in newtons (N). Newton's Second Law provides a relationship between the unbalanced force on the object. Or i can push it really lightly and it will roll away really slowly. That is to say that whenever an object pushes another object it gets pushed back in the opposite direction equally hard. the mass m is measured in kilograms (kg) and acceleration a is measured in metres per second per second (m/s2). For example. What does this mean? This means that for every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size. I push it really hard.
Three Equations of Motion: Rockets are propelled by the momentum reaction of the exhaust gases expelled from the tail. The more mass the object has the more inclined it is to resist any change in its motion. it will roll away really fast. The rocket's action is to push down on the ground with the force of its powerful engines. Since these gases arise from the reaction of the fuels carried in the rocket. if you apply the same unbalanced force to a mass of 1000 kg and a mass of 1 kg. Newton's Second Law of Motion is concerned with the effect that unbalanced forces have on motion. the mass of the rocket is not
. the acceleration (change in motion) of the 1000 kg mass will be much less than that of the 1 kg mass. Let's study how a rocket works on Newton's Third Law.The change is the direction of the acceleration is proportional to the force applied to the mass.
Newton’s Third Law of Motion: For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. i see a ball rolling towards me. There are two points to note about the acceleration of an object when an unbalanced force acts on it: The bigger the unbalanced force acting on the object the bigger the acceleration of the object. but opposite in direction.
speed. m is the mass of the rocket and v’ is the velocity of the escaping gases relative to the rocket. neglecting atmospheric friction. let the particle be at A and u be its initial velocity and when t = t. Simple relations exist between these quantities. At t = 0. v be its final velocity. is:
Where . but decreases as the fuel is expended.constant.
v = u + at I equation of motion
Second Equation of Motion
. distance covered and acceleration.u2 = 2aS
Derivation of the First Equation of Motion Consider a particle moving along a straight line with uniform acceleration 'a'. The variable quantities in a uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion are time. These relations are expressed in terms of equations called equations of motion The equations of motion are: (1) v = u + at
(3) v2 . The equation of motion for a rocket projected vertically upward in a uniform gravitational field.
Third Equation of Motion The first equation of motion is v = u + at.b)] v2 .b2 = (a + b) (a .
Multiplying equation (1) and equation (4) we get.From equations (1) and (2)
The first equation of motion is v = u + at..u2 = 2aS III equation of motion
.u = at .u) (v + u) = 2aS [We make use of the identity a2 . v .
(v .. (1)
From equation (2) and equation (3) we get. Substituting the value of v in equation (3).
The figure shows the velocity-time graph of the motion of the object. Slope of the v . Let it be given a uniform acceleration a at time t = 0 when its initial velocity is u.t graph gives the acceleration of the moving object.u = at v = u + at I equation of motion
Second Equation of Motion Let u be the initial velocity of an object and 'a' the acceleration produced in the body. As a result of the acceleration. Thus.
Graphical Derivation of Second Equation Distance travelled S = area of the trapezium ABDO = area of rectangle ACDO + area of DABC
. The distance travelled S in time t is given by the area enclosed by the velocity-time graph for the time interval 0 to t. its velocity increases to v (final velocity) in time t and S is the distance covered by the object in time t. acceleration = slope = AB =
v .DERIVATIONS OF EQUATIONS OF MOTION (GRAPHICALLY) First Equation of Motion Graphical Derivation of First Equation Consider an object moving with a uniform velocity u in a straight line.
Sometimes the propellant is not burned.
.u = at)
Third Equation of Motion Let 'u' be the initial velocity of an object and a be the acceleration produced in the body. prior to being used as the propulsive mass that is ejected from a rocket engine in the form of a fluid jet to produce thrust.
Substituting the value of t in equation (1) we get.(v = u + at I eqn of motion. A fuel propellant is often burned with an oxidizer propellant to produce large volumes of very hot gas. but can be externally heated for more performance.u2 = 2aS III Equation of Motion FUELS USED AS PROPELLANT Rocket propellant is mass that is stored in some form of propellant tank.b2 = (a+b) (a-b)] v2 .t graph.u) = 2aS [using the identity a2 . which accelerates them until they rush out of the back of the rocket at extremely high speed. a compressed gas escapes the spacecraft through a propelling nozzle. v .u) (v + u)(v . These gases expand and push on a nozzle. 2aS = (v + u) (v . which undergo exothermic chemical reactions which produce hot gas which is used by a rocket for propulsive purposes. The distance travelled 'S' in time 't' is given by the area enclosed by the v . For smaller attitude control thrusters. making thrust. Chemical rocket propellants are most commonly used.
Graphical Derivation of Third Equation S = area of the trapezium OABD.
the fuel is charcoal. Typically. The amount of the resulting forward force. a single-stage rocket might have a mass fraction of 90% propellant. (Note: sulfur is not a true catalyst in gunpowder as it is consumed to a great extent into a variety of reaction products such as K2S. the Apollo-Saturn V first stage used kerosene-liquid oxygen rather than the liquid hydrogen-liquid oxygen used on its upper stages Similarly.) During the 1950s and 60s researchers in the United States developed what is now the standard highenergy solid rocket fuel. and not by interaction of the exhaust stream with air around the rocket.Rockets create thrust by expelling mass backwards in a high speed jet (see Newton's Third Law). This mixture is primarily ammonium perchlorate powder (an oxidizer). as specified by Newton's third law of motion. Thrust is therefore the equal and opposite reaction that moves the rocket. and hence a mass ratio of 10:1 . high-density solid rocket boosters for its lift-off with the liquid hydrogen-liquid oxygen SSMEs used partly for lift-off but primarily for orbital insertion. the Space Shuttle uses high-thrust. CHEMICAL PROPELLANTS There are three main types of propellants: solid. The impulse delivered by the motor to the rocket vehicle per weight of fuel consumed is often reported as the rocket propellant's specific impulse. This operational principle stands in contrast to the commonly-held assumption that a rocket "pushes" against the air behind or below it. In the case of gunpowder.
. and hybrid. which is then expanded and accelerated by passage through a nozzle at the rear of the rocket. Chemical rockets. the oxidizer is potassium nitrate. one can think of a rocket being accelerated upwards by the pressure of the combusting gases against the combustion chamber and nozzle. Rockets in fact perform better in outer space (where there is nothing behind or beneath them to push against). and because it is possible to fit a longer nozzle without suffering from flow separation. known as thrust. Equivalently. liquid. The mass ratio is just a way to express what proportion of the rocket is propellant (fuel/oxidizer combination) prior to engine ignition. the subject of this article. 10% structure. A propellant with a higher specific impulse is said to be more efficient because more thrust is produced while consuming a given amount of propellant. The sulfur acts mainly as a sensitizer lowering threshold of ignition. The maximum velocity that a rocket can attain in the absence of any external forces is primarily a function of its mass ratio and its exhaust velocity. create thrust by reacting propellants within a combustion chamber into a very hot gas at high pressure. Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant (APCP). combined with fine aluminum powder (a fuel). because there is a reduction in air pressure on the outside of the engine. Solid propellants Solid propellants (and almost all rocket propellants) consist of an oxidizer and a fuel. that is produced is the mass flow rate of the propellants multiplied by their exhaust velocity (relative to the rocket). Thus. The relationship is described by the rocket equation: Vf = Veln(M0 / Mf). Lower stages will usually use high-density (low volume) propellants because of their lighter tankage to propellant weight ratios and because higher performance propellants require higher expansion ratios for maximum performance than can be attained in atmosphere. and sulfur serves as a catalyst.
Advantages Solid fueled rockets are much easier to store and handle than liquid fueled rockets. Liquid propellants Current Types The most common liquid propellants in use today:
.9%. the Orbital Sciences Pegasus rocket is an air-launched three-stage solid rocket orbital booster.S. All solid-fuelled ICBMs on both sides have three initial solid stages and a precision maneuverable liquid-fuelled bus used to fine tune the trajectory of the reentry vehicle. although a predesigned thrust schedule can be created by altering the interior propellant geometry. Essentially. casting very large single-grain rocket motors has proved to be a very tricky business. the rocket is vented or an extinguishant injected so as to terminate the combustion process.500 kg. Their simplicity also makes solid rockets a good choice whenever large amounts of thrust are needed and cost is an issue. In some cases termination destroys the rocket. low earth orbit payload is 443 kg. reduce the chamber pressure so abruptly that the interior flame is blown out. until the case fails. Solid rockets have a lower specific impulse than liquid fueled rockets. Launch mass is 23. (For example. This allows a more precise trajectory which improves targeting accuracy. Solid rockets can often be shut down before they run out of fuel. when opened. Finally. the USSR/Russia also deployed solid-fuelled ICBMs (RT-23.) A drawback to solid rockets is that they cannot be throttled in real time. Disadvantages Relative to liquid fuel rockets. and must be built to withstand the high combustion pressures.4% without air-launch assistance.130 kg. solid rockets have a number of disadvantages. Compare to a Delta IV Medium. and RT-2UTTH). but retains two liquid-fuelled ICBMs (R-36 and UR-100N). The third stages of the Minuteman and MX rockets have precision shutdown ports which. The Space Shuttle and many other orbital launch vehicles use solid fuelled rockets in their first stages (solid rocket boosters) for this reason. and then this is typically only done by a Range Safety Officer if the rocket goes awry. payload fraction 3. The mixture is formed as a liquid. If a solid rocket is used to go all the way to orbit. for a payload fraction of 1. In the 1980s and 1990s. and these explosions can increase the burning propellant surface enough to cause a runaway pressure increase. In the 1970s and 1980s the U. It is also difficult to build a large mass ratio solid rocket because almost the entire rocket is the combustion chamber. which makes them ideal for military applications. switched entirely to solid-fuelled ICBMs: the LGM-30 Minuteman and LG-118A Peacekeeper (MX). and then cast into the correct shape and cured into a rubbery solid. the payload fraction is very small. Defects in the grain can cause explosions during the burn. RT-2PM.held together in a base of PBAN or HTPB (rubber-like fuels). 249. payload 8600 kg.
nitrogen tetroxide. because both liquids are storable for long periods at reasonable temperatures and pressures. the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas V. hydrazine and nitrous oxide are primarily used for attitude control and spacecraft station-keeping where their long-term storability.LOX and kerosene (RP-1). LOX and liquid hydrogen. For these reasons. Very similar to Robert Goddard's first rocket. MMH. for orbital launchers. used in the Space Shuttle orbiter. and restarted. Advantages Liquid fueled rockets have better specific impulse than solid rockets and are capable of being throttled. This combination is hypergolic. Only the combustion chamber of a liquid fueled rocket needs to withstand combustion pressures and temperatures and they can be regeneratively cooled by the liquid propellant. the propellant tanks are at very much less pressure than the combustion chamber. the H-IIA rocket. the first stages of the Saturn V and Atlas V. Monopropellants such as hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is also used to drive the turbopumps on the first stage of the Soyuz launch vehicle. While liquid propellants are cheaper than solid propellants. Nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) and hydrazine (N2H4). and most stages of the European Ariane rockets. Saturn V upper stages. the cost of propellant is a very small portion of the overall cost of the rocket. or UDMH. simplicity of use and ability to provide the tiny impulses needed. when paired with comparable fuels. and all stages of the developmental Falcon 1and Falcon 9. orbital and deep space rockets. shut down. Used for the lower stages of most Russian and Chinese boosters. This combination is widely regarded as the most practical for boosters that lift off at ground level and therefore must operate at full atmospheric pressure.
. Used in military. The major inconvenience is that these propellants are highly toxic. and hydrogen peroxide) are available which have much better specific impulse than the ammonium perchlorate used in most solid rockets. outweighs their lower specific impulse as compared to bipropellants. the newer Delta IV rocket. Several practical liquid oxidizers (liquid oxygen. The primary performance advantage of liquid propellants is due to the oxidizer. N2O4/UDMH is the main fuel for the Proton rocket. which retain most virtues of both liquids (high ISP) and solids (simplicity). the cost savings do not. On vehicles employing turbopumps. hence they require careful handling. and historically have not mattered. making for attractively simple ignition sequences. permitting a higher mass ratio. These facts have led to the use of hybrid propellants: a storable oxidizer used with a solid fuel. and thus can be built far more lightly than a solid propellant rocket case. most orbital launch vehicles use liquid propellants.
particularly with inert propellants. which limits the efficiency and thus the exhaust velocity of the motor. as the burn continues. may have extreme toxicity (nitric acids). relatively small percentage of fuel is needed anyway. and when used with nitrous oxide and a solid rubber propellent ( HTPB ) .
. Liquid propellants are generally mixed by the injector at the top of the combustion chamber. GOX was used as one of the propellant for the Buran program for the orbital manoeuvring system. Hybrid rockets are also cleaner than solid rockets because practical high-performance solid-phase oxidizers all contain chlorine. due to the low density and high weight of the pressure vessel. moderately cryogenic (liquid oxygen). Hybrid propellants A hybrid rocket usually has a solid fuel and a liquid or gas oxidizer. The fluid oxidizer can make it possible to throttle and restart the motor just like a liquid fuelled rocket. is that the casing around the fuel grain must be built to withstand full combustion pressure and often extreme temperatures as well. the hole down the center of the grain (the 'port') widens and the mixture ratio tends to become more oxidiser rich. FLOX. the mixing happens at the melting or evaporating surface of the fuel. the oxidizer and fuel are mixed in a factory in carefully controlled conditions. In solid propellants. Additionally. and toxic. Many employ specially designed turbopumps which raise the cost enormously due to difficult fluid flow patterns that exist within the casings. However. versus the more benign liquid oxygen or nitrous oxide used in hybrids. The first. Several exotic oxidizers have been proposed: liquid ozone (O3).Disadvantages The main difficulties with liquid propellants are also with the oxidizers. Gas propellants A gas propellant usually involves some sort of compressed gas. so the combustion chamber is not especially large. gases see little current use. ClF3. These are generally at least moderately difficult to store and handle due to their high reactivity with common materials. Liquid fuelled rocket injector design has been studied at great length and still resists reliable performance prediction. The mixing is not a well-controlled process and generally quite a lot of propellant is left unburned. but are sometimes used for vernier engines. Liquid fuelled rockets also require potentially troublesome valves and seals and thermally stressed combustion chambers. Because just one propellant is a fluid. However. energetic. In a hybrid motor. which directs many small swift-moving streams of fuel and oxidizer into one another. which increase the cost of the rocket.a fluorine/LOX mix). hybrids are simpler than liquid rockets. The primary remaining difficulty with hybrids is with mixing the propellants during the combustion process. modern composite structures handle this problem well. and ClF5. Hybrid motors suffer two major drawbacks. or both (liquid fluorine. shared with solid rocket motors. all of which are unstable.
4 kN) to as large as 250. inert gases such as nitrogen have been employed. For example water rockets use the compressed gas. The Rochester Institute of Technology is currently creating a HTPB hybrid rocket to launch small payloads into space and to several near Earth objects. Stanford University researches nitrous-oxide/paraffin hybrid motors. Additionally for low performance requirements such as attitude jets. There has recently been an increase in hybrid motor development for nonmilitary suborbital work: The Reaction Research Society. to force the water out of the rocket. For military use. typically air. Several universities have recently experimented with hybrid rockets. SpaceDev partially based its motors on experimental data collected from the testing of AMROC's (American Rocket Company) motors at NASA's Stennis Space Center's E1 test stand. is powered by a hybrid rocket burning HTPB with nitrous oxide. Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne.
. although known primarily for their work with liquid rocket propulsion. The hybrid rocket engine was manufactured by SpaceDev. Motors ranging from as small as 1000 lbf (4. Inert propellants Some rocket designs have their propellants obtain their energy from non chemical or even external sources. liquid fuels are more efficient than hybrids and most development has concentrated there. For orbital work.1 MN) thrust were successfully tested. and in 2003 launched a larger version which burned HTPB with nitrous oxide. Solar thermal rockets and Nuclear thermal rockets typically propose to use liquid hydrogen for an Isp (Specific Impulse) of around 600-900 seconds. ease of handling and maintenance have driven the use of solid rockets. or in some cases water that is exhausted as steam for an Isp of about 190 seconds. Brigham Young University. has a long history of research and development with hybrid rocket propulsion. Its first launch is scheduled for Summer 2007.There has been much less development of hybrid motors than solid and liquid motors. the University of Utah and Utah State University launched a student-designed rocket called Unity IV in 1995 which burned the solid fuel hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) with an oxidizer of gaseous oxygen. the first private manned spacecraft.000 lbf (1. SpaceDev purchased AMROCs assets after the company was shut down for lack of funding.
As soon as the model rocket is launched the tracking team must move their hands in line of the height attained by the rocket.
. The angle recorded in the tracking instrument must be kept in the equation: tanθ = Pependicular /Base where θ = the angle recorded in the tracking instrument Base = 100m Perpendicular = the height of the object from the ground Make sure that the model rocket launched was whether stable or unstable at the time of flight because we have to take the record of the model rockets which goes straight in the sky. 2 tracking teams and 2 recording teams.Determining the Height of an object in free space using Trigonometry and Geometry: The height of an object in the free space can be determined using two methods one is the Trigonometric and another is the Geometry with the help of the tracking instrument. Just scale the 100m+100m distances apart on the graph paper taking launching point as the center on the paper. Geometric Method: This method is more accurate then the Trigonometric method but requires 4 teams i. The tracking team must be ready with their tracking instrument which has protector attached with it to make the record of the angle. The angle recorded by the tracking teams of the maximum height attained by the rocket is then plotted on the graph paper on the either sides and is extended. The length the perpendicular dropped from the point to the base is the height attained by the model rocket as shown in the figure. In this method the two tracking teams takes their position 100m apart from the launching point lying diagonal with each other and the other two corners are taken by the recording team which make sure that the model rocket launched was whether stable or unstable at the time of flight. Trigonometric method: Just stand at the distance of 100m apart from the launching point of the model rocket. This method is based on the theory of similar triangles. The point at which the two lines intersect is the required point.e.
08. 04.…274… and while countdown every component is tested and checked and in case if found that any of the component is not functioning in the desired manner then the launch is stopped at once and is postpone for some time till the problem is sort out. When the countdown reaches 1 successfully then finally the launch takes place. 01. In order to incorporate this serious threat they are suppose to do the exercises in the space shuttle. Difference between the Model Rocket and the Real Rocket: S. 07.5. 03.4.NO.2. Technological aspect of COUNTDOWN: The fact is that each and every major and minor components installed in the rocket are assigned some numbers ranging from 1 to total number of components like 1. 09. Short time in atmosphere Aerodynamics less important Liquid or solid rocket engine
. 02. 03. 04. 05. 02. AIRCRAFT Designed and developed to fly in atmosphere All of flight in atmosphere Aerodynamics very important Liquid fuel engine ROCKET Designed and developed to fly in space. 06. titanium. 01. MODEL ROCKET 4 forces throughout flight All of flight in atmosphere Aerodynamics very important Very short powered flight Solid rocket engine No control Low speed Inexpensive materials Card sheet and paper REAL ROCKET 4 forces during atmospheric flight Short time in atmosphere Aerodynamics less important Long powered flight Liquid or solid rocket engine Active control High speed Expensive materials Aluminum.3. nickel alloy
Difference between the Rocket and the Aircraft: S.NO.Biological Effects on the body of the Astronauts: Due to the absent of the gravitational pull in the space it is found that there is increase in the height of the body of Astronauts present in the space up to 4-6 inches in size.