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QUEEN VICTORIAS LONG REIGN (1837-1901), DESPITE HER HUSBAND (PRINCE ALBERT)S DEATH IN 1861.

IN LITERATURE THIS ERA BEGAN WHEN SCOTT DIED (1832) AND ENDED WHEN WORLD WAR I STARTED.

BACKGROUND

THIS PERIOD WAS AN ERA OF RAPID CHANGES: (1) POPULATION GREW FAST (2 TO 6.5 MIL; (2) INDUSTRIES & ECONOMY GREW FAST, MANY CITIES WERE DEVELOPED & BRITAIN BECAME THE RICHEST INDUSTRIAL COUNTRY IN THE WORLD, BUT WORKING CLASS PEOPLE SUFFERED A LOT; (3) POLITIC WAS REFORMED ALL MEN OVER 21 COULD VOTE (1867), WOMEN (1928), ANTI-MONARCHY AROSE BUT P.M. DISRAELI COULD BUILD THE IMAGE OF THE QUEEN TO MAINTAIN THE MONARCH.

VICTORIAN PERIOD
( 1832-1912)
SEE NEXT SLIDE

CAHARACTERISTICS
SEE NEXT SLIDE

GENRES

A. PROSE BECOME THE MAJOR GENRE BECAUSE: (1) EDUCATION WAS DEVELOPED SO THAT MORE AND MORE PEOPLE WERE LITERATED; (2) PROSE WAS MORE SUITABLE FOR PRESENTING SOCIETYS PROBLEMS. B. DRAMA WAS NOT PROSPERED. C. LITERATURE WAS DEDICATED FOR DIDACTICISM. D. ROMANTICISM WAS REPLACED BY VICTORIANISM REFLECTION OF THOUGHT (i.e. Dramatic Monologue), UNSPONTANIETY & DIRECT SAYINGS.

Victorian Poetry
ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON. BESIDES AS THE GREATEST POET OF HIS ERA, HE IS ALSO A POET OF LAURETTE. IN MANY POEMS LIKE THE CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE ANDTHE IDYLLS OF THE KING HE GLORIFIES ENGLAND & HER HEROES. HE WAS ALSO POPULAR AS THE POET OF SAD- NESS BECAUSE HE OFTEN PRESENTS SORROW IN POEMS. IN MEMORIAM IS AN ELEGY TO HIS BEST FRIEND. HE ALSO DEALS WITH MOST OF THE HOT ISSUES OF THE ERA. HIS THE PRINCESS EXPRESSES WOMENS EMANCIPATION. IN THE LOCKSLEY HALL HE OPPOSES MATERIALISM BUT SUPPORTS DEMOCRACY. IN ODYSSEY HE USES DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE TO SHOW THOUGHTS ABOUT LIFE. ROBERT BROWNING. MOST OF HIS POEMS PROBE THE ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR OF PEOPLE & SOCIETY BY USING DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE, WHICH MADE HIM THE MASTER OF DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE. HIS THE RING AND THE BOOK TELLS ABOUT A MURDER THROUGH 11 INVOLVED & UNINVOLVED MEN. HIS OTHER WORKS ARE MAJORLY PUBLISHED IN TWO COLLECTIONS: DRAMATIC LYRICS AND DRAMATIC PERSONAE. ALTHOUGH HE WAS A BRITISH, BROWNING SPENT MOST OF HIS LIFE IN ITALY. THATS WHY HIS REPUTATION IN BRITAIN WAS NOT AS HIGH AS TENNYSON.

Victorian Poetry

(Cont.)

MRS. ELIZABETH BROWNING. SHE IS THE BEST WOMAN POET OF THE ERA . SHE DEALS WITH MORAL VALUE & SOCIAL PROBLEMS, LIKE IN THE CRY OF CHILDREN AND AURA LEIGH. SHE ALSO WROTE SONNETS FROM PORT UGUESE, A LOVE SONNET FOR HER HUSBAND. MATTHEW ARNOLD. HE WROTE ABOUT THE CRISIS OF BELIEVE IN HIS TIM E, LIKE IN DOVER BEACH. IN BALDER DEAD HE WRITES ABOUT THE DEATH OF A VIKING GOD. HISTHE SCHOLAR GIBSY IS A PASTORAL POEM ABOUT THE OLD UNIVERSITY CITY OF OXFORD. PRE RAPHAELITE POETS (A GROUP OF WRITERS & ARTISTS). LED BY DAN TE G. ROSETTI, CHRISTINA ROSETTI, WILLIAM MORRIS, AND ALGERNON S WINBURNE TRIED TO CHALLENGE THE PESSIMISTIC MOOD OF THE ERA BY CREATING BEAUTY IN THEIR POEMS. TO DO IT THEY APPLIED IDEALS IN P AINTING IN POETRY, ESPECIALLY IN MAKING DES-CRIPTIONS.

SAMPLE OF POEMS

MEETING AT NIGHT The grey sea and the long black land; And the yellow half-moon large and low; And the startled little waves that leap In fiery ringlets from their sleep, As I gain the cove with pushing prow, And quench its speed i the slushy sand. THE EAGLE
He clasps the crag with crooked hands; Close to the sun in lonely lands, Ringed with the azure world, he stands. The wrinkled se beneath him crawls;

He watches from his mountain walls, Then a mile of warm sea-scented beach; And like a thunderbolt he falls Three fields to cross till a farm appears; (Alfred, Lord Tennyson) A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch And blue spurt of a lighted match, And a voice less loud, through its joys and fears, Then the two hearts beating each to each. (Robert Browning)

NOVELS IN VICTORIAN ERA


1. CHARLES DICKENS (1812-1870). HE WROTE 13 DIDACTIC, SOCIOLOGICAL, & HISTORICAL NOVELS. IN DIDACTIC NOVELS LIKE OLIVER TWIST, NICOLAS NICLEBY, DAVID COPERFIELD AND GREAT EXPECTATIONS, HE TELLS ABOUT THE SUFFER-INGS OF CHILDREN AS ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEM IN VICTORIAN SOCIETY. THE TALES OF TWO CITIES IS HIS MOST POPULAR HISTORICAL NOVEL, WHILE HARD TIMES AND LITTLE DORIT ARE SOCIOLOGICAL. 2. WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THAKERAY (1811-1863). DIFFERENT FROM DICKENS WHO MIXES HUMOR & SADNESS, THAKERAY USES IRONIES EXTENSIVELY TO POSE AND QUESTION THE VALUES OF VICTORIAN SOCIETY. TO MAKE HIS IRONIES CLEARER, HE ALSO PUTS DIRECT COMMENTS. HIS NOVELS ARE HISTORICAL & SOCIOLOGICAL, E.G., VANITY FAIR AND HENRY OSMOND. BOTH ARE SATIRES TO HIGH CLASS SOCIETY OF THE TIME.

3. ELIZABETH GASKEL. SHE WAS GREATLY INFLUENCED BY DICKENS. HER FAMILIARITY WITH THE LIVES OF WORKING CLASS PEOPLE IN MANCHESTER AFFECTED HER MARY BURTON AND NORTH AND

SOUTH.

NOVELS IN VICTORIAN ERA

(Cont.)

4. BRONTE SISTERS. THE NOVELS OF CHARLOTTE, EMILY, & ANNE BRONTE ARE MAJORLY DIDACTIC. THEY DEAL ABOUT UNUSUAL CENTRAL FEMALE CHARACTERS WHO GET INVOLVED IN COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP & PROBLEMS. CHARLOTTES BEST WORKS ARE JANE EYRE, SHIRLEY, VILETTE, AND THE PROFESSOR. EMILY WROTE WUTHERING HEIGHTS, AND ANNE WROTE THE TENANT OF WILDFELL

HALL.

5. GEORGE ELLIOT (MARY ANN EVANS). SHE ALSO WROTE ABOUT WOMEN, HOWEVER HER CHARACTERS ARE NOT TRADITIONAL. THEY HAVE TO FACE SO MANY ASPECTS OF LIVES. ELLIOT LETS THE HEROINE ANALYZES THE PROBLEMS INTELECTUALLY IN ORDER TO TEACH READERS TO SOLVE SUCH PROBLEMS. HER BEST NOVELS ARE ADAM BEDE, SILAS MARNER AND MIDDLEMARCH. 6. RUDYARD KIPLING (1865-1936). BORN IN INDIA, HE WAS THE FIRST ENGLISH WRITER AWARDED THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR LITERATURE (1907). HE IS VERY POPULAR FOR HIS COLLECTIONS OF SHORT STORIES, E.G. PLAIN TALES FROM THE HILLS, THE JUNGLE BOOK, AND THE SECOND JUNGLE BOOK. THE LAST TWO TELLS HOW THE CHILD MOWGLI WAS BROUGHT UP IN THE JUNGLE BY ANIMALS AND WAS TAUGHT THAT THE JUNGLE HAS ITS OWN RULE AND LAWS.

NOVELS IN VICTORIAN ERA

(Cont.)

7. THOMAS HARDY (1840-1929). HE WAS THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL NOVELIST OF THE ERA. HIS NOVELS WERE THE BEST IN REFLECTING THE PROBLEMS OF THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY, BUT MANY OF THEM WERE OFFENDED AND BURNT IN PUBLIC. HIS BEST WORKS ARE

THE RETURN OF THE NATIVE, THE TRUMPET MAJOR, THE MAYOR OF CASTERBRIDGE, AND JUDE THE OBSCURE. THE TONES OF THESE
NOVELS ARE TRAGIC. THE CHARACTERS ARE VICTIMS OF THEIR DESTINY WHO CANNOT SAVE THESELVES FROM THEIR TRAGIC END.

8. R.L. STEVENSON (1850-1894). HE IS POPULAR FOR HIS NOVELS OF ADVENTURE, E.G. TREASURE ISLAND, KIDNAPPED, THE AMATEUR EMIGRANT AND THE STRANGE HISTORY OF DR. JEKYLL AND MR. HYDE. THE FIRST TWO HAVE BEEN MADE INTO FILM. THE THIRD IS ABOUT JOURNEYS TO AMERICA. THE FOURTH IS CONSIDERED AS BEST EXPRESSIONS OF THE VICTORIAN COMPROMISE BETWEEN GOOD AND EVIL.

9. THRILLERS. DUE TO RAPID GROWTH OF PEOPLE WHO WANTED TO READ NOVEL AS AN ENTERTAINMENT, MANY WRITERS WROTE SHORT THRILLING STORIES IN THE FORM OF DETECTIVE NOVELS. THEY WERE BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF GOTHIC NOVELS. POPULAR WRITER OF THRILLER WERE WILKIE COLLINS, EDGAR WALLACE, AND CONAN DOYLE WHO WROTE ABOUT THE INVESTIGATIONS OF SHERLOCK HOLMES.

THE END
CREATED BY:

PARLIN PARDEDE
THE ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF FKIP-UKI JAKARTA 2006

THANK YOU