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Code No: K0125

R07

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

(Civil Engineering)

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech. II Semester Regular Examinations, April, 2011

Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80

1. a) b) 2. a) b) 3. a) b)

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ******* What is the necessity of using high strength concrete and high tensile steel in prestressed concrete? List the various methods generally used for the design of high strength concrete mixes. Explain the principle of post-tensioning. Explain the concept of load balancing in prestressed concrete members.

How do you compute the loss of stress due to elastic deformation of concrete in posttensioned members with several cables which are successively tensioned? In a post-tensioned beam of length 16 m, a cable is laid symmetrically, with its central 8 m length horizontal and the two straight end-portions slopping up at an angle with the horizontal whose tangent is equal to 0.075. The cable is tensioned by jacking at one end and is anchored at the remote end of the beam. At the jacking end the measured stress is 1000 N/mm2. The ‘wobble’ coefficient K may be assumed as 0.004/m. Calculate the stress in the cable at the remote end coefficient of friction between cable and duct as 0.40. What is the percentage loss of prestress between the jacking end and the anchored end? What is ‘Effective reinforcement Ratio’? In what way will it influence the stress in tendons and the neutral axis depth at the limit state of collapse of prestressed concrete sections? An unsymmetrical I-section bridge girder has the following section properties: Width and thickness of top flange = 1250 and 350 mm respectively, thickness of web = 240 mm, centroid of section located at 580 mm from the top, the girder is used over a span of 35m, and- the tendons (bonded) with a cross-section of 7500 mm2 are parabolic with an eccentricity of 1200 mm at the centre of span and zero at the supports. Given fcu = 50 N/mm2 and fpu = 1750 N/mm2, estimate the ultimate flexural strength of the centre-ofspan section using IS:1343 provisions. 1 of 2

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Code No: K0125

5. a)

R07

Set No. 1

b)

Discuss briefly the basis of Indian standard IS:1343 code recommendations regarding the design of reinforcements in prestresses sections subjected to moment, shear and torsion. A concrete beam of rectangular section, 250 mm wide and 650 mm deep, is prestressed by a parabolic cable located at an eccentricity of 100 mm at midspan and zero at the supports. If the beam has a span of 10m and carries a uniformly distributed live load of 6kN/m, find the effective force necessary in the cable for zero shear stress at the support section. For this condition, calculate the principal stresses. The density of concrete is 24kN/m3. What are the various methods generally used for the investigation of anchorage zone stresses? The end block of a prestressed concrete beam, 250 mm wide and 450 mm deep, has two anchor plates, 200 X 50 mm deep, at 80 mm from the top and 200 x 80 mm deep located 100 mm from the bottom of the beam transmitting forces of 250 and 400 kN respectively. (a) Find the position and magnitude of the maximum tensile stress on a horizontal section passing through the centre of the beam using Guyon’s method. (b)Evaluate the maximum tensile stress on sections passing through the larger and smaller prestressing forces using Guyon’s and Rowe’s method.

6. a) b)

7. a)

Explain with sketches the stresses developed due to differential shrinkage in structural elements comprising precast prestressed and cast in situ concrete elements. b) How do you compute the shrinkage and resultant stresses in composite members? List the various factors influencing the deflections of prestressed concrete members. Explain with examples the effect of tendon profile on deflections of prestressed concrete members.

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Code No: K0125

R07

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

(Civil Engineering)

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech. II Semester Regular Examinations, April, 2011

Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80

1. a) b)

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ******* Why did the early attempts in prestressing using ordinary mild steel fail? Mention the basic difference between mild steel, high yield strength deformed steel and high tensile steel. Explain the various post-tensioning systems based on wedge action with sketches. A concrete beam supports three concentrated loads equally spaced on the simply supported span. Suggest a suitable cable profile to counteract the effect of these live loads. Post –tensioned members do not suffer the loss of prestress due to elastic deformation. Why? A prestressed concrete pile of cross-section, 250 mm by 250 mm , contains 60 pretensioned wires, each of 2 mm diameter, distributed uniformly over the section. The wires are initially tensioned on the prestressing bed with a total force of 400 kN. If E s = 210 kN/mm2 and EC = 32 kN/mm2, calculate the respective stresses in steel and concrete immediately after the transfer of prestress, assuming that up to this point the only loss of stress is that due to elastic shortening. If the concrete undergoes a further shortening due to shrinkage of 200X10-6 per unit length, while there is a relaxation of 5 per cent of steel stress due to creep of steel, find the greatest tensile stress due to creep of steel, find the greatest tensile stress which can occur in a pile 20 m long when lifted at two points 4 m from each end. Assume creep coefficient as 1.6.

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Explain with sketches the IS:1343 code method of computing the moment of resistance of rectangular sections. A post-tensioned prestressed concrete T-beam with unbonded tendons is made up of a flange 350 mm wide by 150 mm thick and the width of the rib is 150 mm. The effective depth of the section is 320mm. The beam is prestressed by 24 wires each of 6mm diameter having a characteristic strength of 1650 N/mm2. The effective stress after all losses is 900 N/mm2. If the cube strength of concrete is 60 N/mm2, estimate the flexural strength of the section using provisions of Indian code. 1 of 2

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Code No: K0125

5. a) b)

R07

Set No. 2

What is the effect of torsion on prestressed concrete sections? How do you compute the shear stress developed in different types of cross-sections due to torque? The shear stress due to the imposed load at the centre of the web in an I-section is 4N/mm2 and the horizontal prestress at this point is 8.4 N/mm2. The details of the crosssection are: Width of top and bottom flanges=250 mm, average thickness of top and bottom flanges = 120 and 80 mm respectively, overall depth = 750 mm, and thickness of web=80mm. Find the increase in the principal tensile stress if, due to eccentricity of the load, a torque of 6 kN m is applied on the section. Explain the terms (a) End Block (b) Anchorage Zone and (c) Bursting Tension with reference to post-tensioned prestressed members. A Freyssinet anchorage (125 mm diameter), carrying 12 wires of 7mm diameter stressed to 950 N/mm2, is embedded concentrically in the web of an I-section beam at the ends. The thickness of the web is 225 mm. Evaluate the maximum tensile stress and the bursting tensile force in the end block using Rowe’s method. Design the reinforcement for the end block. What are the advantages of using composite construction with prestresed and in situ concrete in structural members? What is differential shrinkage? Explain its importance in composite construction. Distinguish clearly between short-term and long-term deflections of prestressed concrete beams. A concrete beam is prestressed by a parabolic cable having an eccentricity of e1 towards the soffit at centre of span and an eccentricity of e 2 towards the top near support sections. Find the ratio of these eccentricities for zero deflection at the centre of span due to prestress only.

6. a) b)

7. a) b) 8. a) b)

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Code No: K0125

R07

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

(Civil Engineering)

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech. II Semester Regular Examinations, April, 2011

Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80

1. a) b)

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ******* Differentiate between full prestressing and partial prestressing. What is the minimum concrete strength requirements prescribed for prestressed concrete members in IS: 1343 code? What are supplementary anchoring devices? Explain the difference between the load carrying mechanisms of reinforced and prestressed concrete beam section with sketches. The Indian Standard Coe IS:1343 specifies different strains for pretensioned and posttensioned members. Explain with reasons. A pretensioned beam 220 mm wide and 400 mm deep is prestressed by 12 wires each of 7mm diameter initially stressed to 1200 N/mm2 with their centroids located 80 mm from the soffit. Estimate the final percentage loss of stress due to elastic deformation, creep, shrinkage and relaxation using IS:1343-80 code and the following data: Relaxation of steel stress = 90 N/mm2 Es = 210 kN/mm2 ; EC = 35 kN/mm2 Creep coefficient (Ø) = 1.6 Residual shrinkage strain = 3 X 10-4 Explain with sketches the method of estimating the ultimate flexural strength of flanged prestressed concrete sections according to IS:1343 code specifications. An unsymmetrical I-section has an overall depth of 2000 mm. The top flange width and depth are equal to 1200 and 300 mm respectively, and the bottom flange width and depth are equal to 750 and 200 mm respectively. The thickness of the web is 300 mm. The tendons having a cross-sectional area of 7000 mm2 are located 200 mm from the soffit. If the ultimate compressive strength of concrete and the tensile strength of steel are 42 and 1750 N/mm2 respectively, and tendons are effectively bonded to concrete, estimate the flexural strength of the section. (Adopt IS: 1343 provisions) 1 of 2

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Code No: K0125

5. a) b)

R07

Set No. 3

How do you estimate the ultimate shear strength of prestressed concrete sections with web shear cracks? A concrete box section girder has an overall depth an width of 800 and 600 mm respectively. The concrete walls are 100 mm thick on both the horizontal and vertical parts of the box. Determine the maximum permissible torque if the section is uniformly prestressed by a force of 250 kN. Assume the maximum permissible diagonal tensile stress as 0.8 N/mm2. Explain with sketches the effect of varying the ratio of depth anchorage to the depth of end block on the distribution of bursting tension. How do you compute the bursting tension in an end block subjected to evenly distributed forces using Guyon’s method? A composite bridge deck of span 15m is made up of a precast prestressed symmetrical I-section and an in situ cast slab. The precast I-beams are spaced at 750 mm centres and the top slab of the in situ concrete is 120mm thick. The cross-sectional details of the precast I-beams are as follows: Thickness of top and bottom flanges = 110 mm Width of top and bottom flanges = 200 mm Thickness of web = 75 mm Depth of precast I-beam = 500 mm Self-weight of precast concrete = 24 kN/m3 Self-weight of cast in situ concrete = 23.5 kN/m3 The prestressed beam is unpropped during the placing of in situ concrete. The form work load is estimated to be 0.2 kN/m of the span. If the compressive prestresses in the beams is 15 N/mm2 at the bottom and zero at the top, calculate the maximum stresses developed in the precast and in situ cast concrete under an imposed load of 5 kN/m2, assuming. (a) The modular ratio of cast in situ to precast concrete to be 1.0; and (b) The modular ratio of cast in situ to precast concrete to be 0.8. A concrete beam with a rectangular section, 120 mm wide and 350 mm deep, is stressed by 3 cables, each carrying an effective force of 300 kN. The span of the beam is 10 m. The first cable is parabolic with an eccentricity of 50 mm below the centroidal axis at the centre of span and 50 mm above the ceontroidal axis at the supports. The second cable is parabolic with zero eccentricity at the supports and an eccentricity of 50 mm at the centre of span. The third cable is straight with a uniform eccentricity of 50 mm below the centroidal axis. IF the beam supports a uniformly distributed live load of 5 kN/m and EC = 38 kN/mm2, estimate the instantaneous deflection at the following stages. (a) Prestress + self-weight of beam, and (b) Prestresses + self-weight + live load 2 of 2

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Code No: K0125

R07

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

(Civil Engineering)

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech. II Semester Regular Examinations, April, 2011

Time: 3 Hours

Max Marks: 80

1. a)

b) 2. a) b) 3. a) b)

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ******* Distinguish between the terms i). Uniaxial ii). Biaxial and iii). Traixial prestressing? What are the main factors influencing the design of high strength concrete mixes? What are post-tensioning anchorages? Explain the terms: prestress, Dead load stress, live load stress and resultant stress. How do you compute the loss of stress due shrinkage of concrete as per IS:1343 code recommendations? A pre-tensioned beam of rectangular cross-section, 150 mm wide and 350 mm deep, is prestressed by 8,7 mm wires located 100 mm from the soffit of the beam. If the wires are initially tensioned to a stress of 1100 N/mm2, calculate their stress at transfer and the effective stress after all losses; given the following data: Up to time of transfer Total Relaxation of steel 35 N/mm2 70 N/mm2 Shrinkage of concrete 100 x 10-6 300 x 10-6 Creep coefficient ----1.6 2 2 Es = 210 kN/mm , Ec=31.5 kN/mm .

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What is strain compatibility method? Outline the various steps followed in computing the flexural strength of prestressed concrete sections. The cross-section of a symmetrical I-section prestressed beam is 300 mm by 750 mm (overall), with flanges and web 100 mm thick. The beam is post-tensioned by cables containing 50 wires of 5 mm diameter high-tensile steel wires at an eccentricity of 250 mm. The 28-day strength of concrete in compression is 45 N/mm2 and the ultimate tensile strength of wires is 1750 N/mm2. Assuming that the grouting of the tendons is 100 per cent effective, determine the ultimate moment of the section. (Adopt IS:1343 provisions) 1 of 2

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Code No: K0125

5. a) b)

R07

Set No. 4

Explain the various modes of failure encountered in prestreessed concrete beams subjected to bending moment, shear and torsion. The horizontal prestress at the centroid of a concrete beam of rectangular cross section. 125 mm by 250 mm, is 8 N/mm2 and the maximum shearing force on the beam is 80kN. Calculate the maximum principal tensile stress What is the minimum vertical prestress required to eliminate this principal tensile stress? Explain the terms (a) End Block (b) Anchorage Zone and (c) Bursting Tension with reference to post-tensioned prestressed members. A Freyssinet anchorage (125 mm diameter), carrying 12 wires of 7mm diameter stressed to 950 N/mm2, is embedded concentrically in the web of an I-section beam at the ends. The thickness of the web is 225 mm. Evaluate the maximum tensile stress and the bursting tensile force in the end block using Rowe’s method. Design the reinforcement for the end block. Sketch some typical cross-sections of composite bridge decks with precast prestressed elements. Distinguish between propped and unpropped construction methods in composite construction using stress diagrams at various stages of construction. A prestressed concrete beam with a cross-section 120mm wide and 300 mm deep is used to support a uniformly distributed live load of 4kN/m over an effective span of 8 m. The beam is prestressed by a straight cable carrying an effective prestressing force of 180 kN at a constant eccentricity of 50 mm. Given EC=40 kN/mm2, the modulus of rupture = 5 N/mm2, area of the cable = 220 mm2 and modular ratio = 6, estimate the deflection of the beam at the working load

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