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Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 14,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. The SIG oversees the development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified to standards defined by the SIG. A network of patents is required to implement the technology and are only licensed to those qualifying devices; thus the protocol, whilst open, may be regarded as proprietary. The word Bluetooth is an anglicised version of the Scandinavian Bltand/Bltann, the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald I of Denmark and parts of Norway who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom. The implication is that Bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard. Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequencyhopping spread spectrum, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 bands (1 MHz each; centered from 2402 to 2480 MHz) in the range 2,400-2,483.5 MHz (allowing for guard bands). This range is in the globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master-slave structure. One master may communicate with up to 7 slaves in a piconet; all devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 s intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 s; two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 s. In the simple case of single-slot packets the master transmits in even slots and receives in odd slots; the slave, conversely, receives in even slots and transmits in odd slots. Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long but in all cases the master transmit will begin in even slots and the slave transmit in odd slots.Bluetooth provides a secure way to connect and exchange information between devices such as faxes, mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, Global

Positioning System(GPS) receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles.


A long time ago (historians differ on the exact dates, but it was sometime in the 10th Century C.E.) in a country far, far away, (which was mostly Denmark, with a little bit of Norway added in for flavor,) there lived a Viking king who was principally noted for converting to a foreign religion called Christianity. He was known as Harald Bluetooth, son of Gorm the Old, and he united most of Denmark before his estranged son, Sven Forkbeard, sent him to Valhalla and took over the family business. A little more than 1000 years later, succumbing to an attack of Scandinavian pride, the giant Swedish telecom manufacturer Ericsson decided to honor old, weird Harald by naming its new wireless networking standard after him. It convinced founding Special Interest Group co-partners Nokia, Toshiba, IBM and Intel that Bluetooth was the right name for the thing and, together, they set off to conquer the air.By December 1, 1999, 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft and Motorola had joined the Promoter Group -- the folks that were willing to spend money to hype the standard -- and in the neighborhood of 1200 other companies had joined the SIG. (Signing up for membership costs nothing, so it isn't exactly an exclusive club.) Between them, they manged to generate a lot of coverage about Bluetooth in the trade press.Since the computer trade press mainly consists of English and journalism majors with no hands-on technical background, most of whom make a living re-wording press releases, the fanfare meant very little, however. Meanwhile, actual consumers waited for actual products actually to emerge.As is often the case with consortium-driven standards -- even "open" ones like Bluetooth -- that took a while. And, as is also often the case, the majority of the early products were aimed not at consumers, but at developers.While the world waited, grass-roots programmers

and engineers began playing with a brand new wireless standard: an offshoot of good, old Ethernet called 802.11b. Like Bluetooth, it used the unlicensed 2.4 - 2.48GHz portion of the radio spectrum, so 802.11b products would work anywhere on the planet without any special license from the local authorities. And it was fast -- much faster than Bluetooth's nominal 1Mbps -- and it had about 10 times the range that Bluetooth's Class 3 devices could boast.Time passed and soon it was 2001, the beginning of a brand-new millenium. The clumsy-sounding 802.11b moniker had since been supplanted by the less-tongue-twisting name "Wi-Fi" and the cost of its hardware was plunging like a dotcom stock option.The world was still waiting for Bluetooth -- and, to its SIG partners' dismay, Microsoft announced that the initial release of its forthcoming Windows XP would not include Bluetooth support.Microsoft's stated reason for omitting the Viking technology from the next release of its flagship OS was the lack of a critical mass of Bluetooth-enabled devices demanding Windows support. That basically translated to the Redmond behemoth simply acknowledging a conspicuous worldwide lack of user demand for the namesake of Gorm the Old's son.


Bluetooth networking transmits data via low-power radio waves. It communicates on a frequency of 2.45 gigahertz(actually between 2.402 GHz and 2.480 GHz, to be exact). This frequency band has been set aside by international agreement for the use of industrial, scientific and medical devices (ISM). A number of devices that you may already use take advantage of this same radio-frequency band. Baby monitors, garage-door openers and the newest generation of cordless phones all make use of frequencies in the ISM band. Making sure that Bluetooth and these other devices don't interfere with one another has been a crucial part of the design process. One of the ways Bluetooth devices avoid interfering with other systems is by sending out very weak signals of about 1 mill watt. By comparison, the most powerful cell phones can transmit a signal of 3 watts. The low power limits the range

of a Bluetooth device to about 10 meters (32 feet), cutting the chances of interference between your computer system and your portable telephone or television. Even with the low power, Bluetooth doesn't require line of sight between communicating devices. The walls in your house won't stop a Bluetooth signal, making the standard useful for controlling several devices in different rooms. Bluetooth can connect up to eight devices simultaneously. With all of those devices in the same 10-meter (32-foot) radius, you might think they'd interfere with one another, but it's unlikely. Bluetooth uses a technique called spread-spectrum frequency hopping that makes it rare for more than one device to be transmitting on the same frequency at the same time. In this technique, a device will use 79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies within a designated range, changing from one to another on a regular basis. In the case of Bluetooth, the transmitters change frequencies 1,600 times every second, meaning that more devices can make full use of a limited slice of the radio spectrum. Since every Bluetooth transmitter uses spread-spectrum transmitting automatically, its unlikely that two transmitters will be on the same frequency at the same time. This same technique minimizes the risk that portable phones or baby monitors will disrupt Bluetooth devices, since any interference on a particular frequency will last only a tiny fraction of a second. When Bluetooth-capable devices come within range of one another, an electronic conversation takes place to determine whether they have data to share or whether one needs to control the other. The user doesn't have to press a button or give a command -- the electronic conversation happens automatically. Once the conversation has occurred, the devices -- whether they're part of a computer system or a stereo -- form a network. Bluetooth systems create a personal-area network (PAN), or piconet, that may fill a room or may encompass no more distance than that between the cell phone on a belt-clip and the headset on your head. Once a piconet is established, the members randomly hop frequencies in unison so they stay in touch with one another and avoid other piconets that may be operating in the same room. Let's check out an example of a Bluetoothconnected system. The cordless telephone has one Bluetooth transmitter in the base and another in the handset. The manufacturer has programmed each unit with an address that falls into a range of addresses it has established for a particular type of device. When the base is first turned on, it sends radio signals asking for a response from any units with an address in a particular range. Since the handset has an address in the range, it responds, and a tiny network is formed. Now, even if one of

these devices should receive a signal from another system, it will ignore it since it's not from within the network. The computer and entertainment system go through similar routines, establishing networks among addresses in ranges established by manufacturers. Once the networks are established, the systems begin talking among themselves. Each piconet hops randomly through the available frequencies, so all of the piconets are completely separated from one another.Now the living room has three separate networks established, each one made up of devices that know the address of transmitters it should listen to and the address of receivers it should talk to. Since each network is changing the frequency of its operation thousands of times a second, it's unlikely that any two networks will be on the same frequency at the same time. If it turns out that they are, then the resulting confusion will only cover a tiny fraction of a second, and software designed to correct for such errors weeds out the confusing information and gets on with the network's business.


Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using apseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. It is utilized as a multiple access method in the frequency-hopping code division multiple access(FH-CDMA) scheme. The overall bandwidth required for frequency hopping is much wider than that required to transmit the same information using only one carrier frequency. However, because transmission occurs only on a small portion of this bandwidth at any given time, the effective interference bandwidth is really the same. Whilst providing no extra protection against wideband thermal noise, the frequency-hopping approach does reduce the degradation caused by narrowband interferers. One of the challenges of frequency-hopping systems is to synchronize the transmitter and receiver. One approach is to have a guarantee that the transmitter will use all the channels in a fixed period of time. The receiver can then find the transmitter by picking a random channel and listening for valid data on that channel. The transmitter's data is identified by a special sequence of data that is unlikely to occur over the segment of data for this channel and the segment can have a checksum for integrity and further identification. The transmitter and

receiver can use fixed tables of channel sequences so that once synchronized they can maintain communication by following the table. On each channel segment, the transmitter can send its current location in the table.In the US, FCC part 15 on unlicensed system in the 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz bands permits more power than non-spread spectrum systems. Both frequency hopping and direct sequence systems can transmit at 1 Watt. The limit is increased from 1 milliwatt to 1 watt or a thousand times increase. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) prescribes a minimum number of channels and a maximum dwell time for each channel.In a real multipoint radio system, space allows multiple transmissions on the same frequency to be possible using multiple radios in a geographic area. This creates the possibility of system data rates that are higher than the Shannon limit for a single channel. Spread spectrum systems do not violate the Shannon limit. Spread spectrum systems rely on excess signal to noise ratios for sharing of spectrum. This property is also seen in MIMO and DSSS systems. Beam steering and directional antennas also facilitate increased system performance by providing isolation between remote radios.


1.5.1Radio LayerWhen looking at the different layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack, you will always find the radio layer first. Everything in Bluetooth runs over the Radio Layer, which defines the requirements for a Bluetooth radio transceiver, which operates in the 2.4GHz band. The radio layer defines the sensitivity levels of the transceiver, establishes the requirements for using Spread-spectrum Frequency Hopping and classifies Bluetooth devices into three different power classes: * Power Class 1 long rang devices (100m), * Power Class 2 normal or standard range devices (10m), and * Power Class 3 short (10cm)-range operation

1.5.2 Baseband Layer The next floor in the Bluetooth protocol stack is the Baseband Layer, which is the physical layer of the Bluetooth. It is used as a link controller, which works with the link manager to carry out routines like creating link connections with other devices. It controls device addressing, channel control (how devices find each other) through paging and inquiry methods, power-saving operations, and also flow control and synchronization among Bluetooth devices.

1.5.3 Link Manager Protocol (LMP) A Bluetooth devices Link Manager Protocol (LM) carries out link setup, authentication, link configuration and other protocols. It discovers other LMs within the area and communicates with them via the Link Manager Protocol (LMP).

1.5.4 Host Controller Interface (HCI)

Next in the protocol stack, above the LMP is the Host Controller Interface (HCI), which is there to allow command line access to the Baseband Layer and LMP for control and to receive status information. Its made up of three parts: 1) The HCI firmware, which is part of the actual Bluetooth hardware, 2) The HCI driver, which is found in the software of the Bluetooth device, and 3) The Host Controller Transport Layer, which connects the firmware to the driver.
1.5.5 Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)

Above the HCI level is the Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP), which provides data services to the upper level host protocols. The L2CAP plugs into the Baseband Layer and is located in the data link layer, rather than riding directly over LMP. It provides connectionoriented and connectionless data services to upper layer protocols. Protocol types are first identified in the L2CAP. Data services are provided here using protocol multiplexing, segmentation and reassembly operation, and group abstractions occur. L2CAP allows higher-level protocols and applications to send and receive data packets up to 64 kilobytes. The L2CAP spends a lot of its time handling segmentation and reassembly tasks.
1.5.6 RFCOMM

Above L2CAP, the RFCOMM protocol is what actually makes upper layer protocols think theyre communicating over a RS232 wired serial interface, so theres no need for applications to know anything about Bluetooth.
1.5.7 Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)

Also relying on L2CAP is the Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). The SDP provides a way for applications to detect which services are available and to determine the characteristics of those services.


In any wireless networking setup, security is a concern. Devices can easily grab radio waves out of the air, so people who send sensitive

information over a wireless connection need to take precautions to make sure those signals aren't intercepted. Bluetooth technology is no different -- it's wireless and therefore susceptible to spying and remote access, just like WiFi is susceptible if the network isn't secure. With Bluetooth, though, the automatic nature of the connection, which is a huge benefit in terms of time and effort, is also a benefit to people looking to send you data without your permission.Bluetooth offers several security modes, and device manufacturers determine which mode to include in a Bluetooth-enabled gadget. In almost all cases, Bluetooth users can establish "trusted devices" that can exchange data without asking permission. When any other device tries to establish a connection to the user's gadget, the user has to decide to allow it. Service-level security and device-level security work together to protect Bluetooth devices from unauthorized data transmission. Security methods include authorization and identification procedures that limit the use of Bluetooth services to the registered user and require that users make a conscious decision to open a file or accept a data transfer. As long as these measures are enabled on the user's phone or other device, unauthorized access is unlikely. A user can also simply switch his Bluetooth mode to "non-discoverable" and avoid connecting with other Bluetooth devices entirely. If a user makes use of the Bluetooth network primarily for synching devices at home, this might be a good way to avoid any chance of a security breach while in public.Still, early cell-phone virus writers have taken advantage of Bluetooth's automated connection process to send out infected files. However, since most cell phones use a secure Bluetooth connection that requires authorization and authentication before accepting data from an unknown device, the infected file typically doesn't get very far. When the virus arrives in the user's cell phone, the user has to agree to open it and then agree to install it. This has, so far, stopped most cell-phone viruses from doing much damage. See How Cell-phone Viruses Work to learn more.Other problems like "bluejacking," "bluebugging" and "Car Whisperer" have turned up as Bluetooth-specific security issues. Bluejacking involves Bluetooth users sending a business card (just a text message, really) to other Bluetooth users within a 10-meter (32-foot) radius. If the user doesn't realize what the message is, he might allow the contact to be added to his address book, and the contact can send him messages that might be automatically opened because they're coming from a known contact. Bluebugging is more of a problem, because it allows hackers to remotely access a user's phone and use its features, including placing calls and sending text messages, and the user doesn't realize it's happening. The Car Whisperer is a piece of software that allows hackers to send audio to and receive audio from a Bluetooth-enabled

car stereo. Like a computer security hole, these vulnerabilities are an inevitable result of technological innovation, and device manufacturers are releasing firmware upgrades that address new problems as they arise.


1.7.1 Wireless As you probably already know, there are many benefits and advantages to using wireless devices. Along with improving safety as a result of eliminating wires you don't need, wireless also offers you plenty of other advantages. When traveling with your laptop or other wireless devices, you'll no longer have to worry about bringing connection cables.

1.7.2 Inexpensive
The technology of Bluetooth is cheap for companies to implement, which results in lower costs for the company. These savings are then passed from the company on to you. 1.7.3 Automatic Bluetooth is standardized wireless, meaning that a high level of compatibility among devices is guaranteed. Bluetooth doesn't have you set up a connection or push any buttons. When two or more devices enter a range of up to 30 feet of each other, they will automatically begin to communicate without you having to do anything.

1.7.4. Standardized protocol

Bluetooth is standardized wireless, meaning that a high level of compatibility among devices is guaranteed. Bluetooth will connect devices to each other even if they aren't the same model.

1.7.5. Low interference

Bluetooth devices almost always avoid interference from other wireless devices. Bluetooth uses a technique known as frequency hopping, and also low power wireless signals.

1.7.6. Low energy consumption

As a result of Bluetooth using low power signals, the technology requires very little energy and will use less battery or electrical power as a result. This is an excellent benefit for mobile devices, as Bluetooth won't drain

the battery.

1.7.7. Sharing voice and data

The standard for Bluetooth will allow compatible devices to share data and voice communications. This is great for mobile phones and headsets, as Bluetooth simplifies driving and talking on your cell phone.

1.7.8. Instant PAN (Personal Area Network)

You can connect up to seven Bluetooth devices to each other within a range of up to 30 feet, forming a piconet or PAN. For a single room, you can also set up multiple piconets.

1.7.9. Upgradeable
Upgradeable is the standard for Bluetooth. There are newer versions of Bluetooth in the works, which offer many new advantages and backward compatible with older versions.

1.8.1 Speed
Infrared is a competitor to Bluetooth in the electronic-transmission marketplace. Bluetooth has many advantages over infrared such as its ability to cover longer distances of up to 100 meters. But unlike infrared, Bluetooth connection speed is much slower. Infrared can have data rates of up to 4 MBps, which provides faster data transfer, while Bluetooth only offers speeds up to 1 MBps.

1.8.2 Connection
Connection between a Bluetooth device and its recipient device is not perfect. If an object is placed between the devices, transmission could easily be cut off. Also, if there are a number of other mobile devices within the same vicinity as the Bluetooth, the WaveLAN standard that it operates under will slow or not function at all amidst other WaveLAN signals. According to George Mason University, Bluetooth technology is omni-directional, meaning that their signals cover all directions. When other devices are present in the same space, signals from Bluetooth can get distorted in the direction of its intended recipient.

1.8.3 Security
Bluetooth devices can be susceptible to security threats. Although most Bluetooth devices are designed with top-level security features, potential threats are still a problem. According to Michigan State University student John Philips, Bluetooth's discovery protocol lets devices automatically find and start interacting with each other. This unintentionally exposes access and data to unauthorized users, leaving users at risk for potential hijacking incidents and identity theft.

The wireless communication between the input and output devices of the personal computers like the mouse, keyboard and printer is an example of Bluetooth.The communication between a mobile and a hands-free headset is another popular example of wireless Bluetooth.Use of Bluetooth is to transfer files between devices with OBEX.Use of Bluetooth to transfer contact details, reminders, appointments dates between devices with OBEX.Bluetooth enabled advertising hoardings can receive and display the smaller advertisements by using technology.Removal of traditional wires in test equipments, bar code scanners, traffic control devices, GPS receivers and medical equipment is a revolutionary change.It assists the communication of data as in computers and voice as in telephones.It has helped in cord-free connections of both the stationary as well as mobile devices.It saves on power by the lower consumption.As the technology is based on the radio communication system it is convenient to keep and connect the devices in different places but in a limited range.So, the alignment in a sight is not required.The device which is supposed to use the blue tooth technology should be compatible with certain fears and profiles. So, it is not possible for every device to be blue tooth friendly.

REFERENCES1. 2. Newton, Harold. (2007). Newtons telecom dictionary.New York: Flatiron Publishing. 3. "How Bluetooth Technology Works". Bluetooth SIG. Archived from the original on 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2008-02-01. 4. "HTC TyTN Specification" (PDF). HTC. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 5. Juha T. Vainio (2000-05-25). "Bluetooth Security". Helsinki University of Technology. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 6.