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PARTS OF SPEECH
1.1 Synopsis This topic intends to help course participants to revise and analyse the features of the Parts of Speech. 1.2 Learning outcomes Speak fluently, correctly and confidently for a variety of purposes using correct parts of speech. Use correct nouns, pronouns and adjectives and appropriate language structures in writing. Speak fluently, correctly and confidently using verbs and adverbs for a variety of purposes. Read and discuss the functions of verbs and adverbs. Use correct and appropriate verbs and adverbs in different types of writing. 1.3 Topic Framework Content
PARTS OF SPEECH
ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS ADVERBS
WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1
1.4 Parts of Speech in English “Parts of speech/Word class” are the basic types of words that make up a sentence. There most important parts of speech in English include nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. Here are the eight parts of speech and their most common meanings: Part of speech function or "job" is naming a thing, a person, a place, animals, or an idea examples (words) Malar, cat, work, music, city, Perlis, teacher, Nurul, tiger, postman, thought I, you, he, she, we, they, some, several jump, move, drink, (to) be, has, does, like slowly, silently, well, badly, very, really a/an, the, some, good, big, well, beautiful, small, interesting to, at, under, after, on, but, through and, but, because, or examples (sentences)
That is my new car. Rita loves to drive my Honda car. I bought it in Penang.
used in a place of a noun
Meera is my classmate. She is very tall. Pepsi is a drink. I like to drink Pepsi with my friends. My son eats slowly. When he is not very hungry, he eats really slowly. My sister has small eyes. I don’t like her small eyes. Zubaidah’s family went to London on Sunday. I like chicken rice and I like fish ball soup. I like
expresses an action or state
describes a verb, adjective or adverb
describes a noun
introduces a noun to another word joins phrases or sentences
3 Concrete Nouns Concrete Nouns are names of things that we can see or touch. hammers. Manoharan. men. Lee Lim Kek.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 together chicken rice and fish ball soup.2 . Common Nouns Names given to person or things of the same kind. Mazda. I like chicken rice but I don't like fried rice. Elizabeth Things: Honda. Examples: Persons: boys. females Things: cars. tables. spoons. things or places Examples: Persons: Jafri. Museum Negara 1. ouch!.1 Proper Nouns Proper nouns are special names given to persons. books 1. schools.5. 1.5 Classes of Nouns 1.5. Hi! Glad to meet you. Kuala Lumpur International Airport. water MND/2011 Page 3 . Acer. Nokia Places: Negeri Sembilan. houses. Interjection expresses emotion and surprise. Examples: pens. hi! Oops! Wow! Wow! That’s beautiful. usually followed by exclamation marks hurray! oh!.5.
6 Pronouns A pronoun is used in place of a noun. Muthu is a good footballer. ideas and emotions. milk. animals or things Examples: a flight of birds.) 2. chairs. (The pronoun he replaces Muthu. shirts ii) Uncountable Nouns Uncountable nouns cannot be counted.6 Countable Nouns i) Countable nouns can be counted.) MND/2011 Page 4 . 1.4 Abstract Nouns Abstract Nouns are names of things that cannot be seen or touched They can be concepts. rice 1.5.5 Collective Nouns Collective Nouns refer to collections or groups of people. Examples: anger. He is a good footballer. water. kindness. Examples: sugar. her.5. 1. us Examples: 1.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 1.1Common pronouns: she. him. it.6. They are fighting each other.5. I. (The pronoun they replaces the cats and dogs. a herd of cattle. oil. cup. me. six elephants. they. a bunch of grapes 1. he. happiness. Examples: three books. love. The cats and dogs are fighting each other.
6. many. everyone. Examples: who. Examples: mine. Yours is parked next door. those That is a lovely painting.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 1. all.6. nothing. hers.3 Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun refers to a noun.6.2 Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun shows us who is the owner. his. few. both. several i) Something is burning. yours. mine. its. MND/2011 Page 5 . whose i) Who told you that? ii) Whose stapler is this? 1. ii) Several people like watching horror movies. Examples: this. ours The yellow car is mine. 1. any. each. 1. Those are my sister’s shoes. whom. these.4 Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used in a question. which. Examples: nobody. that.6.5 Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun does not name particular person or thing. what.
that.6. However. She does not like Indian food because she says it is too spicy . Exercise 2 Underline the pronouns Mr. itself. ourselves. 1.7 Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun refers back to the noun or noun phrase. Smith is a barber.6. Exercise 1 Underline the nouns Carol is a married woman. yourselves i) Roja will learn to cook fried rice by herself. MND/2011 Page 6 . especially hamburgers. ii) Susan. themselves. whose uncle is a pilot. she likes mutton curry. Examples: this. who. Many people like to get a haircut from him because he is too good at it. ii) They built their camp by themselves. Examples: herself. is a member of this Lions Club. whose i) This is the bag which my brother bought. myself. She loves Western food a lot. whom. which. His charges are also very reasonable and he knows how to entertain them.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 1. himself.6 Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun introduces a clause that describes a noun. He has his own shop in Seremban town.
_______________________ is Malaysia’s best badminton player. 7. I managed to cook for my mother. Mala can drive__________ father’s car. 3.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Nouns and Pronouns Exercise 3 In each sentence one noun is missing. Azman and ______________ do not like to eat fried chicken. ___________ favourite meal today. 2. My cat likes to chase a ________________. 9. I believe _________ can pass his test tomorrow. 8. 5. 6. 4. 1. ___________ baby drank six bottles of milk yesterday. Write a noun or a pronoun to complete the sentence. We can watch the last episode of the ________________tonight. Can you pass me that ______________ book? MND/2011 Page 7 . May I look at your ________________ bag? 10.
html) Words Laughter Tuna Plate Belch Men Sugar Traffic Fines MND/2011 Page 8 . Nouns: A Crossword Puzzle Across -. Giggles 1 5. 8.org/cw/1/je-nouns.Count Nouns put food on big fish nasty burp penalties women's opposite aural organ 5 2 3 6 1. Funds 9.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Exercise 4 Write the correct letter in each box below. 7. 3. 2. too many cars 4 7. sweet for the sweet Down -. 6.Non-Count Nouns 4. 7 8 9 ( http://iteslj.
was. walk. Examples: jump. read. dance Main Verbs are also called as Lexical Verbs a) These verbs inform us of something. Examples: i) I gave Nurul my story book. ii) He will sing.6.1 Auxiliary Verbs These verbs have no real meaning Examples: is. give command or ask question MND/2011 Page 9 . were. will. b) They help to make a statement.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 1. Examples: i) My classmates admired my new car. have. 1. Examples: i) The cat is running. ii) My lecturer cancelled his class just now.6 Verbs A verb is a word used primarily to indicate a type of action. are. may a) They often occur with another verb to help clarify the verb. b) These verbs give us an idea of an action. ii) The horse hopped quickly over the fence. sing.
10. We bought a big house last year. We shall (leave. 7. Miss Molly walks in the garden every evening. met) my mother. You should (meet. 1. Mary laughed very loudly. 4. iii) Have you bought him the rice? Underline the verbs. drew) like my art teacher. 1. Lee reads newspaper every morning. 3. 8. My husband watered the plants. Mr.00pm.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Examples: i) Will you come tomorrow? ii) She has done her sewing. Exercise 2 Underline the verb that best completes each sentence. Do you think that girl will (look. 9. 5. Vino sings very sweetly. They can act well. The boys washed their teacher’s car. watched ) that movie tonight. My family visited our sickly uncle in Russia. 5. 4. 2. looked) at me? MND/2011 Page 10 . 3. left) for the show by 10. 2. She goes to work every day. I can’t (draw. Please (watch. 6.
Exercise 3 Write the correct letter in each box below. bought) a new dress for her daughter. to take advantage by deception 5.html) MND/2011 Page 11 . 9. 10. to be familiar with someone or something 6. Across 1 2 1. The handbag (was. My little brother (do. were) given to me by Jeevan.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 6. Diwi (buy.org/cw/1/je-verbs. 7. were) cooking. to give someone ideas about what to do 2. took) her sister to the doctor for treatment. to officially list yourself Down 3 1. 8. did) not finish his homework because he was playing. the phone rang and I missed it. to spread a layer of a substance 3. to make a choice Words Administer Con Register Smear Advice Opt Know Confuse 4 5 6 (http://iteslj. to manage an office or school 3. Monica (take. While I (was. to cause someone to be unsure 4.
The taxi driver was _____________ injured. slowly recklessly quickly awful loudly hurriedly badly careful terribly seriously softly 1. Example: i) She walked to her room quickly. Sherin left _______________ after college just now. Interrogative Adverb adverb of reason When did he come? Abu therefore left his job. Our football team played __________________ last Saturday. Adverb of Adverb frequency of degree Mohan will We are visit again. Adverb of place They saw the snake there.1 Types of Adverbs Adverb of manner She drives carefully.7. Be ____________________ with the gift.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 1. . 5. They describe the verbs. Exercise 1 All the words in the box are adverbs. its fragile. Harish talked _______________ over the phone.walked is a verb -quickly is the adverb 1. so happy. Adverb of time She called him last night. Choose one word to fill each blank. What happened to her? 6.7 ADVERB Adverbs modify verbs. Our professor drove ________________ after a few drinks. 2. This laksa tastes ________________. 3. 7. 4. MND/2011 Page 12 .
educationaltoysplanet. 9.com/adwosepu. It’s going to rain. My baby is sleeping. 10. The robber _________________ opened the door.html MND/2011 Page 13 . Exercise 2 Find the words in the list hidden in the puzzle grid below. Walk ______________.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 8. Don’t speak _________________. A L M O S T S N A T I T S T H F Words Ago Almost Already Also Always Anywhere Back Else Everywhere Far Hence Hither However Nearby Nearly Never Not Nowhere Often Only Quite Rather Sometimes Somewhere Soon Still Then There Thus Today Tomorrow Too Underneath When Why Yesterday Yet F Y A N T O D A Y H E H O Y E A S E L O Q F O G K E L E O E N R O S W W Q J N A D N S R N T C J M T A H U O W H E N E E B K E E E E Y E I F M A N Y W H E R E V T R S R T T D R A T H E R W T E I D M E E E S T I L L L J N O R M A B O N N M N N O T S H E O Y E Y U N D E R N E A T H I A A W S K Y D H O W E V E R A T R L H B T O M O R R O W W W G H L R E F B A C K A O N L Y K O E Y E R T I E A L S O N E V E R R X A E T H U S N E A R B Y T J K E D U N W H Y P S O M E W H E R E Y K http://www.
thinner than i) He is taller than me ii) I am cleverer than her. ii) I bought two shirts yesterday.7. good news 1. iii) You have to take great care of your health. Examples: thin girl.3 We use comparative adjectives to compare two things. cleverer than.7.1 Adjectives of Comparison There are three degrees of comparison.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 1. Example: taller than.4 Superlative adjectives are used to compare three or more nouns Examples: the most intelligent. ii) The most intelligent boy in this school is our Eric. 1. red shirt. the prettiest.8 ADJECTIVES An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun.7.2 Positive used to describe nouns or pronouns. -Positive -Comparative -Superlative 1. 1.7. MND/2011 Page 14 . i) Munah is the prettiest girl in this room. Examples: i) Vino is a clever girl.
________________________________________________________________ MND/2011 Page 15 . ________________________________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________________________________ 3. _______________________________________________________________ 2. Write a sentence using the adjectives above 1.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Exercise 1 a) Write an adjective on each line to describe Aishwarya Rai. ________________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________________ 6.
WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 b) Write an adjective on each line to describe the car. _______________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________________ MND/2011 Page 16 . ________________________________________________________________ 6. ________________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________________ 4. Write a sentence using the adjectives above 1.
3. Across 1. 11. How ___ he is! He keeps insisting on that.html 1 2 4 5 3 6 7 8 9 Words Handy. thirsty. Down 10 11 2. 6. honest. I'd like a glass of water. 10. We must have a ___ discussion about our relationship. This is a ___ piece of writing! It's tidy and carefully done. shy. Don't throw the bottle away. To be ___ . You look ___. Why are you ___ with me? I didn't do anything wrong. frank MND/2011 Page 17 . neat. please. You are among friends. 4. not loud music. I did not like your performance. http://iteslj. sleepy.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Exercise 2 Write the correct letter in each box below. I'm ___. 5. Did you stay up all night? 9. angry. He's so ___. It may come in ___. He grasps the concepts so quickly! 7.org/cw/1/vm-adj. Don't be ___. clever. 8. I like ___ music.
This is a snake! We should step back in case it's poisonous. and then quietly tip-toed out of the cage. Each of them was very wise. He put out his arms to either side. They were happy to share whatever they knew with the people who asked them thoughtful questions. The night before she had had an argument with her husband. and went over to see what it was that was walking by. adverbs and adjectives found in the text The Story of the Six Blind Men Once upon a time. Each of them had gone to school and read lots of books in braille. and to tell his friends what they had walked into. with a big bump. He quickly let go and shouted. She had so much on her mind that she forgot to lock the gate of the elephant cage as she was leaving it. MND/2011 Page 18 . They knew so much about so many things that people would often come from miles around to get their advice. verbs. "Could you please tell us the way to the zoo restaurant ?" The elephant couldn't think of anything intelligent to say. "The second blind man was becoming more and more curious about what was happening. That day the zoo-keeper was worrying about all of her many troubles. The first blind man walked over to see if this big silent person needed any help.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Read the story carefully." said the first blind man. List the nouns. One of them heard a twig snap. in a faraway land. and her children had been misbehaving all day long. One day these six wise blind men went for a walk in the zoo. He walked over to the front of the elephant and grabbed hold of the animal's trunk. "Hi there !" said the first blind man to the first elephant. "This isn't a wall. "I think I must have walked into a wall. They quickly tried to push the gate to the cage to see if it might open. so he sort of shifted his weight from left to right to left to right. pronouns." The third man quickly decided to find out what was going on. he walked right into the side of the elephant. Two of the more daring elephants walked over to the gate. but all he could feel was the big body of the elephant. "Boy. Just at that moment the six blind men walked by. elephants are naturally very curious animals. the gate swung freely on its hinge. To their great surprise. They looked left and right. there lived six blind men. Then. Now.
WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 He walked over to the back of the elephant and touched the animal's tail. One of us thinks it's a wall. Case closed. and this is no snake.) "My dear friends." explained the fourth man. Modernized and re-told by Phil Shapiro) http://www. "What I am holding is long and curved and sharp at the end. How can one thing seem so different to five different people?" "Well. So they all went off to the zoo restaurant and had a really hearty lunch. one thinks it's a snake. "The zoo is very nice." The sixth blind man scratched his head and thought and thought." said the zoo-keeper. "This is no wall and this is no snake." replied the sixth blind man. He was the one who really was the wisest of all of them. "Perhaps you could help us figure out the answer to a question that's been puzzling us. I am not sure what this could be.story. This elephant seems like something different to each one of you. and knew what he didn't know. The fourth blind man decided that someone should really get to the bottom of this thing. is four tree trunks. gentlemen. That's it." The fourth man sighed as he knew how stubborn his friends could be. You are both wrong once again. is to do exactly what you have done. This is no rope either. but maybe our sixth friend could help us. this elephant was very tame and wouldn't think of stepping on a human being. "It seems to me that this object is made up of two swords." said the fifth man. "You are all right. He was the one who really knew what he knew. So he crouched down on all fours and felt around the elephant's legs.his.html MND/2011 Page 19 . What we have here. I know for sure that this is a rope. Only by sharing what each of you knows can you possibly reach a true understanding. as she firmly grabbed the elephant's collar. The first five of them had been too quick to form an opinion without listening to what the others had to say. (Luckily for the fourth man." The fifth blind man was not so quick to jump to conclusions. and one thinks it's four tree trunks. And the only way to know what this thing really is. Just then the worried zoo-keeper walked by. "Hi there ! How are you enjoying the zoo today ?" she asked them all. (This story is a well-known fable from India." The six wise men had to agree with the wisdom of the zoo-keeper." "Sure thing. "My friends and I can't seem to figure out what this thing in front of us is." said the zoo-keeper. He walked up to the front of the elephant and felt the animal's two long tusks. "This is no wall.com/~pshapiro/elephant. one thinks it's a rope.
WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Nouns Pronouns Verb Adverb Adjective MND/2011 Page 20 .
4. Verbs 1. write 5 sentences for each form of parts of speech. 5. 5. 2. 4. Nouns 1. 2. Pronouns 1. MND/2011 Page 21 .WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Using listed words above. 5. 4. 3. 3. 3. 2.
4. 4. 2. 3. MND/2011 Page 22 . 3. 5. 2.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Adverbs 1. 5. Adjectives 1.
Betty Schrampfer.Azar (1999).org/cw/1/je-verbs. Selangor:Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Kotayan et.html MND/2011 Page 23 . Bhd.his. Samy.com/~pshapiro/elephant. Making Sense of English Grammar.story.org/cw/1/je-nouns.html http://iteslj.org/cw/1/vm-adj.al (2007). 2nd ed : Longman. Fundamentals of English Grammar.WAJ3102 English Language Proficiency 1 Bibliography Azar. Donald A. http://iteslj.html http://iteslj.html http://www. R.K.
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