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Masters of Business Administration - CM Organization Behavior Stanley Christopher Lyimo 3889/T. 2010 ASSIGNMENT AND TERM PAPER II academic year 2010/2011

Question No. 4


Introduction In todays competitive environment organizations thrive and survive on their human resources. Values, attitudes, perceptions

and behavior, which form these resources, influence employee performance. It is a key factor in realizing organizational and individual goals that in turn greatly depends on individuals selfmotivation and job satisfaction. 1.1 What is job satisfaction? Job satisfaction was defined as an affective and emotional response toward various facets of ones job (Motivation through needs, Job Design, and Satisfaction, 2004). Job satisfaction is ones attitude towards his job (positive or negative). Satisfaction in work and the work environment is the basic constituent of employee job satisfaction. Employee attitudes and values influence their behaviour. Positive outlook and backup from HR helps modify behaviour resulting in higher performance levels.


Measures of job satisfaction Unlike other psychometric tools, used to test a sample of behaviour, measures of job satisfaction are prone to subjectivity. However a battery of tests can be conducted to make accurate predictions. One approach is the Global Measure, which measures the overall satisfaction of the job. The second approach is the Facet Measure where satisfaction is measured on each aspect of the job.


Recent concepts of job satisfaction

There is a growing recognition that external environmental factors play an influential role in job satisfaction. Another concept is that performance organization. In todays competitive world, management needs to continuously emulate practices that will attract and retain a highly qualified and skilled workforce. Dissatisfied employees may be forced to work due to unemployment or insecurity, but this is not in the interests of the long-term success of the organisation. Dissatisfaction may be expressed in other forms like internal conflicts, poor interpersonal relations, low trust, stress leading to workplace conflict, violence and low productivity. (Danhoff MN (1962)) depends on the overall effectiveness of the

Though job satisfaction is difficult to measure and is dependent on a number of factors, management may reduce levels of dissatisfaction and control workplace conflicts through common objectives like career development, training, appropriate rewards and improvements in the quality of working life. 3.0 Causes of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction Since job satisfaction is subjective to individual experience and expectation, personality often plays an influential role. Stable personality traits could influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction at work. Type A personalities tend to be more aggressive, set high standards for themselves and therefore are more susceptible to job dissatisfaction. In contrast, Type Bs seem to be more relaxed and, this may reflect on their attitudes towards work. Today, there is an increasing interest in the concept of the person job- fit theory. (Rao and Narayana (1998)) The managerial implications

are that people who get themselves into the right job that fit their attitudes and personalities seem to be more satisfied. 4.0 4.1 Factors that affect job satisfaction within an organization:Growth Aspect: This is one of the key factors, without which there cannot be job satisfaction. For some individuals personal growth in terms of skills and knowledge gained is only important whereas for some others in addition to knowledge, growth in hierarchy is important. In either case advancement is a key factor to fulfillment. 4.2 Compensation/pay: Adequate compensation drives ones interest in the job execution and their performance. There are a few among us who work not to earn a living but to keep themselves occupied, even if this is the case it becomes necessary that such individuals be paid as per the industry standard. 4.3 Responsibility & Accountability: Responsibility or freedom of action is another important factor that needs to be considered while you measure your job satisfaction. Responsibility and accountability boosts most peoples level of interest in the job.


Job Security: Stability and Security is vital to everyone and at all times. Security in terms of job is no exception. Insecurity in job is very likely to affect performance, morale and confidence.


Recognition: Its agreed that we all love to be recognized and appreciated for the work that we do. Recognition is essential as it helps increase confidence and self esteem. It is highly important to know the outcome of a task assigned in terms of good or bad appraisal so as to help one to improve their potential.


Enjoyment: Enjoyment at work comes with satisfaction, even if your job is some kind of routine work if you feel a sense of pride and achievements then you definitely enjoy your job.


People you work with: Being comfortable with the people we work with is highly necessary. Unpleasant relationships at the work place is in indication to start looking for a new job as it is very difficult to work with people you hate or cannot relate to. One should not try to find best friends in their co-workers but its important that you get along well with all.


Working hours & conditions: Long hours induces fatigue and tiredness in individuals, which might induce oversight in them and in such condition people make mistakes which take more time to be solved. One does and should

have a life outside work. Long hours without breaks should be a strict no If one is required to put in long hours make sure you are getting compensated or getting knowledge and experience that you cannot afford to loose. Working conditions should be comfortable. For example in Tanzania the maximum working hours is 10 hours and the minimum of eight hours. Normaly the government organs uses eight hours in five days a week and private organization uses nine to ten hours in five days and six hours in Saturdays and Sundays. 4.9 Perks: Perks is another important factor in terms of job satisfaction. Your designation derived from your talent and knowledge should be eligible for some privileges. 4.10 Opportunities to use skills and abilities Employees experience higher satisfaction if the job provides challenging opportunities and higher responsibility through projects, special assignments, team leadership and promotions 4.11 Stress If negative stress is high employees experience low job satisfaction. However the employers can overcome this problem by: Distributing the workload evenly amongst the team members, Ensuring that the employees maintain a balance between their professional and personal lives by not encouraging employees to stay back late regularly,

Reviewing performance and work procedures to minimize red-tape or bureaucracy, And finally providing solutions to reducing stress (increase employee amenities).


Leadership Supervisors with good leadership skills create job satisfaction amongst employees by encouraging and motivating them to achieve their targets. A supervisor must be able to make an employee feel that his or her contribution was important and meaningful to the organization.


Significant of job satisfaction to Organizational effectiveness 5.1 Job satisfaction has some positive correlation with physical health of individuals: People with greater satisfaction tend to have higher incomes and more education, and thus coincidentally enjoy greater benefits, which promote longetivity. People who like work, are likely to live longer and on the other hand, they contended that chronic dissatisfaction with work represents stress, which in turn, eventually takes its toll on the organization. 5.2 Job satisfaction can reduce absenteeism and turnover: Somebody who is happy and satisfied can find it easy to live inside the organization as well as outside it. On the other hand, a chronically upset individual makes organizational life vexatious for others with whom he interacts.


Job satisfaction can spread goodwill about the organization: people, who feel positive about their work life are apt to voice favourable statements about the organization to the community at large. When the goodwill of such organization like sports goes up, new, qualified and dynamic entrants show interests in joining it. Thus, it will be in a position to enjoy the talents of people as job satisfaction fosters a pervasive residue to public goodwill towards the establishment.


Job satisfaction has some relationship with the mental health of the people: Dissatisfaction with one's job may have volatile spillover effects. The impression is that, people feel bad about many things such as family life leisure activities, and sometimes life itself. Many unresolved personality problems and maladjustment arise out of a person's inability to find satisfaction in his work. All this will lead underperformance of hence reduce the efficiency of the organization.


Increase efficiency to the organization: Though job satisfaction leads to efficiency, other factors are responsible for work performance. Today, technological and market forces play a major role in organisational efficiency. Stockbrokers, for example, would depend on the results of the stock market where a rise in share prices would probably lead to satisfaction.








tremendous cost and loss of investment. Absenteeism followed by negative feedback like, loss of pay might lead to dissatisfaction and in turn a high rate of absenteeism. Therefore job satisfaction

will reduce or

eliminate absenteeism and reduces tremendous

cost and loss of investment. 5.7 Commitment: Organisations today have expressed a lack of loyalty and commitment from employees and hence are unable to retain qualified professionals. Therefore through job satisfaction the loyalty and commitment from the employee to the organization will increase and hence bring positive efficiency and effectiveness to the organization.

6.0 CONCLUSION Generally dissatisfied with jobs, resulting in a negative attitude towards delivery of work. Dissatisfaction mainly emanated from inadequate salaries and allowances, loans to facilitate purchase of houses, housing stands and cars as well as increasing volume of work. However, inter-personal relationships, job security, supervision, opportunities for personal development and working experience did not significantly affect job satisfaction.




Adesoye A.A. (Ph.D), & Ogunsanwo,

B.A. (Department of Physical and Health Education, University of llorin, llorin). ii. Factors affecting job satisfaction among academic professionals in tertiary institutions in Zimbabwe by P. Chimanikire, E. Mutandwa2 , C. T. Gadzirayi, N. Muzondo4 and B. Mutandwa

iii. Danhoff MN (1962). A factorial approach to the study of job satisfaction of hospital personnel. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana.
iv. Wikipedia (2007). Job Satisfaction Job_Satisfaction

vi. Kaya E. (1995, August 20-25) Job satisfaction of the

librarians in the developing countries. 61st IFLA General Conference- Conference proceedings. Retrieved September 1, 2004, from