# CONTENTS

Certificate Acknowledgement Contents Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1) 1.2) Why we choose this project? Project concept

Chapter 2: Basic components 2.1) Capacitor 2.2) Resistor 2.3) Diode 2.4) Transistor

2.5) 8051 Microcontroller 2.6) PCB Designing Chapter 3: Hardware concept 3.1) 3.2) 3.3) Circuit diagram Block diagram Description of block diagram 1) LCD 2) RF Module 3) IR Sensor 4) Relay 5) Pull Up Resistor 6) LED 7) Seven segment LED 8) Switch) 9) Microphone 10) Speaker Chapter 4: Software description 4.1) 4.2) Software used 4.1.2) Express PCB

/* Chapter 5: Future work References

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Why We Choose This Project
Now a days, the most common reason behind the road accidents is overspeeding. The factors are beyond one’s control , but if we could alert the driver on the highway, could save the many presicious lives. So in the given project we sense the overspeed of vehicles and if there is need we apply automatic break on them also. There is also a extra facility to disable the horn in No Horn Area. And with the help of this project we can secure the VVIP area.

1.2 Project Concept:
In this project we control the speed of the vehicle by using speed sensing of the vehicle and applying breaking on the vehicle when speed limit of the vehicle is exceed from the set value. We use a transmitter circuit placed on the road, operated by the cope and a receiver circuit placed in the vehicle. Through the transmitter circuit we transmit the speed limit to the receiver of vehicle whenever the speed exceed, a warning signal will be displayed on the LCD and alarm will start up and breaking apply to the vehicle.And through this project we are able to disable the horn in NO HORN areas.

CHAPTER 2: BASIC COMPONENTS

2. so 1000nF = 1µF p means 10-12 (million-millionth). They are also used in filter circuits because capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC (constant) signals.1) Function Capacitors store electric charge. Capacitance is measured in farads.1. They are used to smooth varying DC supplies by acting as a reservoir of charge. so 1000000µF = 1F n means 10-9 (thousand-millionth).3) Polarised capacitors (large values.1) Capacitors:2. Three prefixes (multipliers) are used. They are used with resistors in timing circuits because it takes time for a capacitor to fill with charge.2. However 1F is very large. symbol F. A large capacitance means that more charge can be stored.1.2) Capacitance This is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. so prefixes are used to show the smaller values. µ (micro). 1µF +) Example: . n (nano) and p (pico): µ means 10-6 (millionth).1. so 1000pF = 1nF 2.

The voltage rating can be quite low (6V for example) and it should always be checked when selecting an electrolytic capacitor. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. up to 1µF) Example: Figure 2.1.1.3(a): Polarised capacitor of large values Circuit symbol: Figure 2.5(a): Electrolytic capacitors of different values Circuit symbol: . If the project parts list does not specify a voltage.1.3(b): Circuit symbol of capacitor 2. There are two designs of electrolytic capacitors.4) Electrolytic Capacitors Electrolytic capacitors are polarised and they must be connected the correct way round. at least one of their leads will be marked + or -. axial where the leads are attached to each end (220µF in picture) and radial where both leads are at the same end (10µF in picture).5) Unpolarised capacitors (small values. 2. choose a capacitor with a rating which is greater than the project's power supply voltage.Figure 2. Radial capacitors tend to be a little smaller and they stand upright on the circuit board.1.1. It is easy to find the value of electrolytic capacitors because they are clearly printed with their capacitance and voltage rating. 25V is a sensible minimum for most battery circuits.

5(b): Circuit symbol of electrolytic capacitor Small value capacitors are unpolarised and may be connected either way round. usually 250V or so.1.2) Resistors:Example: Figure 2.1 means 0. Figure 2.1µF Many small value capacitors have their value printed but without a multiplier.7nF.1. except for one unusual type (polystyrene). so you need to use experience to work out what the multiplier should be! For example: 0. They have high voltage ratings of at least 50V. They are not damaged by heat when soldering.5(d): Electrolytic capacitor of 102µF 2.1. Figure 2.5(c): Electrolytic capacitor of 0.2(a): Resistor of value 1kohm. It can be difficult to find the values of these small capacitors because there are many types of them and several different labelling systems. 5% tolerance Circuit symbol: . Sometimes the multiplier is used in place of the decimal point: For example: 4n7 means 4.Figure 2.1µF = 100nF.

2. .Figure 2. Most resistors have 4 bands:  The first band gives the first digit.2(b): Circuit symbol of resistor 2. 1 is quite small so resistor values are often given in k and M . Resistor values are normally shown using coloured bands.  The second band gives the second digit. for example a resistor is placed in series with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED. Example: Figure 2. 5% tolerance This resistor has red (2).  The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the resistor.3) Resistor values . 2.3(a): Resistor of value 270kohm.2) Connecting and soldering Resistors may be connected either way round.2. yellow (4 zeros) and gold bands. 1 k = 1000 1 M = 1000000 . 2.2. On circuit diagrams the is usually omitted and the value is written 270K. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. So its value is 270000 = 270 k .2. Each colour represents a number as shown in the table. violet (7). the symbol for ohm is an omega .1) Function Resistors restrict the flow of electric current. this may be ignored for almost all circuits but further details are given below.  The third band indicates the number of zeros.the resistor colour code Resistance is measured in ohms.

Tolerance may be ignored for almost all circuits because precise resistor values are rarely required. blue. red ±2%.1 and silver which means × 0. brown ±1%. Tolerance is the precision of the resistor and it is given as a percentage. between 390 . If no fourth band is shown the tolerance is ±20%.39 = 351 and 390 + 39 = 429 (39 is 10% of 390).01.3(a): Resistor color codes 2.4) Small value resistors (less than 10 ohm) The standard colour code cannot show values of less than 10 .5) Tolerance of resistors (fourth band of colour code) The tolerance of a resistor is shown by the fourth band of the colour code. For example a 390 resistor with a tolerance of ±10% will have a value within 10% of 390 . gold bands represent 27 × 0.56 2.7 green.01 = 0.1 = 2. To show these small values two special colours are used for the third band: gold which means × 0. A special colour code is used for the fourth band tolerance: silver ±10%. The first and second bands represent the digits as normal. . silver bands represent 56 × 0. For example: red.2. violet. gold ±5%.2.2.Table 2.

1) Function Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. Diodes are the electrical version of a valve and early diodes were actually called valves.3. .3) Diodes:Example: Figure 2.2.3(a): Types of diodes Circuit symbol: Figure 2. The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow.3(b): Circuit symbol of diode 2.

2) Forward Voltage Drop Electricity uses up a little energy pushing its way through the diode.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon. This can be ignored in most circuits because it will be very much smaller than the current flowing in the forward direction. The forward voltage drop of a diode is almost constant whatever the current passing through the diode so they have a very steep characteristic (current-voltage graph).1(a): V-I characteristics of diode 2. However.3) Reverse Voltage When a reverse voltage is applied a perfect diode does not conduct. it is called the forward voltage drop and is about 0.Figure 2.3. This means that there is a small voltage across a conducting diode. all diodes have a maximum reverse voltage (usually 50V or more) and if this is exceeded the diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction.3. rather like a person pushing through a door with a spring.3. this is called breakdown. Ordinary diodes can be split into two types: Signal diodes which pass small currents of 100mA or less and Rectifier diodes which can pass large currents. but all real diodes leak a very tiny current of a few µA or less. . 2.

2. symbol hFE. In many circuits a resistor is used to convert the changing current to a changing voltage.4) Transistors:2.4.2) Types of transistor Transistor circuit symbols: . or fully off with no current) and as an amplifier (always partly on). 2. relay or other high current device. A transistor may be used as a switch (either fully on with maximum current. so the transistor is being used to amplify voltage. The amount of current amplification is called the current gain.4. for example they can be used to amplify the small output current from a logic IC so that it can operate a lamp.1(a): Types of transistors Transistors amplify current.1) Function Figure 2.4.

there are field-effect transistors which are usually referred to as FETs.4. Most transistors used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. otherwise you will need to refer to a supplier's catalogue to identify the leads. collector (C) and emitter (E). Please take care with this because a wrongly connected transistor may be damaged instantly when you switch on. If you are lucky the orientation of the transistor will be clear from the PCB or stripboard layout diagram. If you are new to electronics it is best to start by learning how to use NPN transistors.3) Connecting Transistors have three leads which must be connected the correct way round. A Darlington pair is two transistors connected together to give a very high current gain.3(a): Different views of a transistor . The letters refer to the layers of semiconductor material used to make the transistor. Figure 2.Figure 2.2(a): Circuit symbol of NPN and PNP transistor There are two types of standard transistors. These terms refer to the internal operation of a transistor but they are not much help in understanding how a transistor is used.4. In addition to standard (bipolar junction) transistors.4. The leads are labelled base (B). NPN and PNP. with different circuit symbols. so just treat them as labels. 2.

8bit. but because they are designed to execute only a single specific task to control a single system.5) Microcontroller(8051):A microcontroller is an integrated chip that is often part of an embedded system. The microcontroller includes a CPU.32bit. RAM. A microcontroller also called an embedded controller because the microcontroller and its support circuits are often built into. they are much smaller and simplified so that they can include all the functions required on a single chip. A microcontroller differs from a microprocessor. A microcontroller is available in different word lengths like microprocessors (4bit.16bit.5. ROM. dedicated computer. which is a general-purpose chip that is used to create a multi-function computer or device and requires multiple chips to handle various tasks.1) Microcontroller structure . the devices they control. They are typically designed using CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. an efficient fabrication technique that uses less power and is more immune to power spikes than other techniques.2. 2. and timers like a standard computer. I/O ports.64bit and 128 bit microcontrollers are available today). as opposed to using larger microprocessors. is that the parts-count and design costs of the item being controlled can be kept to a minimum. A microcontroller is meant to be more self-contained and independent. or embedded in. The great advantage of microcontrollers. and functions as a tiny.

Microcontroller has an internal memory of 4K.5. This also can be used for counting external pulses. CPU connects every part of a microcontroller into a single system. A microcontroller usually has a certain amount of RAM and ROM (EEPROM.The interrupt may be external (activated by using interrupt pin) or internal (by using interrupt instruction during programming).but external memory of upto 64K can be used. The major operations of this section are perform clock functions. The timers and counters provide all timing and counting functions inside the microcontroller. Timers/counters: This is the one of the useful function of a microcontroller. It is used to store data and program. Interrupt control: The interrupt control used for providing interrupt (delay) for a working program . pulse generations. EPROM.  Oscillator: .Also we have mascable interrupts which can be ignored and non-mascable interrupts which cannot be ignored.A microcontroller may have more than one timer and counters. Instruction fetched from program memory must be decoded by the CPU.1(a): Block diagram of a microcontroller     CPU: CPU is the brain of a microcontroller . modulations. The primary function of CPU is fetching and decoding instructions . Memory: The function of memory in a microcontroller is same as microprocessor. then finally executed. etc. decodes it.Figure 2. etc) or flash memories for storing program source codes. making oscillations. frequency measuring.CPU is responsible for fetching the instruction.

to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits. and this can generate a voltage. capacitor and resistor. so oscillator circuits designed around them became known as crystal oscillators. such as those used in digital watches. The resonant frequency depends on size. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches). the quartz will generate an electric field as it returns to its previous shape. When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted. or ions are packed in a regularly ordered. This property is known as piezoelectricity. steel is very elastic and has a high speed of sound. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor. with appropriate transducers. shape. For applications not needing very precise timing. a lowcost ceramic resonator is often used in place of a quartz crystal. are typically cut in the shape of a tuning fork. and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. Low-frequency crystals. with a precise resonant frequency.5. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal. High-frequency crystals are typically cut in the shape of a simple. it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. since all objects have natural resonant frequencies of vibration. When the field is removed. and the speed of sound in the material. A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms. Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a crystal. rectangular plate. molecules.1(b): Structure of crystal oscillator of microcontroller A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency.Figure 2. repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. elasticity. For example. It was often used in mechanical filters before quartz. .

(However. P2 does not need any pull-up resistors since it already has pull-up resistors internally. Although port 3 is configured as an output port upon reset. P2. It can be used as input or output. making them 8-bit ports. Upon reset. This is due to the fact that P0 is an open drain. When the device is executing out of external Program Memory.) This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during EPROM programming. P2 and P3 each use 8 pins. Port 0: Port 0 occupies a total of 8 pins (pins 32-39) .5. Port 1 is configured as an output port.28). Port 3 : Port 3 occupies a total of 8 pins. each pin must be connected externally to a 10K ohm pull-up resistor. EA/VPP: When EA is held high the CPU executes out of internal Program Memory (unless the Program Counter exceeds 0FFFH in the 80C51).Open drain is a term used for MOS chips in the same way that open collector is used for TTL chips. it must be programmed. It can be used as input or output. P1. 2. Just like P1. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle (except that two PSEN activations are skipped during accesses to external Data Memory). Holding EA low forces the CPU to execute out of external memory regardless of the Program Counter value. this port does not need any pull-up resistors since it already has pull-up resistors internally. EA must be externally wired low. XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier. Port 1: Port 1 occupies a total of 8 pins (pins 1 through 8). unlike P1. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 of the oscillator frequency.3) Special pins ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. To use the pins of port 0 as both input and output ports. this pin also receives the programming supply voltage (VPP) during EPROM programming. XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.2. PSEN is not activated when the device is executing out of internal Program Memory. To use any of these ports as an input port.2) Ports of 8051 There are four ports P0. and P3. Upon reset. Port 2 : Port 2 occupies a total of 8 pins (pins 21. ready to be used as output ports. pins 10 through 17. All the ports upon RESET are configured as output. for external timing or clocking purposes. In the EPROM devices. In the 80C31. With external pull-up resistors connected upon reset.It can be used for input or output. . PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external Program Memory. port 0 is configured as an output port. Port 3 has the additional function of providing some extremely important signals such as interrupts. It can be used as input or output.5. one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. Port 2 is configured as an output port. P3 does not need any pull-up resistors. the same as P1 and P2 did not. In contrast to port 0. even when there are no accesses to external memory.

Reset Circuit: RESET is an active High input. Step 5: The program of all the was written in the KEIL software. 2.When capacitor charges fully it blocks DC. 3) When all the copper has been removed from the clad board we are left with only the print of the layout(this is due to the permanent marker). . The 8051 is reset by holding the RST high for at least two machine cycles and then returning it low. Step 4: All the components were soldered on the PCB. 8051 goes back to the power on state. When RESET is set to High. Step 2: Then the paper print of the layout was merged on a Copper clad using a hot iron and the print was darkened by a permanent marker. 4) Then we wash the PCB and remove the marker with a blade.Initially charging of capacitor makes RST High . Manual reset: -Closing the switch momentarily will make RST High. 2) Then we shake the board in it for 15 to 20 min.6) PCB Designing:Step 1: The circuit layout was made on the software Express PCB which was later printed out using a laser printer. Power-On Reset: . Step 3: Now to get a PCB we do the Etching Process which is as follows:1) After darkening the layout with permanent marker we dip the printed clad board in Ferric chloride solution. 5) Our printed circuit board is ready.

Figure 2.6(a): Circuit layout of a PCB .

1) Circuit Diagram: .CHAPTER 3: HARDWARE CONCEPT 3.

1.1.3.2) Receiving Circuit: .1) Transmitter Circuit: 3.

3.3) Sound & Sensing Unit:- .1.

3.2) Block Diagram: .

.

By 2008. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. The managing and control of the data to be displayed is performed by one or more circuits commonly denoted as LCD drivers.1) LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing.1. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other. The Liquid Crystal Display is intrinsically a ―passive‖ device. It is an electronically modulated optical device made up of any number of segments filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. or twist.1) OVERVIEW:Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes. the discovery of liquid crystals. Before applying an electric field. for example. a cloth. In a twisted nematic device (still the most common liquid crystal device). LCs do not emit light directly. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectionally rubbed using. the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are almost . and two polarizing filters. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO).3) Description of Circuit Diagram: 3. and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure. The most flexible ones use an array of small pixels. dates from 1888. 3. it is a simple light valve. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment.3. If the applied voltage is large enough.3.3. This induces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light. The surface of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. and the device appears grey. or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). The earliest discovery leading to the development of LCD technology. worldwide sales of televisions with LCD screens had surpassed the sale of CRT units. electronic visual display. LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs.

1 Pin description:Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Function 8 bit Address pins for input Name A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 Ground Ground (0V) .3.Pin diagram:- Figure 2.

5V(2.10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 4 bit Data/Address pins for output Serial data input Oscillator output Oscillator input Valid transmission. HT12E begins a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable. HT12E has a transmission enable pin which is active low. the programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium.4V-12V) D0 D1 D2 D3 Input Osc2 Osc1 VT Vcc 3.3. These 12 bits are divided into 8 address bits and 4 data bits. It is mainly used in interfacing RF and infrared circuits. This cycle is repeated as long as TE is kept low Pin diagram:- . HT12E converts the parallel inputs into serial output.2. They are paired with 212 series of decoders for use in remote control system applications. Simply put.2) HT12E:- HT12E is an encoder integrated circuit of 212 series of encoders. Active high Supply voltage. When a trigger signal is received on TE pin. The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have same number of addresses and data format. It encodes the 12 bit parallel data into serial for transmission through an RF transmitter.

4) IR EMITTER This is a schematic of a IR transmitter circuit using IC.3. The frequency can be adjusted by 1K potentionmeter for accuration 3.of the serial port together with a pull-up resistor coming from the power line. The circuit starts to produce the signal through IR LED when we connect a 9V battery to the circuit and this 38KHz signal can be received by an IR receiver of same frequency.3.3. 3.4 Relay drive Relay working: . The IC used in this circuit is a famous timer IC NE555 which is working as an astable multivibrator in this circuit and producing a 38KHz frequency signal.

The green colour represents the control circuit and the red colour represents the load circuit. typically 30mA for a 12V relay. Take a look at a 4 – pin relay shown below. Now let us take the different steps that occour in a relay. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. Circuit symbol for a relay Relays Relay Basics The basics for all the relays are the same. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and most have double throw (changeover) switch contacts as shown in the diagram. but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. This switch is controlled by the coil in the control circuit. There are two colours shown. the link is magnetic and mechanical. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts.A relay is an electrically operated switch. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. A switch is connected to the load. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. A small control coil is connected onto the control circuit. . The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current.

it is used to control an electrical circuit that is connected to it. Thus. the current flowing through the coils represented by pins 1 and 3 causes a magnetic field to be aroused.relay operation  Energized Relay (ON) As shown in the circuit. Thus the switch plays an important role in the relay working. . This magnetic field causes the closing of the pins 2 and 4. As it is a part of the load circuit. when the relay in energized the current flow will be through the pins 2 and 4.

Energized Relay (ON)  De – Energized Relay (OFF) As soon as the current flow stops through pins 1 and 3. the switch opens and thus the open circuit prevents the current flow through pins 2 and 4. De-Energized Relay (OFF) . Thus the relay becomes de-energized and thus in off position.

A pull-up and a pull-down. Since pin1 is a high impedance input. This resistors function is to limit the amount of current that can flow through the circuit. the other pulls it low. through R1. 3. you can compute this using Ohms law. and to ground.0005A (. however. a voltage meter or logic probe placed on pin 1 will show Vcc (+5v) if connected to pin 1. there are two flavors of this circuit. pin 1 is tied to Vcc through the resistor.000ohms I = . Actually. Their function is the same. In fact. but one pulls the line high. to create a default value for a circuit.5 ) Pull up Resistor:The basic function of a pull-up resistor is to insure that given no other input. I=V/R I = 5v / 10. They are also used in filter circuits because capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC (constant) signals. pin 1 has a direct connection to GND. When switch S1 is closed (on).Capacitors store electric charge. because R1 will limit the amount of current that can flow to a very small amount. When switch S1 is open (off). It isn't considered a short. Current will flow from Vcc. They are used with resistors in timing circuits because it takes time for a capacitor to fill with charge. The pin1 side of R1 also has a direct connection to ground. They are used to smooth varying DC supplies by acting as a reservoir of charge.5mA) . which takes it to the low state. In the given circuit we add a pull up resistor.3. a circuit assumes a default value.

the a 47k resistor may be right for your application. but if you are hoping to save as much power as possible.Most digital circuits use a 10k or a 47k resistor for pullups. as long as it is high enough to prevent too much current from flowing. In some cases. . In summery :You will find that pull-up resistors are extremely common is most digital circuits. The key function for a pull-up is to prevent input lines from floating. The exact value doesn't actually matter. you can go higher. 10k seems to be the most common. but then you are depending on characteristics of the pins on the chip. The key function for the resistor itself is to prevent too much current from flowing through the pull-up circuit.

000 to 100. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. ultraviolet. can occur as well. but heat and current settings can extend or shorten this time significantly. The most common symptom of LED (and diode laser) failure is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency.3. but the risk is small unless you are very slow. not c. Example: Circuit symbol: Function LEDs emit light when an electric current passes through them. No special precautions are needed for soldering most LEDs. although rare. The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. Many of the LEDs made in the 1970s and 1980s are still in service today. early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. Early red LEDs were notable for their short lifetime. Sudden failures.for cathode (yes. Typical lifetimes quoted are 25.6) Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs):A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. the diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or . with very high brightness. Connecting and soldering: LEDs must be connected the correct way round. for cathode!). it really is k. With the development of high-power LEDs the devices are . Lifetime and failure: Solid state devices such as LEDs are subject to very limited wear and tear if operated at low currents and at low temperatures. LEDs can be damaged by heat when soldering.3. but modern versions are available across the visible. and infrared wavelengths. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. If you can see inside the LED the cathode is the larger electrode (but this is not an official identification method).000 hours.

which is the time it will take a given LED to reach 75% and 50% light output respectively. and triangular or square with a flat top.subjected to higher junction temperatures and higher current densities than traditional devices. The small size sets a natural upper boundary on power consumption due to heat caused by the high current density and need for a heat sink. violet. Miniature: These are mostly single-die LEDs used as indicators. and 20 mA at 4–5 V (approximately 100 mW) for blue. The encapsulation may also be clear or tinted to improve contrast and viewing angle. designed for viewing in direct sunlight. To quantitatively classify lifetime in a standardized manner it has been suggested to use the terms L75 and L50. and they come in various sizes from 2 mm to 8 mm. through-hole and surface mountpackages. and green. rectangular with a flat top (as used in bar-graph displays). orange. Standard — 20 mA LEDs at around 2 V (approximately 40 mW) for red. Common package shapes include round. Five. with a domed or flat top. They usually do not use a separate heat sink. .and twelve-volt LEDs are ordinary miniature LEDs that incorporate a suitable series resistor for direct connection to a 5 V or 12 V supply. and white. yellow. Ultra-high-output — 20 mA at approximately 2 V or 4–5 V.[83] Typical current ratings ranges from around 1 mA to above 20 mA. There are three main categories of miniature single die LEDs:    Low-current — typically rated for 2 mA at around 2 V (approximately 4 mW consumption). This causes stress on the material and may cause early light-output degradation.

3.7) Seven Segment LED display:A seven-segment display (SSD). Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks. electronic meters. and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information. is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimalnumerals that is an alternative to the more complex dotmatrix displays. or seven-segment indicator.3. This table gives the hexadecimal encodings for displaying the digits 0 to F: Digit gfedcba abcdefg a b C d e f g 0 0×3F 0×7E on on On on on on off 1 0×06 0×30 off on On off off off off .

the seventh segment bisects the rectangle horizontally. though trapezoids and rectangles can also be used). these have mostly been replaced by dot matrix displays. and bottom. 7 and 9 may be represented by two or more different glyphs on sevensegment displays. where the optional DP decimail point (an "eighth segment") is used for the display of noninteger numbers. middle. they can be combined to produce simplified representations of the arabic numerals. though in the case of adding machines. Often the seven segments are arranged in an oblique (slanted) arrangement. 6. as shown to the right. Additionally. There are also fourteen segment display and sixteen segnment display (for full alphanumerics). Each of the numbers 0. the seven segments are of nearly uniform shape and size (usually elongated hexagons.2 0×5B 0×6D on on off on on off on 3 0×4F 0×79 on on On on off off on 4 0×66 0×33 off on On off off on on 5 0×6D 0×5B on off On on off on on 6 0×7D 0×5F on off On on on on on 7 0×07 0×70 on on On off off off off 8 0×7F 0×7F on on On on on on on 9 0×6F 0×7B on on On on off on on Concept and Visual Structure:A seven segment display. The seven segments are arranged as a rectangle of two vertical segments on each side with one horizontal segment on the top. however. In most applications. which aids readability. the vertical segments are longer and more oddly shaped at the ends in an effort to further enhance readability. The segments of a 7-segment display are referred to by the letters A to G. . as its name indicates. Individually on or off. is composed of seven elements.

push button telephones . Buttons are typically made out of hard material. such as press. 3. and punch. In industrial and commercial applications. though even many un-biased buttons (due to their physical nature) require a spring to return to their un-pushed state.3.3. In this way. and various other mechanical and electronic devices. mash.2) Dip Switch:A dip switch or DIP switch is a manual electric switch that is packaged with others in a group in a standard dual in line package (DIP). Buttons are most often biased switches. kitchen appliances . or to the unit as a whole.3. The term may refer to each individual switch. This method of linkage is used in simple manual operations in which the machine or process have no electrical circuits for control. depress.3.8. push buttons can be linked together by a mechanical linkage so that the act of pushing one button causes the other button to be released. The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand. Uses :The "push-button" has been utilized in calculators. Dip switches are an alternative to jumper blocks.1) Push switch: A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) (press-button in the UK) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. This type of switch is designed to be used on a printed circuit board along with other electronic components and is commonly used to customize the behavior of an electronic device for specific situations. a stop button can "force" a start button to be released. Different people use different terms for the "pushing" of the button.8. Their main advantages are that they are quicker to change and there are no parts to lose. . so as to be easily depressed or pushed.8) Switch:3. usually plastic or metal. home and commercial.

so that multiple units can be installed in different rooms of the same house..Types :here are many different kinds of dip switches. single throw (SPST) contacts. slide. which is equivalent to one byte Applications:These type of switches were used on early video cards for early computers to facilitate compatibility with other video standards Dip switches are still used in some remote control to prevent interference. allowing them to select a standard ASCII character. which are very common. Some of the most common are the rotary. and rocker types. . The dip switches set a different radio frequency for each transmitter/receiver pair. are arrays of simple single pole . These may be large like thumbwheels. for example. The values of all switches in the package can also be interpreted as one number. This allows each switch to select a one-bit binary value. which can be either on or off. without unintentionally controlling each other. but also to control the fan motor speed and light dimmer. For example. The slide and rocker types. one of which is selected by rotating the switch to align it with a number printed on the package. or so small that a screwdriver must be used to change them (although there are also small potentiometers of this type). or different units of the same apartment building. Rotary dip switches contain multiple electrical contacts. to control a ceiling fan (and its light fixture) that was retrofitted to a single-circuti junction box. The remote not only allows for convenience (such as not having to fully awaken to get out of bed if installed in a bedroom). Eight switches offer 256 combinations. seven switches offer 128 combinations. which cannot be installed at the wall switch without separate circuits.

a sampling rate as high as 8. The board measures 80mm by 55mm.1 kHz. It is also possible to control the IC using external digital circuitry such as micro-controllers and computers.5V. support components and necessary switches to allow users to explore all functions of the APR9600 chip. sound can be recorded in 2. The IC can operate in one of two modes: serial mode and parallel mode. Pin Diagram: . Supply voltage is between 4.3. The replayed sound exhibits high quality with a low noise level.0 kHz can be achieved. In parallel access mode. by changing an oscillation resistor. The oscillation resistor is chosen so that the total recording period is 60 seconds with a sampling rate of 4.3. an electret microphone.2 kHz.9) APR 9600 IC: APR9600 is a low-cost high performance sound record/replay IC incorporating flash analogue storage technique. Total sound recording time can be varied from 32 seconds to 60 seconds by changing the value of a single resistor. Sampling rate for a 60 second recording period is 4.2 kHz that gives a sound record/replay bandwidth of 20Hz to 2.5V to 6. 4 or 8 sections. This shortens the total length of sound recording to 32 seconds. However. During The APR9600 experimental board is an assembled PCB board consisting of an APR9600 IC. sound can be recorded in 256 sections. Recorded sound is retained even after power supply is removed from the module. In serial access mode. The IC can be controlled simply using push button keys. The APR9600 has a 28 pin DIP package.

The signal then passes through a low-pass filter. a power amplifier and output to an 8 to 16 Ohm speaker. . There are different sound recording and replaying modes (see Table 2). the IC’s control circuit reads analogue data from flash RAMs. These modes are selected using MSEL1 . MSEL2 and –M8.During sound replaying. –M1 to –M7 keys have different functions in different modes.

Notes: -M1 to -M8 once to replay a sound track.Standby current: 1 uA typical . Press the key again to stop replaying the track –M1 to -M8 continuously. the corresponding track will be replayed repeatedly -M1 to M8 should be pressed while the sound is being recorded.Sequential access of multiple variable-duration messages • User-friendly.Random access of multiple fixed-duration messages .Minimum external components • Non-volatile Flash memory technology .Programming & development systems not required .Level-activated recording & edge-activated play back switches • Low power consumption .No external ICs required . high-quality voice recording & playback solution . Features : • Single-chip. Releasing the key terminates recording. easy-to-use operation .No battery backup required • User-Selectable messaging options .Automatic power-down • Chip Enable pin for simple message expansion .Operating current: 25 mA typical .

The resulting audio signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic. tape recorders. when the plates are closer together. motion picture production. Condenser microphones require power from a battery or external source. When the plates are further apart. The term condenser is actually obsolete but has stuck as the name for this type of microphone. In the condenser mic. Condenser Microphone:Condenser means capacitor. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones.3. speech recognition. which uses a capacitor to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. A voltage is required across the capacitor for this to work. Specifically. in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice. Working:A capacitor has two plates with a voltage between them.4. The diaphragm vibrates when struck by sound waves. hearing aids. This voltage is supplied either by a battery in the mike or by external power. Cross section of a typical condenser microphone . and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors. as their sensitivity makes them prone to distort. changing the distance between the two plates and therefore changing the capacitance. one of these plates is made of very light material and acts as the diaphragm. FRS radios. karaoke systems. capacitance increases and a charge current occurs. megaphones. live and recorded audio engineering. Condensers also tend to be more sensitive and responsive than dynamics. They are not ideal for high-volume work.0) MICROPHONE A microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. capacitance decreases and a discharge current occurs. VoIP. an electronic component which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. making them well-suited to capturing subtle nuances in a sound.

optimized for the highest audible frequencies. Home stereos use the designation "tweeter" for the high frequency driver. a mid-range. so the task of reproducing the mid-range sounds falls upon the woofer and tweeter. In two-way systems there is no mid-range driver. called a crossover. The terms for different speaker drivers differ. and a tweeter. Individual drivers are used to reproduce different frequency ranges. a "filter network". mid-range speakers (middle frequencies). - . and sometimes super tweeters. A loudspeaker system with n separate frequency bands is described as "n-way speakers": a two-way system will have a woofer and a tweeter. a three-way system employs a woofer. particularly for higher sound pressure level or maximum accuracy. most loudspeaker systems employ more than one driver. The drivers are named subwoofers (for very low frequencies). woofers (low frequencies). To adequately reproduce a wide range of frequencies. while professional concert systems may designate them as "HF" or "highs". Loudspeakers were described as "dynamic" to distinguish them from the earlier moving iron speaker. tweeters (high frequencies). The term "loudspeaker" may refer to individual transducers (known as "drivers") or to complete speaker systems consisting of an enclosure including one or more drivers. separates the incoming signal into different frequency ranges and routes them to the appropriate driver. or speakers using piezoelectric or electrostatic systems as opposed to a voice coil that moves through a steady magnetic field.1) SPEAKER A stamped steel loudspeaker basket frame A speaker is an electro acoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input.4.3. When multiple drivers are used in a system. depending on the application.

CHAPTER 4: SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION .

1. µVision3 helps you get programs working faster than ever while providing an easy-to-use development platform. The editor and debugger are integrated into a single application and provide a seamless embedded project development environment. source code editing. compiler.1) KEIL µVision3 The µVision3 IDE from Keil Software combines project management. select Project -> Create New Project from the menu. The Select Device for Target dialog will appear as shown in the figure below. Enter the name of your new project. µVision3 features include: 1. select Dallas Semiconductor and DS5250.) The Device Database which automatically sets the assembler.1. The Keil compilers and assemblers do that automatically. we can make corrections to the files in our project while µVision3 continues to compile in the background.1) Steps to be followed for using Keil 1. and linker options for the chip you select.) A robust Project Manager which lets us create several different configurations of our target from a single project file. This prevents us from wasting our time configuring the tools and helps us get started writing code faster.) Creating a New Project In Keil µVision2. We don't have to figure out which header files and include files are used by which source files. program debugging. As the project compiles. . So.1. 4. errors and warnings appear in an output window. and then hit OK to continue. The Keil µVision3 IDE allows to create an output file for simulating. an output file for debugging with an emulator.1) SOFTWARE USED 4. Check the boxes for Use Extended Linker and Use Extended Assembler.) An integrated Make facility with automatic dependency generation. Under Database.) Interactive Error Correction. 2. make facilities.4. and complete simulation in one powerful environment. 3. and an output file for programming an EPROM -all from the same Project file. 4. Line numbers associated with each error or warning are automatically resynchronized when we make changes to the source.

Code ROM Size . Set the checkbox for Use multiple DPTR registers. set the top two fields to Eprom Start: 0x1400 and Eprom Size: 0x10000. An Option dialog box will appear.Figure 4.1(a): Selecting the DS5250 for a new Keil uVision project A new dialog box will ask. Change the settings in this tab as follows (as shown in figure below)      Memory Model . and select Options for Target 'Target 1'. "Copy Dallas 80C390 Startup Code to Project Folder and Add File to Project?" Select YES.1. In the Off-chip Code Memory section of the dialog. set the top two fields to Ram Start: 0x80000 and Ram Size: 0x10000.Set to Contiguous Mode: 16 MB program.1. Right click on Target 1. In the Off-chip Xdata Memory section of the dialog. 2. open up Target 1. Select the Target tab.Set to Large: Variables in XDATA.) Setting Project Options When the project window opens on the left. .

1.1.)Adding the Project Code Example: Open a new file and enter the following C code: #include <stdio. 3. TCON = 0x50.1(b): Target option settings for the DS5250 Finally. select the Output tab. check the box for Create HEX file and select HEX Format: HEX-386.h> // Initialize serial port 0 to 9600 baud using 22. In this tab. } void main() .1184 MHz crystal void serialInit() { PCON |= 0x80. TMOD |= 0x21. CKCON |= 0x10. SCON0 = 0x50.h> #include <reg5240. SCON0 |= 0x02. TH1 = 0xDC.Figure 4.

messages should appear indicating that compilation completed successfully.{ serialInit(). MOV TA.#P5CNT_VAL Also.) Compiling the Project To compile the project.").c and click Add.#0xAA . or select Project -> Build Target from the menu. printf(". MOV TA. then click Close. printf('Hello from serial port 0\r ').c. as shown in figure: . } } Save this file as main.P4CNT_VAL EQU (SBCAN SHL 6) OR (PCES SHL 3) OR (P4PF) .#0x55 .) 4. printf(". Next.h>4.h> to #include <reg5240. open the file START390. P0 = 0xAA. press F7. change the line #include <reg390. If no errors occur. Enable access to P5CNT . right-click on Source Group 1 and select Add Files to Group 'Source Group 1'. Enable access to P4CNT .#P4CNT_VAL .#0x55 . MOV P5CNT. Select main.A51 and comment out the following lines (after the STARTUP1 label): . MOV P4CNT. To add the file."). MOV TA.P5CNT_VAL EQU (SP1EC SHL 5) OR (CX_IO SHL 3) OR (P5PF) .#0xAA . while (1) { P0 = 0x55. . MOV TA. The file will not be automatically added to the project.

Figure 4. .1(c) PCB DESIGNING: As explain above.1.1.

CHAPTER 5: FUTURE WORK .

All the vehicle can be commonly connected through internet by using this communication between vehichle and copes is as possible. But we can mount camera on vehicle also. And through this project we will also able to prevent theft. As the communicatin between the vehicle and cope this project can also send information about the drink consuming driver and it will also capable to send the information about no smoking area. . Sensor can also be put on the red light and vehicle.In the present project we are sensing speed and prevent the over acceleration.

) www.) www.com/prope ller/prop_intro.) EEMSD By JB Gupta .) http://www.co.) Microcontroller 8051 by Sanjeev Kumar 6.org 5.com/propeller/prop_intro.thaitechnics.htmhttp://www.REFRENCES 1.com 3.scribd.) www.wikipedia.in 4.htm 2.google.thaitechnics.