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A Toolkit for Psychogeographers
Version 1.2.5 • 25 Oct 2011 By the Singapore Psychogeographical Society http://psychogeoforensics.org
Questioning Designated Zones 9.2 Ephemera Yangtze Scribbler 6. Dérives 2.1 Functional/System Signs Land Survey Markers 5.2 Map Fingerprinting 5. Guerilla Gardening and Guerilla Decorating 11. Construction Site Archaeology 8. Hand-drawn Maps 4.CONTENTS Contents Introduction History Techniques and Methodologies 1.1 Physical. Narrative Reconstruction 3. Map-Making 4. Analysing Street Symbols 5. Pictorial Reconstruction / Artist Impressions 4. Walking along Road Networks 7. Tracing Desire Lines 10. Writing and Rewriting Ideal Futures Recommended Reading 3 .
we shall write history. We are faced with rapid demolition and reconstruction of the city at all times. What is Singapore. and with our minds alone. You can be sure that there is nothing sacred or indestructible in a city that has in the past. with large government-operated agencies of national identity making being tasked with defining what is "historic" or "worth keeping". demolished its old National Library building to put a large vehicular tunnel in its place. however. or the one “definitive” story. where is Singapore? Psychogeoforensics looks at the missing artifact that is also known as the urban city. is not to find a singular answer. or more importantly. What can we make from the clues that we find along the way? What can we make from the fragments of pottery shards in the Singapore River? What can we make from the writing in the dust under the bridges of major expressways? From these clues left behind. The important thing is the journey and going through the process of sifting through the clues and piecing together the disjoined fragments. The aim. and discussing the clues so that we might one day come closer to finding a satisfactory answer. There is no such thing as an absolute or an authoritative account of what happened here.Psychogeoforensics A Toolkit for Psychogeoforensics Introduction Singapore is a city that changes every other moment. Psychogeoforensics is about how we find ways to solve the mystery: reconstructing the narrative. 4 . Achievement and progress have come at the expense of losing context and history.
and with that. Within the span of one or two generations. It is certainly something one may not see in Singapore. where diasporic communities easily become estranged from their origins because of geographical distance. dialects and family ties can be completely lost. even on my last trip. stories and local knowledge are easily forgotten. languages. and a few young people. The act of exoticising the other and making a reproduction of an Asian architecture through the lens of eurocentricity has historically served to justify the dispossession of the colonised people. who in all actuality may not be fluent any of the dialects spoken by these opera performers. the narrative of our origins is lost to us forever. and even the ones who were present were mostly photographers. allowing one to observe the various dialect operas all in one place. festive opera stages representing each and every Chinese dialect in their community. Balestier) 1 One wishing to see the vestiges of “traditional chinese opera” here should certainly see the Chinese Opera Stage held during Chingay just across the border from us – in Johore Baru. the audience for these performances were scant. where prosperous Chinese communities have organized utterly epic. Within decades.History When the British colonised India and the East Indies. their architects sometimes employed Indo-Saracenic designs which catered not only to Western sensibilities but also incorporated “exotic” elements that were originally indigenous to Asia and the tropics. Construct & Scaffold #3: Scaffolding for a Chinese Opera1 Stage erected next to scaffolding for construction work for a Business Park at 中山公园 (Zhongshan Park. especially one made up almost entirely of many separate groups of migrant populations. 5 . However.
In a city like Singapore. When Singapore began as a country. as if there are ongoing attempts to try to postpone the actualization of Singapore’s meaning by filling it up with architectures that are oddly void of meaning: Hypermarkets Supermarkets Shopping Malls Underground Tunnels between Malls MRT Stations LRT Stations Walkways between different MRT Lines Bus Interchanges Bus Stops Highways 2 Expressways Bridges Under Bridges Airports Lounges Void decks HDB corridors Stairwells Carparks Generic Food Courts etc… Le Kuan Yew’s National Day Speech. the story of Singapore does not simply resume writing itself as per usual. to be a financial hub. There is no guide for where we should pick up the story from here because Singapore itself began as a construct. the biggest branding exercise ever in this country. after decolonialisation. rather than answering the question from within? It is no coincidence that a large portion of Singapore is made up of what appears to be generic transitory spaces. my colleagues and I carried that heavy burden in our hearts of having made the decision on your behalf.” 6 . architectures. we consoled ourselves with this thought: that whilst thereafter. a conflux of different communities. its impact must spread far beyond its shores. it had nothing but people and ideas. “What is your Singapore?”. the success of Singapore was indeed recognized to be something that was more than just intrinsic. These ideas about how we should build ourselves is what led Singapore to be what is it today: a country with many aspirations – to be the best. How do we install/reinstall tradition in a place which looks outside for cultural legitimacy. ideas. No geographic or political boundary contain the implications of what we set out to do when we succeed. to be a global city for the arts. a metaphor. before the news was broken to the world. and a re-production of so many other things. However. the multi-racial society that we had set out to create could be implemented only within the confines of Singapore. 9 August 1966: “And when this time last year. The creation of Singapore was thus. In order for Singapore to be successful. it had to be considered successful by others outside of Singapore2. asking foreigners to pick and guess. we knew deep down that ultimately.
plastic slate of Singapore seems to exist as a placeholder for everything yet to come. then we must take action on our own. Like a black hole which absorbs and sucks in all the light around it. But clearly it invites signification. then a space which cannot be defined as relational. What happened here at this very spot? Can we reconstruct the story? If exoticism is read as the re-appropriation and re-presentation of one culture for the consumption of another culture.” It is demoralizing to think of Singapore as a non-place. and if we also cannot hope for “tradition” to magically reinstall itself. or concerned with identity will be a non-place. consciously organised or not. Guy Debord defined psychogeography as “the study of the precise laws and specific effects of the geographical environment. like a vacuum. And we must learn how to ask the right ones. on the emotions and behaviour of individuals. Asking questions is the first way to find out more about the case at hand. Asking the right questions is one of the main tools of psychogeoforensics.Marc Auge writes that “If a place can be defined as relational. and attracts questions. In his Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography (1955). or historical.” 7 . the blank. and do something about it. historical and concerned with identity.
we view the Singapore as the scene of the mystery. Forensics refers to things or events that are to be discussed in a court of law. The origin of the word “forensics” comes from latin. and we are reconstructing the narrative of Singapore. We read the word “forensics” broadly. The missing artifact is Singapore. Law today. To combine psychogeography – an appreciation for various ambiances in a city that seem to influence the lives of individuals living within it – along with the domain of forensics3 seems almost logical. and take it to meaning that things are to be put into discussion. and refers to that “which belongs to the forum” – something that is put into public discussion (as one would discuss a case in a court of law).To extend that idea. and going through all the possible clues of Singapore’s whereabouts. so that one day we may find out where Singapore truly is. in Psychogeoforensics. however. or a crime has potentially occurred. is not public discussion. 3 8 . perhaps one where a mystery is yet unsolved. although in common parlance it refers to processes in which we investigate a questionable incident.
its gestures. not to appropriate or reappropriate. The dérive is certainly a technique. 4 5 See also: “Theory of the Dérive” by Guy Debord A word of caution: “The dérive (with its flow of acts. an expression or a definition.” The goal in drifting is not to colonise. You should adopt the ideas which make sense to you. a month is really pushing it. In 1953-1954 we dérived for three or four months straight. That’s the extreme limit. It is not just a casual. until the moment when he rejects or modifies (one could say detourns) a word. but. Dérives One of the most basic situationist practices is the dérive4. p. the goal is simply to see things as if you have not seen them before. Drifting is serious business. or repelled from places. discard those which you do not agree with. and allow yourself to be naturally drawn to places. “Derive” literally means to “drift”. dissociation. 9 .5 You make time for drifting. 38). having gone too far (not without bases. reprinted in Internationale Situationniste #9. in which one rapidly passes through places of different ambiences while maintaining an awareness of the different psychogeographical effects. its strolls. It is not a game of chance – “from a dérive point of view cities have psychogeographical contours. limited to a weekend for some people. it is most definitely not about romanticizing poverty either. its encounters) was to the totality exactly what psychoanalysis (in the best sense) is to language. Let yourself go with the flow of words. disintegration… It could be continuous like the poker game in Las Vegas. in an excerpt from a 1963 letter to Michèle Bernstein and Guy Debord. leisurely stroll through the city with the mind emptied of all thoughts. almost a therapeutic one.. French theorist.. Drifting is not about slumming it out or aimless wandering about like a homeless person.Techniques and Methodologies All methods suggested here are proposed as potential and experimental approaches and are not the only possible approaches. to a week as a good average. He listens. dissolution. But just as analysis unaccompanied with anything else is almost always contraindicated. with constant currents. so continual dériving is dangerous to the extent that the individual. fixed points and vortexes that strongly discourage entry into or exit from certain zones. 1. It’s a miracle it didn’t kill us” (Ivan Chtcheglov. is threatened with explosion.) without defenses. says the psychoanalyst. but only for a certain period.
through psychogeoforensics. Let the telephone box on the street corner testify as witness. Narrative Reconstruction “Heritage and ecological sanctuaries are all well and good but the best way of conserving something is to act on it. 7 10 .2. is to encourage narratives to form. 9 August 1966: “It is in the nature of things that we must talk in parables. then the city and its architecture changes. and make them up as you go along. or actor in the story. collaboratively produced book. be self-aware of what story you are trying to tell. Plant a seed of thought. Or the day before that. If the viewer is moved.” From: “An Architecture of Interaction” – a book which is also full of lists like these. Our goal is to narrate places and buildings back into being. the Prophets spoke in parables because they had also to take into account so many factors prevailing in their time. invent them. of rumours if you have to. I would like to believe that we are a people sufficiently sophisticated to understand parables and the value of ever searching for new solutions. It is always necessary to question. And the older I become. new ways to achieve old targets. or parables6. imagine the ghost of yourself passing through the same space yesterday. Are we building stages for stories that have already been performed? What are the stories that need to be told? Here is a list of possible roles you can take on in your journeys: Detective Researcher Adventurer Pilgrim Disruptor Performer Audience member Revolutionary activist Criminal Sojourner 6 Victim Guinea Pig Test Subject Activator Critical Mirror Errorist Student on a Field Trip Archivist Librarian of Live Experiences7 etc. So what changed since then? Imagining your own ghost through cities is a good way to start. Lee Kuan Yew’s National Day Speech. But at the same time.” (Vincente Guallart) What I propose. Let the crack in the wall tells its secrets to you. If there are streets that you pass every day. Let the trees speak to you. Where none seem to exist. Spatial shifts occur without having to change the architecture. Credit for the inspiration of making similar lists must go to the writers of this excellent. But. of urban myths. the more I am convinced that sometimes perhaps. whose imagination are we materialising.
3. which is more confusing than actually useful. because people know that it is important to control this economy of images. Hand-drawn Maps By sketching one’s own maps. where as commercially produced maps often present data to a great degree of precision and painstaking detail. and illustrations help document the scene so you can examine it closer later. The construction of places through their representation is practically instituitionalised today.” There is immense value in making images of the city. Image of the City). This detail may prove essential in some cases where one wants to locate very specific details on a map. Pictorial Reconstruction / Artist Impressions “The main currency of architecture is photography. the amount of detail may be more than the traveler will actually require for navigating a particular route/journey. There will always be some "topological invariance" (Lynch. one produces a map that reflects only the most essential information required for navigation along one particular route. but in most cases. Map-Making The main difference between hand-drawn maps and commercially available street directories or maps is that hand-drawn maps selectively omit extra information that is not directly on the route taken. It is this topological invariance that we are interested in learning about.1 Physical. 4. Photography. not the building. For the purpose of each singular journey. Angles at which roads intersect may be misrepresented or simplified into straight roads or curved roads. This can help reveal hidden maps and boundaries. and lengths of roads are unlikely to be depicted to scale but are more likely to be drawn relative to each other. scale and precision does suffer in the hand-drawn map. However. 4. sketches. the extra information not relevant to one’s journey is only visual clutter. Why is the city seemingly elastic? Are there wrinkles in the spatial continuum? 11 . omitting all other excess detail that is not essential for the successful navigation to one’s destination.
Make maps for complete strangers and leave them where they will find it. a non-existent building numbered “92” at the Junction of Pitt Street and Jalan Besar 4.read from page 62 onwards. when Virtual Maps Pte Ltd became embroiled in a civil lawsuit with SLA for having infringed the copyright of vector map data provided by SLA in 2004. . hopping on one foot. a non-existent building numbered “6” along Edgedale Plains opposite Block 131CP 5. it skips over links and whole parts that it omits. District Court Suit No 3535 of 2005.Certeau writes: “In walking it selects and fragments the space traversed. someone set up a general store in the very same location with the name Agloe after having taken reference from the Esso Map. a non-existent building labeled “TP” (Temple) besides Block 891A Woodlands 2. every walk constantly leaps. .2 Map Fingerprinting In the 1930s. based on that very map. "GROUNDS OF DECISION IN THE SUBORDINATE COURTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE. which was SLA’s surveyor’s own rendering but rather inaccurate.  SGDC 216. It practices the ellipsis of conjunctive loci . 8 From 12 . Singapore Land Authority (Plantiffs) VS Virtual Map (Singapore) Pte Ltd (Defendants)" . or to show someone else the way. and thus accidentally making Agloe a reality. Esso produced a map of pump stations around the New York area. a non-existent dead-end street extending from Jurong West Street 23 3. or skips like a child. Make maps whenever you can: whether it is to to record where you’ve been. List of additional features added by SLA in Singapore’s Map Data8: 1. DCA 19 of 2007. These additional imaginary features were used in a court of law by SLA to prove that the map was theirs. From this point of view. In October 2006. with an additional imaginary location named Agloe in it as a “copyright trap”. the distinctive and idiosyncratic representation of Fort Gate. 4. it came to public attention that the Singapore Land Authority had inserted a few imaginary features into their official maps of Singapore. Years later.
In any case. Trap Street. the “topological invariance” caused by drawing a map by your own hand will already introduce some of your own personal “idiosyncrasies” or your artistic or emotional interpretation of the space. Found map. Geek St) or imaginary features to their maps in order to be able to identity their own maps from others (and to catch those who blindly copy features from their own maps. In other countries. Along Marina Bay. many other cartographers also have the practice of adding imaginary roads (Lye Close.they are simply the “fingerprints” of a map that identify it to its owner.Fort Gate on the Virtual Maps website. and Fort Gate as drawn idiosyncratically by SLA. Making up new features in the maps you make is the graphical equivalent to narrative reconstruction. The imaginary features and phantom or “ghost” buildings are not meant to mislead normal users of the map . to some degree. 13 . Please visit Fort Gate to see what it really looks like.
The mystery of the painted numbers on the old shophouses was finally solved. How did society get to the point where we are oblivious to the workings of the city itself (plumbing. a mains pump or from a mains pressure supply. electrical wiring. The large holes are also known as “PolyPropylene Inspection Chambers”. After extensively documenting these mysterious numbers. If inspecting inside a drain. there are two common types of manhole covers. who reads these markers. and who uses the information provided by these markers? I believe that we should seek to understand all the signs in our environment. H64. When I walk around the CBD. C908 stood for “Cross Street Station”. “So. dry pipe systems will only provide a slight delay prior to water discharge while the air in the piping is released prior to the water filling the pipe A wet riser is a constantly pressurised water pipe supplied by a storage tank with pump. drainage. or at least to question who put them there. WET RISER11. road). industrial) and surface water sources (rainwater. symbols and markings. What do these letters mean? Are you curious about who makes these markings. and C908 when you crossed over to the other side of the street. Some weeks later. while searching on the internet. and why. Dry risers have to have fire engine access within 18m of the dry riser inlet box. toilet. etc) SEW9. There are also mixed water sources. DRY RISER10. this is what they defined as the “Chinatown Area”… 12 14 . 11 10 A For a number of weeks back in 2009. C90912. while dry pipe systems will not. bath. I realized that the different numbers could be illustrated as a sweeping line between shophouses on one side of Cross street. and to create our own languages.5. and yet most people walk past them without a further thought. 9 With regards to SEW or sewers here. if you see white bits (tissue paper used in toilets) then it is probably a foul or mixed water source. We should also be encouraged to leave our own signs. or what could it mean. One is the Access Chamber (small holes for inspection) and Inspection Chambers (larger chambers which have space for maintenance equipment and crew to go into). on the ground.foul water sources (kitchen. Analysing Street Symbols How can people live in a city and be contented with not understanding the signs written all over a city? We see them everyday on the street. The dry riser is the opposite of a "wet riser" or "wet standpipe" system where the pipes are kept full of water for manual or automatic fire fighting operations. However. and shophouses that were on the other side. I am aware of these numbers and always find it interesting to see which areas have been grouped under certain stations. Please do not walk into open sewage without protection. “dry riser” is a main vertical pipe intended to distribute water to multiple levels of a building or structure as a component of the fire suppression systems. In Singapore it seems more common to see dry risers. likely due to fears that a physically damaged wet pipe system will leak. I puzzled over a bunch of symbols spraypainted on the old shophouse buildings next to my office that said C909. embedded in our walls. Also it will be interesting to note that apparently there are two systems . The pipe is maintained empty of water. I learnt that C909 was the construction company’s abbreviation for “Chinatown Station” on the new Downtown Line MRT that was being constructed.
1 Functional/System Signs List of common systems of signs in a city: Electrical Wiring Symbols Fire Sprinkler System Symbols Telecoms Wiring Symbols Plumbing Symbols Sewage and Drainage System Symbols Land Survey Markers. They were collected over the years 2009-2011 in the following cities: Singapore. Berlin. 15 . Jakarta. From these images and other markers you see on your journeys. Johor Bahru.5. Example: Land Survey Markers Here is an example of a personal survey marker collection. London. make up your own explanations about what it could mean.
Survey Marker Collection (2009-2011) 16 .
Survey Marker Collection (2009-2011) 17 .
Survey Marker Collection (2009-2011) 18 .
postits. and to explore old buildings like the Yangtze further. Example: Yangtze Scribbler These mysterious symbols were on the walls of the old Yangtze Cinema in 2010. and dreams. You are free to make what you will of these symbols.2 Ephemera List of Common Human Ephemera in a city: Numbers stenciled into streets and sides of buildings Urban Graffiti spraypainted into walls Marker/Pen Graffiti scribbled onto temporary or impermanent features Phone numbers in stairwells Stickers on lampposts Notices at Busstops Misplaced notes. bus tickets. 19 . plans.5. maps. receipts. I do not know if the markings still exist to this day.
Roads and expressways are particularly interesting because “roads act as photographic and spatial metaphors for ‘distance’ and ‘proximity’”13 (David Kendall) David Kendall’s work. miles away from home.6. so it already restrict’s one’s access to the place. miles away from the next toilet. he notes the following: “Climbing onto the road allows participants to dictate the pace of their collective movements. Imagine yourself in the middle of nowhere. 13 20 . Walking along Road Networks Walking on Benjamin Sheares Bridge This may seem counterintuitive at first glance: to walk along highways instead of driving on them? The long distances are difficult for most walkers to manage. miles away from the next convenience store. was one such project studying the city of Dubai. It is a picture of boundless potential for exploration. However. While in a car. and create informal meeting points or spaces within a hostile environmental climate/cityscape”. and also have no choice but to walk on the roads instead of driving (because of limited social rights and hence mobility). After observing migrant workers who worked on the construction of these words. one sometimes sees workers who mend these expressways. Always let the Road Decide. where most things are accessible by highways and walking seems to be discouraged. walking up and down in a place which seems to us altogether inaccessible. subvert spatial dynamics. do not misread this as a picture of barrenness or bleakness.
a manhole provides the most obvious gateway to the world underneath the streets of a city!) 21 . Look for the footprints. 2011 (Besides construction sites. Incomplete construction work under Benjamin Sheares Bridge. Construction sites are sites for study and archaeology.Re-examine what you consider near and far while walking long distances along such roads. sift through the dirt and soil to see what it might tell us about those who came before us. Consider the question of what you is truly accessible to you on your two feet. sites at which we can peer into the inner layers that lie beneath the city. Short of waiting for a construction crew to come in. do not forget to look at manholes as well. 7. Construction Site Archaeology The city lies in modern ruins.
Do not allow society’s preconceptions of “suitable places to deter you from exploring new places and corners. mix up the zones and conduct activities in zones where you would not expect them. or a map. Most people do not approach spaces which do not look built up or completely furnished. Having an enjoyable. leisurely stroll in Seletar. Sometimes I don’t even understand what they are for. Not all walks or places have a guidebook. Questioning Designated Zones We arbitrarily designate zones in many places – “eating zones” in malls. 22 . and if possible (and if you are so inclined to). If there are people to enforce the rules of conduct within this zone. You should fly in the face of such expectations and walk away from the malls and out into the parts which do not look like they have been constructed for people to explore.8. and it is the product of bureaucratic processes. “shopping zones” on streets. Sometimes there are very good reasons for rules . “no handphone zones”. since food is so portable. etc.but sometimes there are no reasons. why can’t everywhere be an eating zone? You should question why these zones exist. Like for example. Sometimes these zones do not even have a marker. Observe the reactions of others and document this. question why they have been put in place. “parking zone”. “study zones”.
trace them and see where they lead you to. People cannot always be told where to walk. so even if real pavements are constructed. or the mud may be packed down in that area. Urban Desire line in Changi.9. Tracing Desire Lines “Desire Lines” refer to paths and shortcuts which people take in unpaved areas. forming a line in which the grass may be worn out by human passage. sometimes these desire lines appear. leading to another path Even if you do not know where they lead to. which will bring your city to life? 23 . Perhaps to other mysteries.
The reason for this sad state of affairs was that no one took an interest in this space.10. The space was finally “activated” and made into something for the people who lived there by activists who cleaned up the space. there was a plot of land belonging to Hackney Council that was essentially a neglected lot. making it both unsanitary and an eyesore to all who passed by. and this attracted passerbys to dump unwanted things on this area. and put plants on the neglected public lot. Build with the things you find. “(guerilla) gardens (and other similar interventions) may yet play a role in asserting public will in the face of institutional change”. Guerilla Gardening and Guerilla Decorating In a part of Shoreditch near the place where I once stayed. In areas which face gentrification due to development schemes. making the corner feel safer because it was clear to all who passed by that people really cared about the place. They report that it was easiest to conduct their activities in broad daylight rather than sneaking around at night where people tended to be more suspicious. introduced garden gnomes to the area. Gardens by the Bay – Under construction (2011) 24 .
Lighting and conversation must of course be appropriate. Make the most of its decoration and surroundings. Singaporeans and their government have come to the realisation that cultural inheritance is not the only aspect of the island's legacy. along with the weather and your memories. they found an island whose muddy coastline and estuary were the only accessible areas. Build a house. or on floating villages. Now less than two centuries later. cosmopolitan city with nothing left of its wild beginnings. and pirates lived in attap-covered huts along the riverbanks. and the kampongs have disappeared to make room for more high-rise buildings and highways. Writing and Rewriting Ideal Futures Psychogeographical Game of the Week Unattributed Potlatch #1 22 June 1954 Depending on what you are after. Gather together the right people. By preserving the magnificent variety of tropical trees. Choose the season and the time. Singapore is a thriving. Even the farmlands. you should find the outcome satisfying. the plantations. plants and flowers. a more or less lively street. 25 . a more or less populous city. the exotic mangrove swamps. and the drastically reduced fauna. Fortunately. in the last twenty years. choose an area. Furnish it. Observe this example of a book blurb taken from the back cover of a generic guidebook entitled “Gardens and Parks of Singapore” (published in 1992). Singapore is working towards a healthier environment as well as a more aesthetically pleasing one. tradesmen. the best records and drinks. When Stamford Raffles and William Farquhar sailed into the Strait of Singapore in 1819. Pull all the elements together to rewrite the narrative. If your calculations are correct.11. The sparse population of Chinese and Malay fisherman. Crocodiles infested the waters and tigers and wild boars roamed the thickly forested hills.
draw your own maps. Sara Ishikawa and Murray Silverstein) Geo-Logics: Geography Information Architecture (Vicente Guallart) Geometry of the Unconscious: An Uncertain Truth in Architecture (Kong Jyanzi) Mythogeography (Phil Smith) The Production of Space (Henri Lefebvre) Form Follows Libido (Sylvia Lavin) The Poetics of Space (Gaston Bachelard) Arcades Project (Walter Benjamin) Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience (Tuan Yi Fu) Flatland (Edwin A Abbott) The Blackwell City Reader Critical Cities: Ideas. Future Revisions of this text can be found at http://psychogeoforensics. Wells) A Pattern Language (Christopher Alexander. and share your findings with others. write your own story. G.org Recommended Reading The Society of the Spectacle (Guy Debord) The Theory of the Dérive (Guy Debord) The Pleasure of the Text (Roland Barthes) The Door in the Wall (H. Share this document. Knowledge and Agitation from Emerging Urbanists 26 .This is first draft of the Guide to Psychogeoforensics.
org 28 .psychogeoforensics.