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Submitted for the National Conference on Microelectronics And Communication (NCMEC) - 2009 April 9th - 10th

Advent 4GMA
Department of Electronics And Communications Engineering,
Madras Institute Of Technology, Chennai, India,

Abstract – All kinds of existing multiple access, this view in mind,CDMA is a potential candidate for third
orthogonal frequency division multiple access,time division generation (3G) systems,however it has to cope with the
multiple access and code division multiple access,taken problem of Multiple Access Interference (MAI). The
together provide plenty for resource sharing and provide present 3G systems which use CDMA can provide a
subscribers with a wide variety of services and applications; maximum data rate of 2Mbps for an indoor environment,
hence it is only natural to envision a synthesis of their
attributes as a means of meeting the demands of a growing
which is quite less than that needed for recent multimedia
world population. However such a synthesis is easier said applications, that require very high bandwidth with
than done,and this paper outlines the evolution of a likely mobility. The most important objective of 4G wireless
4GMA scheme. systems is to take care of severe ISI,which results from
Keywords – Code Division multiple Access high data rates, and to provide spectral efficiency in the
(CDMA),orthogonal frequency division multiplexing available limited bandwidth. In this aspect Multi-carrier
(OFDM), Multi-Carrier CDMA. Modulation with spread spectrum technique,known as
Multi Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-
CDMA) is promising for future wireless multimedia
I. INTRODUCTION communications.
A lot of research has been devoted to hybrid schemes
The primary goal of next generation wireless systems such as MC-CDMA and MC-DS-CDMA (Multi-Carrier
will be the convergence of multimedia services such as Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access), where
speech,video,audio,image and data. The growing demand multi-carrier and spread spectrum systems have been
for access to a ubiquitous channel has made cellular combined [12,13].The MC-CDMA system avoids MAI
multimedia simultaneous multiple access the most due to an FDMA scheme at sub carrier level and also
important objective of the global Fourth Generation of exploits the diversity gain offered by spread spectrum
wireless systems. This paper presents the suggestion of a techniques. It allows one to benefit from several
multiple access scheme for the fourth generation of advantages of both multi-carrier modulation and spread
mobile communications,that uses Time Division Multiple spectrum systems by offering high flexibility, high
Access, Frequency Division Multiple Access and Code spectral efficiency, simple and robust detection techniques
Division Multiple Access. The proposed system can and narrow band interference rejection capability. The
support different families of users,each distinguished by performance analysis of MC-CDMA and MC-DS-CDMA
their data rate,number of sub carriers and variable spread in multipath fading channels are given in [16] and their
factor. It can also meet demands of flexibility in data performance has been compared in [17,18].
rate,and provide scalability with respect to bandwidth In this paper a new hybrid multiple access scheme is
using variable time slots. proposed to achieve higher capacity and more flexibility.
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) was The scheme uses TDMA,CDMA and OFDMA to
the multiple access scheme employed in first generation accommodate data rates from 8Kbps to 100Mbps in a
communication systems,like the Analog Mobile Phone bandwidth of 20 MHz. The data rates can be increased
Service,where the system bandwidth is divided into further by using higher modulation schemes like 16-QAM
several channels and each user is assigned a separate or 64-QAM under good channel conditions. Variable data
channel. In a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) rates are also supported by parameters like the number of
framework all users can use the entire channel bandwidth time slots per frame,spreading factor and the number of
and are distinguished by short and distinct time slots, sub-carriers.
while in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) all
users can access the entire bandwidth all the time. II. PROPOSED SCHEME
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a case of
multi-carrier modulation where a single data stream is Each user is assigned a number of time slots
transmitted over a number of low rate sub carriers,and depending on the required data rate. The spread
OFDMA involves assigning a specific class of sub- factor,which is chosen according to the data rates needed
carriers to a receiver to increase the capacity of the by each application,is variable for different service classes
channel. and hence the number of sub-carriers is also different.
When selecting a Multiple Access Scheme,perhaps Then the data is spread using a specific spreading code L
the most important question is the number of admissible and transmitted on different sub carriers using OFDM.
users per cell for a given available total bandwidth. With The chips of spread data symbols are transmitted either
Submitted for the National Conference on Microelectronics And Communication (NCMEC) - 2009 April 9th - 10th

along the axis of frequency over several parallel is assumed to be 20 MHz and the final chip rate is 40
subchannels (MC-CDMA) or along the time axis over Mcps. The number of sub carriers varies from 8 to 4096
several multi carrier symbols (MC-DS-CDMA). with a sub-carrier spacing varying from 4.88 kHz to 2.5
The MC-CDMA based system has been proposed for MHz. Duration of one frame is 10 ms, consisting of 160
downlink wireless access of the 4G mobile radio system, time slots, each slot duration being 62.5 micro seconds.It
because orthogonality among the channels is maintained consists of 2650 chips. Each user is assigned 1 to 160 time
by using orthogonal codes when synchronous slots per frame depending on it's data rate.The spreading
transmission is used from a base station. The channel factor varies from 4 to 32.The data symbols are time
accuracy is also maintained by using a common pilot multiplexed with pilot symbols and the resultant symbol
channel with high transmission power. However, if a MC- sequence is converted from serial to N parallel sequences.
CDMA based approach is used in the uplink, the Each data modulated symbol sequence is duplicated into
orthogonality among signals of different users is M parallel copies and each duplicated symbol is
destroyed increasing the MAI, because the transmitted multiplied with a chip from the spreading code.An
signal of each user is affected by different channel orthogonal multi-carrier spreading code is generated using
variations [11,16]. The MC-DS-CDMA system has been the IFFT and a guard interval is inserted after every
proposed for the uplink as it transmits the same spread generated symbol. Figures 1 and 2 show respectively, the
data symbol in parallel ,so the signals of different users structures of proposed transmitter and receiver.
can be distinguished in the receiver. But spectral
efficiency of the system decreases and more complex
receivers are needed to handle a large number of users.
MC-CDMA is proposed for the downlink and MC-DS-
CDMA for the uplink in order to optimize both the
spectral efficiency and mobile power consumption. In
both cases, variable time slots, spread factors and number
of sub-carriers are used. The maximum achievable data
rate depends on the available channel bandwidth, as well
as the aforementioned factors.

2.1 Transmitter And Receiver:

The proposed system supports M different service
classes,each with different data rates Rm. The users are
assigned one or more time slots per frame depending on
their rates. The spreading factor and the number of sub
carriers are also variable and are chosen according to data Fig. 1. Proposed Transmitter
rate requirements. The modulation scheme employed is
QPSK ,16QAM or 64-QAM depending on the data rates
and channel conditions.
An MC-CDMA system is proposed for the downlink
while an MC-DS-CDMA system for the uplink, in order
to optimize both the spectral efficiency and mobile power
consumption. After modulation the complex valued data
symbol bk is multiplied with the user specific spreading
code of length L. The complex value data signal obtained
after spreading is then modulated onto a number of sub
carriers using OFDM. A guard time Tg is inserted making
the entire symbol duration Ts= T+Tg. Here one data
symbol per user is transmitted in one OFDM symbol. In
the synchronous downlink channel, the modulated signal
of K active users are added before transmission.
The receiver first removes the guard interval and then
performs inverse OFDM. After channel estimation the
output of each sub carrier is equalized and then coherently Fig.2. Proposed Receiver
re combined over the parallel sub carrier components i.e.
de-spreading of signals is performed. Finally,the
regenerated symbol sequences are parallel to serial 2.2 Channel Model
converted to recover the transmitted binary data. A mobile radio propagation channel is characterized
The proposed scheme can transmit data at rates by a frequency selective multipath channel consisting of
varying from 8 Kbps to 10 Mbps. The system bandwidth many propagation paths with different time delays. The
Submitted for the National Conference on Microelectronics And Communication (NCMEC) - 2009 April 9th - 10th

simulation is first carried out under ideal channel T

conditions where the noise is considered only due to d1(n)= ∫ r t c 1 t dt
AWGN. Then the ITU-R defined Vehicular A 0
propagation channel is modeled as an FIR filter whose
impulse response can be expressed as
K ℏ

= ∑ ∫ [bk t−ℏ c k t−ℏn t]c 1 t dt
k =1 0
hi (n) = Σai(n)δ (n-τi) Which can then be re-written as
with ai(n) and τi being the complex path gain and time T
delay of the ith propagation path in P path model. d1(n)= ∫ b k t−ℏc 1 t−ℏc 1 t dt
simulation parameters ∑ [∫ b k t−ℏ c1 t−ℏ c1 t dt ]
k=2 0
Parameters Values ∫ nt c 1 t dt ...(1)
Bandwidth 20MHz
Chip rate 40Mcps The first term in the above equation represents the
desired signal at the output of the first user's
Data Rate 8kbps-100mbps receiver,second term represents the interference from
(K-1) users, known as MAI and the third term corresponds
Spreading Codes Walsh Codes to the output due to AWGN. In the first term, the delayed
version of the received signal is being multiplied by the
Spreading Factor 4-32 codes of other users so some amount of self-interference
Modulation QPSK,QAM is introduced. In the second term ,the delayed signal is
multiplied by codes of other users so even if codes are
No Of Sub-carriers 32-4096 chosen to be perfectly orthogonal,the cross-correlation
will not be zero and a significant amount of MAI will be
In general the MAI from the Kth user is given by
It is found that MC-CDMA suffers from MAI when MAI= ∑ [∫ bl t−ℏ cl t−ℏ c k t dt]
the channel is frequency selective fading. In fact,MAI is a l =1 l ≠k 0
major factor that limits the performance of CDMA based
systems .This MAI can be reduced by using orthogonal
codes,but the orthogonality of these codes could be = ∑ b l t−ℏ℘ kl
destroyed in a multi-path environment. The transmitted l =1 l ≠k
signal of the kth user is given by
s k t =b k t c k t 
Where ℘ kl =∫ c l t−ℏc k t dt is the cross-
Where bk(t) is the data and ck(t)is code for the kth user. correlation between different users' spreading sequences.
Due to multi path fading the received signal will be The MAI will be more if this cross-correlation is
given by
K large,which increases with the delay spread σt. For high
r t=∑ s k t−ℏ∗h tnt data rates,the delay spread may be longer than the
k=1 duration of several chips and the included MAI will limit
the system performance.
where * represents convolution , ℏ the propagation Since the QAM data symbols bk's are independent
delay,h(t) the channel impulse response and n(t) the and identically distributed (i.i.d) with zero mean and
AWGN, with a double sided spectral density of N0/2. variance Es (symbol energy) and the spreading codes ck's
In the receiver for first user, the received signal is are also sequence of i.i.d. Random variables with equal
multiplied by the corresponding code in the receiver and probabilities, one can conclude the interference is at least
the detected signal after equalization is given by un-correlated with zero mean. So applying central limit
Submitted for the National Conference on Microelectronics And Communication (NCMEC) - 2009 April 9th - 10th

theorem, MAI can be approximated by a Guassian process

with zero mean and variance. V. CONCLUSION
Nc Nc
2 2 2 2
σ I =[σ n N  K −1]/8π ∑ ∑ 1 /n−1 When we developed this scheme,we based it's design
n=1 l =1, l≠n loosely around research targets proposed for the fourth
generation of wireless technology. However one main
Where σ n is the noise variance,K the number of users, Nc goal of our research,henceforth,is to explore whether such
the number of sub-carriers and N the spreading factor. a scheme,in either it's present state or as a variant that
The probability of error for each user is given by integrates the required traits,is an appropriate design
P e k =Q  SINR=Q  E b /σ 2nσ 2MAI  approach for wireless ad hoc or mesh networks.
We argue that CDMA does not inherently improve
the spectral efficiency of ad hoc networks; on the
In a multi-user system,the average bit error rate K is contrary, its valued interference averaging effect is not
given by appreciable in ad hoc networks due to the irregular
K −1
distribution of both the transmitters and receivers. On the
other hand designing for time or frequency orthogonality
BER=1/ K ∑ P e  k  (as in TDMA or FDMA) is not appropriate, since
Where K is the number of users. neighboring (i.e.,intercell) interference and other
imperfections would compromise the orthogonality
IV. RESULTS anyway.
We plan to base further research on a Power Aware
Figure 3 shows the Bit Error Rate performance of the Virtual Base Station protocol architecture as described in
proposed multiple access system in a multipath fading [21].The high residual battery Virtual Base Station node
channel for different number of users for a data rate of 8 receives data sent using MC-DS-CDMA, and transmits it
Kbps. The modulation used is QPSK and spread factor is using MC-CDMA. It transmits multiple user information
8.The required bandwidth for one symbol is 128 kHz and simultaneously using the entire system bandwidth,and
the number of sub-carriers is 32 with a sub-carrier spacing achieves user separation using orthogonal codes and a
of 4 kHz. The RF bandwidth is 20 MHz and so the total pilot channel. This would be advantageous in that only the
number of sub carriers can be 5000,but the number of node with highest residual battery power needs to spend
sub-carriers will be taken in powers of 2 to reduce power on a pilot carrier,although in multi-hop networks
computational complexity,and this results in a limit of up-link and down-link schedules will be needed to
4096 sub-carriers if a spacing of 4.88 kHz is used. forward packet flows throughout the network without
Thus using CDMA,TDMA and OFDMA, the conflict.
maximum number of users can 5000 at a data rate of Even though Plans for further development are still
8Kbps, giving a maximum spectral efficiency of 2.It is tentative,it is clear that we will seriously consider the
observed that in multi-path fading channels the viability of differential spreading for the emerging class of
performance degrades as the number of active users ad hoc and mesh networks.
increases due to MAI. Even when Walsh codes are
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