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Hello,my name is Prashanth and this is my paper titled 'Advent 4GMA'.It's a research project i took up in my third year.
Initially i'd designed a scheme that performed 2-dimensional spreading in the time and frequency domain,however after many revisions,it has turned into what you find in my paper today.
The initial scheme won 2nd place in an IEEE student symposium, the final scheme has been submitted for the NMEC 2009 as indicated in the header.
Thank You for your interest in my research.

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Advent 4GMA

Dr.P.Indumathi,Prashanth.B

Department of Electronics And Communications Engineering,

Madras Institute Of Technology, Chennai, India

indu@mitindia.edu,prashanthseven@gmail.com

Abstract – All kinds of existing multiple access, this view in mind,CDMA is a potential candidate for third

orthogonal frequency division multiple access,time division generation (3G) systems,however it has to cope with the

multiple access and code division multiple access,taken problem of Multiple Access Interference (MAI). The

together provide plenty for resource sharing and provide present 3G systems which use CDMA can provide a

subscribers with a wide variety of services and applications; maximum data rate of 2Mbps for an indoor environment,

hence it is only natural to envision a synthesis of their

attributes as a means of meeting the demands of a growing

which is quite less than that needed for recent multimedia

world population. However such a synthesis is easier said applications, that require very high bandwidth with

than done,and this paper outlines the evolution of a likely mobility. The most important objective of 4G wireless

4GMA scheme. systems is to take care of severe ISI,which results from

Keywords – Code Division multiple Access high data rates, and to provide spectral efficiency in the

(CDMA),orthogonal frequency division multiplexing available limited bandwidth. In this aspect Multi-carrier

(OFDM), Multi-Carrier CDMA. Modulation with spread spectrum technique,known as

Multi Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-

CDMA) is promising for future wireless multimedia

I. INTRODUCTION communications.

A lot of research has been devoted to hybrid schemes

The primary goal of next generation wireless systems such as MC-CDMA and MC-DS-CDMA (Multi-Carrier

will be the convergence of multimedia services such as Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access), where

speech,video,audio,image and data. The growing demand multi-carrier and spread spectrum systems have been

for access to a ubiquitous channel has made cellular combined [12,13].The MC-CDMA system avoids MAI

multimedia simultaneous multiple access the most due to an FDMA scheme at sub carrier level and also

important objective of the global Fourth Generation of exploits the diversity gain offered by spread spectrum

wireless systems. This paper presents the suggestion of a techniques. It allows one to benefit from several

multiple access scheme for the fourth generation of advantages of both multi-carrier modulation and spread

mobile communications,that uses Time Division Multiple spectrum systems by offering high flexibility, high

Access, Frequency Division Multiple Access and Code spectral efficiency, simple and robust detection techniques

Division Multiple Access. The proposed system can and narrow band interference rejection capability. The

support different families of users,each distinguished by performance analysis of MC-CDMA and MC-DS-CDMA

their data rate,number of sub carriers and variable spread in multipath fading channels are given in [16] and their

factor. It can also meet demands of flexibility in data performance has been compared in [17,18].

rate,and provide scalability with respect to bandwidth In this paper a new hybrid multiple access scheme is

using variable time slots. proposed to achieve higher capacity and more flexibility.

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) was The scheme uses TDMA,CDMA and OFDMA to

the multiple access scheme employed in first generation accommodate data rates from 8Kbps to 100Mbps in a

communication systems,like the Analog Mobile Phone bandwidth of 20 MHz. The data rates can be increased

Service,where the system bandwidth is divided into further by using higher modulation schemes like 16-QAM

several channels and each user is assigned a separate or 64-QAM under good channel conditions. Variable data

channel. In a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) rates are also supported by parameters like the number of

framework all users can use the entire channel bandwidth time slots per frame,spreading factor and the number of

and are distinguished by short and distinct time slots, sub-carriers.

while in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) all

users can access the entire bandwidth all the time. II. PROPOSED SCHEME

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a case of

multi-carrier modulation where a single data stream is Each user is assigned a number of time slots

transmitted over a number of low rate sub carriers,and depending on the required data rate. The spread

OFDMA involves assigning a specific class of sub- factor,which is chosen according to the data rates needed

carriers to a receiver to increase the capacity of the by each application,is variable for different service classes

channel. and hence the number of sub-carriers is also different.

When selecting a Multiple Access Scheme,perhaps Then the data is spread using a specific spreading code L

the most important question is the number of admissible and transmitted on different sub carriers using OFDM.

users per cell for a given available total bandwidth. With The chips of spread data symbols are transmitted either

Submitted for the National Conference on Microelectronics And Communication (NCMEC) - 2009 April 9th - 10th

along the axis of frequency over several parallel is assumed to be 20 MHz and the final chip rate is 40

subchannels (MC-CDMA) or along the time axis over Mcps. The number of sub carriers varies from 8 to 4096

several multi carrier symbols (MC-DS-CDMA). with a sub-carrier spacing varying from 4.88 kHz to 2.5

The MC-CDMA based system has been proposed for MHz. Duration of one frame is 10 ms, consisting of 160

downlink wireless access of the 4G mobile radio system, time slots, each slot duration being 62.5 micro seconds.It

because orthogonality among the channels is maintained consists of 2650 chips. Each user is assigned 1 to 160 time

by using orthogonal codes when synchronous slots per frame depending on it's data rate.The spreading

transmission is used from a base station. The channel factor varies from 4 to 32.The data symbols are time

accuracy is also maintained by using a common pilot multiplexed with pilot symbols and the resultant symbol

channel with high transmission power. However, if a MC- sequence is converted from serial to N parallel sequences.

CDMA based approach is used in the uplink, the Each data modulated symbol sequence is duplicated into

orthogonality among signals of different users is M parallel copies and each duplicated symbol is

destroyed increasing the MAI, because the transmitted multiplied with a chip from the spreading code.An

signal of each user is affected by different channel orthogonal multi-carrier spreading code is generated using

variations [11,16]. The MC-DS-CDMA system has been the IFFT and a guard interval is inserted after every

proposed for the uplink as it transmits the same spread generated symbol. Figures 1 and 2 show respectively, the

data symbol in parallel ,so the signals of different users structures of proposed transmitter and receiver.

can be distinguished in the receiver. But spectral

efficiency of the system decreases and more complex

receivers are needed to handle a large number of users.

MC-CDMA is proposed for the downlink and MC-DS-

CDMA for the uplink in order to optimize both the

spectral efficiency and mobile power consumption. In

both cases, variable time slots, spread factors and number

of sub-carriers are used. The maximum achievable data

rate depends on the available channel bandwidth, as well

as the aforementioned factors.

The proposed system supports M different service

classes,each with different data rates Rm. The users are

assigned one or more time slots per frame depending on

their rates. The spreading factor and the number of sub

carriers are also variable and are chosen according to data Fig. 1. Proposed Transmitter

rate requirements. The modulation scheme employed is

QPSK ,16QAM or 64-QAM depending on the data rates

and channel conditions.

An MC-CDMA system is proposed for the downlink

while an MC-DS-CDMA system for the uplink, in order

to optimize both the spectral efficiency and mobile power

consumption. After modulation the complex valued data

symbol bk is multiplied with the user specific spreading

code of length L. The complex value data signal obtained

after spreading is then modulated onto a number of sub

carriers using OFDM. A guard time Tg is inserted making

the entire symbol duration Ts= T+Tg. Here one data

symbol per user is transmitted in one OFDM symbol. In

the synchronous downlink channel, the modulated signal

of K active users are added before transmission.

The receiver first removes the guard interval and then

performs inverse OFDM. After channel estimation the

output of each sub carrier is equalized and then coherently Fig.2. Proposed Receiver

re combined over the parallel sub carrier components i.e.

de-spreading of signals is performed. Finally,the

regenerated symbol sequences are parallel to serial 2.2 Channel Model

converted to recover the transmitted binary data. A mobile radio propagation channel is characterized

The proposed scheme can transmit data at rates by a frequency selective multipath channel consisting of

varying from 8 Kbps to 10 Mbps. The system bandwidth many propagation paths with different time delays. The

Submitted for the National Conference on Microelectronics And Communication (NCMEC) - 2009 April 9th - 10th

conditions where the noise is considered only due to d1(n)= ∫ r t c 1 t dt

AWGN. Then the ITU-R defined Vehicular A 0

propagation channel is modeled as an FIR filter whose

impulse response can be expressed as

K ℏ

P-1

= ∑ ∫ [bk t−ℏ c k t−ℏn t]c 1 t dt

k =1 0

hi (n) = Σai(n)δ (n-τi) Which can then be re-written as

i=0

with ai(n) and τi being the complex path gain and time T

delay of the ith propagation path in P path model. d1(n)= ∫ b k t−ℏc 1 t−ℏc 1 t dt

0

K T

TABLE I

simulation parameters ∑ [∫ b k t−ℏ c1 t−ℏ c1 t dt ]

k=2 0

T

Parameters Values ∫ nt c 1 t dt ...(1)

0

Bandwidth 20MHz

Chip rate 40Mcps The first term in the above equation represents the

desired signal at the output of the first user's

Data Rate 8kbps-100mbps receiver,second term represents the interference from

(K-1) users, known as MAI and the third term corresponds

Spreading Codes Walsh Codes to the output due to AWGN. In the first term, the delayed

version of the received signal is being multiplied by the

Spreading Factor 4-32 codes of other users so some amount of self-interference

Modulation QPSK,QAM is introduced. In the second term ,the delayed signal is

multiplied by codes of other users so even if codes are

No Of Sub-carriers 32-4096 chosen to be perfectly orthogonal,the cross-correlation

will not be zero and a significant amount of MAI will be

present.

In general the MAI from the Kth user is given by

III.PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

K T

It is found that MC-CDMA suffers from MAI when MAI= ∑ [∫ bl t−ℏ cl t−ℏ c k t dt]

the channel is frequency selective fading. In fact,MAI is a l =1 l ≠k 0

major factor that limits the performance of CDMA based

K

systems .This MAI can be reduced by using orthogonal

codes,but the orthogonality of these codes could be = ∑ b l t−ℏ℘ kl

destroyed in a multi-path environment. The transmitted l =1 l ≠k

signal of the kth user is given by

T

s k t =b k t c k t

Where ℘ kl =∫ c l t−ℏc k t dt is the cross-

0

Where bk(t) is the data and ck(t)is code for the kth user. correlation between different users' spreading sequences.

Due to multi path fading the received signal will be The MAI will be more if this cross-correlation is

given by

K large,which increases with the delay spread σt. For high

r t=∑ s k t−ℏ∗h tnt data rates,the delay spread may be longer than the

k=1 duration of several chips and the included MAI will limit

the system performance.

where * represents convolution , ℏ the propagation Since the QAM data symbols bk's are independent

delay,h(t) the channel impulse response and n(t) the and identically distributed (i.i.d) with zero mean and

AWGN, with a double sided spectral density of N0/2. variance Es (symbol energy) and the spreading codes ck's

In the receiver for first user, the received signal is are also sequence of i.i.d. Random variables with equal

multiplied by the corresponding code in the receiver and probabilities, one can conclude the interference is at least

the detected signal after equalization is given by un-correlated with zero mean. So applying central limit

Submitted for the National Conference on Microelectronics And Communication (NCMEC) - 2009 April 9th - 10th

with zero mean and variance. V. CONCLUSION

Nc Nc

2 2 2 2

σ I =[σ n N K −1]/8π ∑ ∑ 1 /n−1 When we developed this scheme,we based it's design

n=1 l =1, l≠n loosely around research targets proposed for the fourth

generation of wireless technology. However one main

2

Where σ n is the noise variance,K the number of users, Nc goal of our research,henceforth,is to explore whether such

the number of sub-carriers and N the spreading factor. a scheme,in either it's present state or as a variant that

The probability of error for each user is given by integrates the required traits,is an appropriate design

P e k =Q SINR=Q E b /σ 2nσ 2MAI approach for wireless ad hoc or mesh networks.

We argue that CDMA does not inherently improve

the spectral efficiency of ad hoc networks; on the

In a multi-user system,the average bit error rate K is contrary, its valued interference averaging effect is not

given by appreciable in ad hoc networks due to the irregular

K −1

distribution of both the transmitters and receivers. On the

other hand designing for time or frequency orthogonality

BER=1/ K ∑ P e k (as in TDMA or FDMA) is not appropriate, since

k=0

Where K is the number of users. neighboring (i.e.,intercell) interference and other

imperfections would compromise the orthogonality

IV. RESULTS anyway.

We plan to base further research on a Power Aware

Figure 3 shows the Bit Error Rate performance of the Virtual Base Station protocol architecture as described in

proposed multiple access system in a multipath fading [21].The high residual battery Virtual Base Station node

channel for different number of users for a data rate of 8 receives data sent using MC-DS-CDMA, and transmits it

Kbps. The modulation used is QPSK and spread factor is using MC-CDMA. It transmits multiple user information

8.The required bandwidth for one symbol is 128 kHz and simultaneously using the entire system bandwidth,and

the number of sub-carriers is 32 with a sub-carrier spacing achieves user separation using orthogonal codes and a

of 4 kHz. The RF bandwidth is 20 MHz and so the total pilot channel. This would be advantageous in that only the

number of sub carriers can be 5000,but the number of node with highest residual battery power needs to spend

sub-carriers will be taken in powers of 2 to reduce power on a pilot carrier,although in multi-hop networks

computational complexity,and this results in a limit of up-link and down-link schedules will be needed to

4096 sub-carriers if a spacing of 4.88 kHz is used. forward packet flows throughout the network without

Thus using CDMA,TDMA and OFDMA, the conflict.

maximum number of users can 5000 at a data rate of Even though Plans for further development are still

8Kbps, giving a maximum spectral efficiency of 2.It is tentative,it is clear that we will seriously consider the

observed that in multi-path fading channels the viability of differential spreading for the emerging class of

performance degrades as the number of active users ad hoc and mesh networks.

increases due to MAI. Even when Walsh codes are

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