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The various ethnic groups in the Philippines identify themselves based on one or
several factors most popularly by parental lineage and language. The majority of the
population is composed of ethno-linquistic groups whose languages are Malayo-
Polynesian and who had converted to Christianity and the European-American ways of
life. From north to south, the most numerous of these groups are the Ilocanos, the
Pangasinan, the Kapampangans, the Tagalogs, the Bicolanos and the Visayan.

In Mindanao, there are several ethnic groups of similar ancestry, but converted to Islam.
They are collectively called Moros. They have retained much of the Islamic way of life
and living under the symbolic rules of sultanates. The Moro, along with other minority
groups, still suffer discrimination in employment and media from the majority Christian

The Negritos are a Melanesian people that were the first to settle the archipelago and
numbering some 30,000. In various parts of the country especially the highlands of
Luzon are Austronesian tribes such as the Igorots and Kalingas. Their ways of life
remains free from western or Islamic influence. They are said to be the best basis for the
study of pre-Hispanic culture.

Non-Austronesian groups also form part of the population. Those significant in number
include descendants of Europeans, Americans, Arabs, Chinese, Japanese and lately
Koreans. Mestizos refer to those of mixed Spanish and Austronesian ancestries but may
also refer to those of pure Spanish ancestry that have lived in the islands since Spanish
rule. Mestizos may also refer to other non-Austronesian mixes such as those of part
American, German, British, Chinese, Japanese, or Arab ancestry.

There are also ethnic Chinese in various parts of the archipelago. A well known district is

Ethnic identity in the Philippines, quite unlike neighboring Asian countries, is relatively
fluid, informal and depends greatly on context. The most common mark of ethnic identity
is language. For instance, a Kapampangan may identify himself as such by the fact that
his mother tongue is the Kapampangan language. Many also identify themselves based
on ancestry. For example, a woman who has Bicolano ancestry but has spent most of her
life in Manila may identify herself as Bicolano, even if she doesn’t speak any of the Bikol
languages. Others are lumped together to a certain grouping based on some shared
characteristics. Tribal groups are commonly grouped together in spite of having very
different customs and languages, and having had very little interaction with each other.
Moros are similarly diverse and independent from each other, and they are many times
grouped together due to a shared history, culture and religion. Similarly, lowland
Christian Filipinos are many times lumped together due to their similar culture, despite
having different languages or different ancestries.

Given that ethnolinguistic boundaries are gradually blurring due to migration and
intermarriage, regional identity (i.e. the place where one was brought up and whose
language one speaks) serves as another very common identifier. One may identify
oneself, for example, as a Davaoeño, Negrense, Ilonggo, Zamboangueño,
Metromanileño, etc. Unlike China or the United States, there are no official ethnicities or
"nations" in the Philippines, and migration and intermarriages between people of
different ethnicities have been common throughout the past centuries. This has made
ethnic identities of Filipinos greatly dependent on context, aside from being relatively
fluid. For instance, a person who has Ilocano ancestry but who has spent his whole life in
Davao may be identified as an Ilocano when he is in Davao and a Davaoeño when he is
in Manila. And a Cebuano of Chinese ancestry may identify himself either as Chinese
Filipino due to his ancestry; or as a Visayan because his primary language is Cebuano, a
Visayan language; or Cebuano, based on his mother tongue (Cebuano) and the land of his
birth (Cebu). People who identify themselves with multiple ethnicities and/or regional
affiliations is not uncommon, particularly in major cities and in areas where a lot of
migration has taken place, like Metro Manila, Metro Cebu, and many parts of Mindanao.
The term mestizo (of mixed-ancestry) is used most commonly to those with part-
Caucasian ancestry, and occasionally to those with part-Chinese ancestry.

There are also a number of Filipinos who consider themselves of an ethnocultural origin
distinct from that of the Philippines, and who tend to affiliate with either or both. Their
"hyphenated" identities, as in the case of Chinese-Filipinos, apart from indicating
ancestry, may connote a sense that they as individuals straddle two worlds—one
experience is specific to their unique ethnic identity, while the other is that of broader
Philippine society. These "hyphenated" Filipinos, many of whom have profound and
immediate connections to their homelands, have often been accused and criticized of
holding loyalties to other countries. However, they claim that critics miss important
points. There are many "hyphenated" Filipinos who, while being unable to sacrifice half
of who they are, do not define or desire to define themselves as such, but rather are
defined as such by other people with different treatment. The result is that even if these
Filipinos are, in the words of the Panatang Makabayan, "a true Filipino in thought, in
word, [and] in deed," they still may end up having a different experience, and for that
reason may develop shared understandings with others of their type, whether they want
that or not. This in itself becomes, ironically, a reason for them to be interested in their
"hyphenated" identity, as they learn how to cope with the unique experiences dealt them.




Raul Roco
Main article: Bicolano people

The Bicolanos originate from the southeastern tip of Luzon: Bicolandia or the Bicol
region. There are several Bicolano languages, of which there is a total of 3.5 million

Bicol played a major role in shipbuilding for the Manila-Acapulco trade.[2]:3 However,
possibly due to its being located in the typhoon belt,[3]:8 Bicol remains one of the
country’s most economically depressed areas, with the lowest income recorded among
the regions,[2]:8 despite its abundant mineral reserves, and its lumber, abaca and tourism

The most popular religious icon of Bicol is the Nuestra Señora de Peñafrancia, Patroness
of Bicol. This image of the Blessed Virgin Mary is endearingly addressed as "ina"

The Bicolanos number about 5,907,000.[citation needed] They are descended from the
Austronesian-speaking immigrants who came from South China during the Iron Age.
Some Bicolanos also have Chinese, Arab, and Spanish admixtures. Their language is
referred to as Bikol or Bicolano. The Bicolano language is very fragmented, and its
dialects are mutually incomprehensible to speakers of other Bicolano dialects. The
majority of the Bicolano people are devout Roman Catholics. Catholic Mass is celebrated
daily in many churches in the Bicol Region.

Main article: Ibanag people

The Ibanags are an ethnic minority numbering a little more than half a million people,
who inhabit the provinces of Cagayan, Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya. They are one of the
largest ethnic minorities in the Philippines.


The Ilocos

Ferdinand Marcos
Main article: Ilocano people

Akin to the Ibanag peoples and Ivatans, the Ilocanos are the inhabitants of the lowlands
and coastal areas of northern Luzon. Throughout the centuries of the Spanish colonial era
up to the present, the Ilocano were noted for their tendency to migrate.[4]:4 Today, there is
Ilocano presence in central Luzon, Manila, and some towns in the Visayas and Mindanao.
Many Filipino-Americans are of Ilocano descent. In Hawaii, they make up 85% of the
Filipino-American population.[5]

There are more than 8 million speakers of the Ilocano language[6], making it the third
most widely spoken language in the Philippines. Most Ilocanos are Catholics; however,
Ilocanos comprise the largest membership within the Philippine Independent Church.


Main article: Ivatan people

The Ivatan are predominant in the Batanes Islands of the Philippines.


Main article: Kapampangan people

The Kapampangan or Capampañgan (English: Pampangan; Spanish: Pampangueño or

Pampango) people originate from the central plains of Luzon, starting from Bataan up to
Nueva Ecija. The Kapampangan language is spoken by more than two million people,
and has been shown to be related to some Indonesian dialects.[7] Most Kapampangans are

In the Spanish colonial era, Pampanga was known to be a source of valiant soldiers.
There was a Kapampangan contingent in the colonial army who helped defend Manila
against the Chinese Pirate Limahon. They also helped in battles against the Dutch, the
English and Muslim raiders.[8]:3 Kapampangans, along with the Tagalogs, played a major
role in the Philippine Revolution.[9]

The Kapampangans are known for their talent in cooking, especially those exotic but
delicious foods. Kapampangans are also known to be friendly and happy people.


Abdulwahid Bidin

Main articles: Moro people, Maguindanao, Maranao, Tausug, Bajau, Yakan,
Sangir, Illanun, and Banguingui

The Moros comprise of various ethnolinguistic groups in southern and western Mindanao
who have a similar ancestry to other lowland Filipinos, but whose religion is Islam. The
largest of these are the Tausug, the Maguindanao, the Maranao, the Samal, the Yakan, and
the Banguingui. These ethnolinguistic groups are very diverse in terms of language and
culture, and have been politically independent from each other up until recently.[10]
Collectively, they are also called Moros. The word Moro in English means 'moor'. Hence,
it has been used by other ethnic groups as a pejorative term. However, some Muslims
have used the word moro and have taken pride in it, that they have applied the term
Bangsamoro, meaning 'Moro nation', to their homeland. Muslim Filipinos have an
independent justice and education system centrally based in Cotabato City. All in all, they
comprise 5% of Filipinos,[11] making them the sixth largest ethnic group in the country.



Fidel Ramos
Main article: Pangasinan people

The Pangasinan are the ninth largest Filipino ethnic group. They originate from the
northwestern seaboard of Luzon. Anthropologically speaking, the Pangasinan and
dwellers of the Cordilleras are linguistically related. However, it has not yet been
established whether the Cordilleranos descended from the Pangasinan or vice-versa.

The Pangasinan are one of the first peoples in the Philippines to have contacts with the
Chinese through regular trade as well as the permanent settling of the Chinese, especially
in the towns bordering Lingayen Gulf. [1]


Main article: Sambal people

The Sambal are the original Austronesian inhabitants of the province of Zambales and the
city of Olongapo in the Philippines. They have traditionally been a highly superstitious
warrior culture. Sambals currently make up a large proportion of the population in the
municipalities of Zambales province north of Iba.



Jose Rizal
Main article: Tagalog people

Tagalog territory stretches from the central plains of Luzon to the islands of Mindoro and
Marinduque.[12]This article incorporates facts obtained from The Political Graveyard.
The Tagalogs were initially animists. From the 14th to the 16th century, Islam had made
inroads among the Tagalog ruling class.[13] The Tagalogs were Christianized, as were most
ethnic groups in the Philippines, during the Spanish colonial era between the sixteenth
and nineteenth century.

The Tagalogs are the first settlers of Manila. In the late 16th century, Spain chose Manila
as the capital of its Philippine colony.[12]:3 From then onwards, it has been the political and
economic center of the Philippines. Manila and the surrounding Tagalog areas played a
leading role in the Philippine Revolution and the People Power Revolution. Throughout
the centuries, there have been massive migrations by other ethnic groups to Manila, and
many of them have intermarried with the Tagalog population.[12]:1

The Tagalog language was chosen as the basis for a national language in 1937. Today,
Filipino, a de facto standardized version of Tagalog, is taught nationwide, and is the
language of national television, cinema and popular music.[14] There are more than 15
million native speakers of Tagalog.[15] However, around 70% of Filipinos can speak the
national language.[12]:1



Pedro Calungsod
Main articles: Visayans, Cebuano people, Hiligaynon people, and Waray people

Visayans are a multilingual ethnic group[citation needed] located in the Visayas and a large part
of Mindanao. Visayan languages with the most number of native speakers are Cebuano,
with 20 million;[16] Ilonggo (or Hiligaynon), with 7 million;[17] and Waray-Waray, with 2.5
million.[18] There are some ethnolinguistic groups however that have languages which are
classified as Visayan but do not refer to themselves as Visayan. For instance, the Muslim
ethnolinguistic group Tausug only use Bisaya to refer to those who are Christian.
Meanwhile, there are people who identify as Visaya (primarily those from Metro
Manila[12]:1 and the United States[citation needed]) but do not speak Visayan languages.

Visayans were initially animists who were known for being traders and raiders.[19]:1
Magellan’s landing in the Visayas in 1521 marks the start of Christianization of the
Visayas and the rest of the Philippines. This event is celebrated by the feast of the Sto.
Niño, the most popular religious icon of the Visayas.

Major Visayan cities like Cebu , Bacolod and Iloilo played major political, economic and
cultural roles during the Spanish colonial era.[19] Visayans were also involved in the
Philippine Revolution,[19]:4 and in the modern Philippine Republic; so far, there has been
three Presidents from the Visayas.

Aside from the three largest groups, namely Hiligaynon, Cebuano, and Waray, who speak
Visayan languages, there are also the Romblomanon, Masbateño, Karay-a, Aklanon, and
Cuyonon, to name a few others.

Tribal groups

This section called "Tribal groups" does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be
challenged and removed. (January 2008)
Areas with tribal groups
Main article: Tribal groups of the Philippines

There are 100 or so different sea-based or highland-based tribal groups in the Philippines.
Among Filipinos, they are ones least influenced by western or Islamic cultures. While
some tribal groups living in Luzon have been Americanized and Westernized--an
example of which is the predominance of Protestantism in Cordillera Administrative
Region—the tribal groups living in Mindoro and Palawan are still generally animistic,
while many of those in Mindanao practice folk Islam.


The Badjao of the Sulu Archipelago are sometimes described as the sea gypsies due to
their semi-nomadic nature. Despite being Muslim, they are distinct from the Moro.


The Cordillerano or Igorot, live in the highlands of Luzon. They are primarily located
in the Cordillera Administrative Region.


A T'Boli woman
The Lumad of Mindanao includes several tribes such as the Manobo, the Tasaday, the
Mamanwa, the Mandaya, and the Kalagan. They primarily inhabit eastern parts of
Mindanao such as the Caraga and Davao Regions.


The Mangyan of are the primary inhabitants of Mindoro. They are known for their Buhid
and Hanuno'o scripts.

Negrito groups

An Ati woman

The scattered Negritos include the Aeta in Luzon and the Ati of Panay, the Batak of
Palawan, and the Mamanwa of Mindanao. They have features that are distinct from the

Palawan tribes

The tribes of Palawan are a diverse group of tribes primarily located in the island of
Palawan. The Tagbanwa is know for their script.

I."Modern society will find no solution to the ecological problem unless it

takes a serious look at its lifestyle."

Peace with God the Creator, Peace with all of Creation Pope John Paul II's 1990
World Day for Peace message
We Are Still Betraying the Mandate God Has Given Us A Declaration on the
Environment Signed by Pope John Paul II and Patriarch Bartholomew I of
Constantinople, June 10, 2002

Global Climate Change: A Plea for Dialogue, Prudence, and the Common Good
2001 statement of the U.S. Catholic Bishops

Companions in Creation A 1991 pastoral statement of the Catholic bishops of


Celebrate Life: Care for Creation The Alberta bishops' 1998 letter on ecology

Columbia River Pastoral Letter Project The Columbia River is the focus of an
extensive pastoral letter project launched by seven Catholic bishops of the
Northwest and Canada, and will culminate in a pastoral letter to be issued by the
bishops in the year 2000

And God Saw That It Was Good A Pastoral Letter of the Bishops of the Boston
Province, 2000

Care for the Earth From the Indiana Catholic Conference

Cry of the Earth; Cry of the Poor From the Social Affairs Committee of the bishops
of Quebec

Pastoral Letter on the Environment From Bishop Michael Malone of Maitland-

Newcastle, Australia

The Call of Creation: God's Invitation and the Human Response 2002 document of
the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales

Global Climate Change and the Church in the Modern World: A Sign of the Times
Article by Russell A. Butkus, PhD, and Steven A. Kolmes, PhD, University of

An Orthodox Statement on the Environmental Crisis By The Ecumenical

Patriarchate, 1990

A Theology of the Environment Paul McCartin, SSC

How Green Is My Church? Article by Fr. Michael Gormly

Catholic Conservation Center Our mission is to inspire and inform people about
ecology, environmental justice, and the stewardship of creation in light of Scripture
and Roman Catholic Tradition
Environmental Justice Program United States Conference of Catholic Bishops

Christian Faith Statement on the Ecology This statement was compiled and
endorsed by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, the World Council of
Churches, and the Vatican Franciscan Center of Environmental Studies

Ecology From the 34th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus

Words of the Forest from the Maronite Tradition Presented by Monsignor Zaidan,
Vicar General of the Maronite Archiocese of Antelias, at Visby’s Faith and Forestry

Our Commitment to the Environment Principles and reflections from the Sisters of
St. Francis of Philadelphia

National Ecology Commission The National Ecology Commission is one of six

Apostolic Commissions within the Secular Franciscan Order

Ecology, Cosmology, and Theology: A Trialogue John F. Haught, George V. Coyne,

S.J., and Robert John Russell, Woodstock Report, June 1994

The Environmental Crisis: A Challenge to The Churches David Challinor, James M.

Cubie, and John F. Haught, Woodstock Report, March1990

A Partnership for the Earth: Churches and the environmental movement Article in
Sojourners magazine by Aaron Gallegos

Gaudium et Spes and the Ecological Awareness of Our Time By Moris Polanco,
Universidad Francisco Marroquín

Stat House: Environment Statistics from the magazine Salt of the Earth

Environment Articles from the magazine Salt of the Earth

Who Counts? "If we believe that all sentient creatures have equal moral standing,
then we will demand that the welfare of these animals be taken into account, and
perhaps lobby for legislation to protect animals from painful experiments or
industrial uses. And if we believe that all natural things count, then we may oppose
as immoral any activities that threaten to harm our forests and wilderness, such as
logging or real estate. Article from Issues in Ethics, a publication of the Markkula
Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University

Choosing Our Roots An interview with Thomas Berry, by Betty Didcoct. Traditional
Christian attitudes offer both problems and promise for healing the earth

Thomas Berry and the Earth's Passion By Stephen Dunn, C.P.

Peace Ideas A publication of the Peace Center, Theosophical Society in the
Philippines. Excellent articles such as: Six Principles of Ecological Shopping; Two
Environmental Myths; Four Steps to Effective Eco-Action

The Religious Community Looks Toward the 1992 Earth Summit Andrew
Christiansen, S.J., Elizabeth Dodson Gray, and Rabbi David Saperstein, Woodstock
Report, December 1991

Christianity and the Environment: A Collection of Writings Occasional papers

courtesy of the Mennonite Central Committee

Earth Ministry Founded in 1992, we are a Christian, ecumenical, environmental,

non-profit organization based in Seattle. Earth Ministry's mission is to engage
individuals and congregations in knowing God more fully through deepening
relationships with all of God's creation

Contextualising Environmental Theology in African Society Article by Gary Snyder

in the South African journal Religion & Theology

Looking Ahead: Ecology and Theology By Moni McIntyre in Theological

Explorations, vol. 1. Scroll down to page 42

The Theology of George W. Bush and His Environmental/Conservation Policy By

Edward T. Wimberley, Florida Gulf Coast University, in Journal of Religion &
Society, 2007

The Bible and the Environment This is the the text of the 1st Annual JRI Lecture,
given by Professor Gordon Wenham as part of C&GCHE Environment Week

Christianity and The Survival of Creation Article by Wendell Berry in


Christianity and Ecology: Wholeness, Respect, Justice, Sustainability By Dieter T.

Hessel, Program on Ecology, Justice, and Faith

Humble Dominion Article by James B. Tubbs, Jr in Theology Today

What Is Creation? Rereading Genesis 1 and 2 Article by Michael Welker in

Theology Today

The Bible and Ecological Spirituality Article by Walter B. Gulick in Theology Today

Ecological Sin Article by William H. Becker in Theology Today

Ecobible: The Bible and Ecojustice Article by Walter Wink in Theology Today
Sustainabilty: Economics, Ecology, and Justice By John B. Cobb, Jr. Published by
Orbis Books, Maryknoll, New York, 1992

The Sanctity of Nature Based on the texts of different world scriptures

Reverence for Life Based on the texts of different world scriptures

Dominion Based on the texts of different world scriptures

Creation Rejoices Based on the texts of different world scriptures

Eco-Justice Programs National Council of Churches of Christ

Caring for Creation: Vision, Hope and Justice 1993 statement of the Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America

Economic and Enviromental Justice From the United Methodist community.

Includes Clean Air, Clean Water, Environmental Racism, Global Warming and
Energy, Sustainable Living

Evangelical Environmental Network

National Religious Partnership for the Environment The four founding partners
include: The U.S. Catholic Conference, the National Council of Churches of Christ,
the Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life, and the Evangelical
Environmental Network

Web of Creation Transforming Faith-Based Communities for a Sustainable World

Environmental Justice From the Union of American Hebrew Congregations

Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life Founded in 1993 to promote

environmental education, scholarship, advocacy, and action in the American Jewish

Judaism and Ecology: A Theology of Creation By Daniel B. Fink, Rabbi of

Congregation Ahavath Beth Israel, in Boise, Idaho

Judaism Statements on the Ecology Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life:
“Mission Statement;” Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life: "Resolution
On Energy And Environment Priorities;" Interfaith Climate Network: "Let There
Be Light: Energy Conservation and God's Creation;" Jewish Council for Public
Affairs: "JCPA Statement on Climate Change;" Jewish Council for Public Affairs:
"JCPA Statement on Environmental Leadership and Justice;" National Jewish
Community Relations Advisory Council: "Statement on The Protection of Biological
Diversity;" Statement Prepared by Professor Nahum Rakover for the World Jewish
Congress: "Jewish Faith Statement"

Causation and Telos: The Problem of Buddhist Environmental Ethics Article by Ian
Harris in Journal of Buddhist Ethics

Getting to Grips With Buddhist Environmentalism: A Provisional Typology Article

by Ian Harris in Journal of Buddhist Ethics

The Early Buddhist Tradition and Ecological Ethics Article by Lambert

Schmithausen in Journal of Buddhist Ethics

Buddhism and Ecology: Challenge and Promise Article by Donald K. Swearer of

Harvard University

Buddhism Sacred Texts on the Ecology

Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust Inviting Balanced Stewardship Article by

Frederick M. Denny, University of Colorado

Islamic Statements on the Ecology The Association of Muslim Scientists and

Engineers: "Guardians of the Natural Order;" United Nations World Summit on
Sustainable Development: "Islamic Declaration on Sustainable Development (pdf
format);" Statement Prepared by Hyder Ihsan Mahasneh for the Muslim World
League: "Islamic Faith Statement"

Hinduism, Jainism, and Ecology Article by Christopher Key Chapple, Loyola

Marymount University

Hinduism Statements on the Ecology Essay by Dr. Karan Singh: "Declaration on

Nature, The Hindu Viewpoint;" Statement edited by Ranchor Prime: "Hindu Faith
Statement on the Ecology"

Jain Faith Statement Prepared by Dr L. M. Singhvi, President of the Jain Institute

Confucianism and Ecology: Potential and Limits Article by Mary Evelyn Tucker,
Yale University

Confucianism Sacred Texts on the Ecology

Daoism and Ecology Article by James Miller, Queen’s University

Shinto and Ecology: Practice and Orientations to Nature Article by Rosemarie

Bernard, Harvard University

Baha'i Faith Statement Issued by the Baha’i Office of the Environment on behalf of
the Baha’i International Community

Zoroastrian Faith Statement Prepared by the Athravan Education Trust and

Zoroastrian Studies, the two main academic bodies responsible to the Zoroastrian
faith for theological developments and study

Indigenous Traditions and Ecology Article by John A. Grim, Yale University

Indigenous Statements on the Ecology Centre for Indigenous Environmental

Resources: " Environmental Capacity-building Initiatives for First Nations;" First
Nations Environmental Network: “Voices for Mother Earth;” Statement Submitted
by Thomas Banyacya: "Hopi Message to the United Nations General Assembly"

Native Americans and the Environment This is a non-profit project: 1) to promote

education and research on environmental problems facing Native American
communities; 2) to explore the values and historical experiences that Native
Americans bring to bear on environmental issues; and 3) to promote conservation
measures that respect Native American land and resource rights

Communicating Across Cultures Steve Newcomb of the Indigenous Law Institute

discusses the nature of native-environmental alliances and what environmentalists
should bring to these relationships

The Forum on Religion and Ecology The largest international multireligious project
of its kind. With its conferences, publications, and website it is engaged in exploring
religious worldviews, texts, and ethics in order to broaden understanding of the
complex nature of current environmental concerns

Ecological Solidarity between Catholicism and the Asian Religions By Thomas

Hong-Soon Han, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies

Energy, the Economy, and the Environment Aforum with Drew Christiansen, S.J.,
Kathleen McGinty, and Robert Watson, moderated by James L. Connor, S.J.,
Woodstock Report, June 2001

Developing Ecological Consciousness for a Planet in Peril Research from

international visiting fellow Susan Rakoczy, IHM. Woodstock Report, March 2007

The Ecology Of Creation Article by Dr. Karlfried Froehlich, Associate Professor of

the Medieval Church at Princeton Theological Seminary, in Theology Today, 1970

The Role of Nature in Natural Disasters By Dianne Bergant, CSA, Catholic

Theological Union, Chicago, in Listening: Journal of Religion and Culture, Fall

Ecology and World Poverty: A Christian Response Anthony J. Gittens, C.S.Sp.,

Associate Professor of Mission Theology at the Catholic Theological Union, Chicago,
in Spirituality Today, Spring 1986. World poverty and ecological demands compel
Christians to review, to change and to simplify their own life-styles asa full response
to Gospel admonitions

Exploring Eco-Spirituality By Charles Cummings, O.C.S.O., a monk of Holy Trinity

Abbey, Huntsville, Utah, in Spirituality Today, Spring 1989. Perceived as Creation,
nature invites us to turn to the Creator and to take up our responsibility to protect
and enhance the natural world as the Garden of both God and humankind

Water Ethic to Renew the Earth By Tim Kautza and Robert Gronski, Ph.D.,
National Catholic Rural Life Conference, in Catholic Rural Life Magazine, Spring

The Clean Water Act at 30- Time to Renew a Commitment to National Stewardship
Martha L. Noble, Senior Policy Analyst, Sustainable Agriculture Coalition, in
Catholic Rural Life Magazine, Spring 2003

Finding a New Sense of Our Place on Earth By Marie Cirillo, Catholic Diocese of
Knoxville, Tennessee, in Catholic Rural Life Magazine, Fall 2002

The Cosmic Dance- Pain and Destruction By Sister Joyce Rupp, OSM, in Catholic
Rural Life Magazine, Fall 2002

A Jubilee for a New Millennium- Justice for Earth and Peoples of the Land Dr. John
Hart, Professor, Carroll College, Helena Montana, in Catholic Rural Life Magazine,
Spring 2001

Religious Congregations on the Land: How Does Your Landscape Look Like the
Mind of God? Kathleen Storms, SSND, Co-Director, Center for Earth Spirituality
and Rural Ministry, Mankato, Minnesota, in Catholic Rural Life Magazine, Fall

Judeo-Christian Values and the Ecological Crisis By Dean R. Hoge, CUA. Chapter
17 of The Place of the Person in Social Life, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary
Life, Series I. Culture and Values, VOL. 6

The Concept of an Eco-ethics and the Development of Moral Thought By Tomonobu

Imamichi, Emeritus, University of Tokyo. Chapter 15 of Man and Nature: The
Chinese Tradition and the Future, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Life, Series
III. Asia, Volume 1

Ethics Updates: Environmental Ethics Provides: 1. internet links relating to

environmental issues; 2. survey of philosophical work on environmental ethics; 3.
summaries of recent articles on environmental ethics; 4. discussion topics and term
paper topics on environmental ethics
Environmental Ethics From the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the
University of North Texas

Environmental Ethics From

Environmental Ethics Chapter 8 of The Filipino MInd by Leonardo N. Mercado,

Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Life, Series III, Asia, VOL. 8

Environmental Problems and Ecological Ethics By Wang Miaoyang. Chapter 19 of

Economic Ethics and Chinese Culture, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Life,
Series III, Asia, Volume 14

Why We Need a New Ethic for the Environment By Richard Sivil. Chapter 7 of
Protest and Engagement: Philosophy after Apartheid at an Historically Black South
African University, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Life, Series II, Africa,
Volume 7

The Place of Ecological Culture in Civil Society By Victoriya Levinskaya. Chapter

15 of Spiritual Values and Social Progress, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary
Life, Series IIIC, Central Asia, Volume 1

Environmental Thinking and Social Transformation By Eva Smolková. Chapter 13

of Interests and Values: The Spirit of Venture in a Time of Change, Cultural Heritage
and Contemporary Life, Series IVA, Central and Easter Europe, Volume 11

Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Research Foundation Includes Rachel's Environment & Health


EnviroLink Features: Library database. Search EnviroLink makes it simple for you
to find the information you want right away. News Service with daily news updates
on environmental news stories, with direct links to all major news services on the
Internet. Express Yourself is an online forum with highly-interactive functions and

Electronic Green Journal EGJ is a professional refereed on-line publication devoted

to disseminating information concerning sourceson international environmental

Population Growth and Ecological Degradation in Northern Ghana: the Complex

Reality By Jacob Songsore. Chapter 10 of Ghana: Changing Values/ Changing
Technologies, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Life, Series II, Africa, Volume 5

Save the Beaches Save the Beaches was founded as a not-for-profit corporation in
1983. It was sparked by a concern about private commercial enterprises with
political connections taking over the environmentally critical but economically
lucrative coastal zone. Save the Beaches Fund’s stated purpose from the beginning
was to “preserve and protect our coastal heritage, wildlife and wetlands”

The GLOBE Program Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the

Environment (GLOBE) is a worldwide network of students, teachers, and scientists
working together to study and understand the global environment

Environmental Education in the Bureau of Land Management Features teacher

resources on topics such as Great Basin ecosystems, gold mining and fire ecology

Earth Foundation The purpose of the Earth Foundation is to empower educators

and students to work towards a healthy environment. Our focus is on education,
fundraising for conservation, and cooperative programs with conservation groups
and indigenous organizations working in the race to save the planet

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion A resource file for both teachers and students
interested in the ozone layer

Ozone Depletion Courtesy of the Environmental Protection Agency

Energy & Environment Links courtest of the Electronic Universe Project

Environment and Conservation Lots of links and info from down under

Ethics and the Spotted Owl Controversy Article from Issues in Ethics, a publication
of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University

Rainforest Action Network Background and current information, action alerts,

demonstrations, links

The Rainforest Site Visitors to The Rainforest Site can save a free area of rainforest
with the click of a button. These donations, distributed by The Nature Conservancy,
are paid for by The Rainforest Site's sponsors

EcoMall Eco quotes. Eco investments. Eco restaurants. Daily eco news. Companies
and products. REnewable energy. Solar. Eco links. Tons of information on helping to
save the earth's Guide to the Environment Articles and links on a variety of

environmental topics

Headwaters Forest Information on efforts to save this ancient forest in California

Environmental Justice for All Robert D. Bullard, Professor of Sociology, Director,

Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University

The Environment Articles from The Atlantic Monthly's archive and related links

World Bank: Environment

Attacks On Greenpeace and Other Ecology Groups By Chip Berlet, Political

Research Associates

League of Conservation Voters The national, bipartisan political arm of the U.S.
environmental movement, founded in 1970 to help elect and re-elect pro-
environmental candidates to Congress

Greenpeace Environmental activism at its best

National Audubon Society

The Environmental Foundation Bellona Struggles against environmental culprits

around the world

The Dogwood Alliance Our Mission is to preserve and restore native forest
ecosystems in the southeastern United States while sustaining the human
communities that depend on these ecosystems

Defenders of Wildlife Learn About Us. Defenders in Action. What You Can Do.
Action Alerts. Wolf Update. Press Releases. G R E E N. Biodiversity Center.
Conservation Programs: Wolves, Bears, Birds, Refuges. ESA Updates. Endangered
Species Learning Ctr. DEFENDERS Magazine. Special Publications. Annual
Report. Gift Shop. Join

Interreligous Eco-Justice Network

Theological Roundtable on Ecological Ethics and Spirituality

Earth Island Institute A non-profit, public interest, membership organization that

supports people who are creating solutions to protect our shared planet

Friends of the Earth International We are the world's largest grassroots

environmental network, uniting 69 national member groups and some 5,000 local
activist groups on every continent

Ethical Links: Environmental Ethics A compilation of links prepared and rated by
the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University

Internet Reources for Exploring Religion, Worldviews, Environment and Public

Policy Compiled by Timothy C. Weiskel, Director, Harvard Seminar on
Environmental Values

Biodiversity and Environment Resources from Changemakers


Conjugate pairs
HERE IS THE RULE for multiplying radicals:

It is the symmetrical version of the rule for simplifying radicals.

Problem 1. Multiply.

To see the answer, pass your mouse over the colored area.
To cover the answer again, click "Refresh" ("Reload").
Do the problem yourself first!

· = b) 2 ·3 =6

· = =6 d) (2 )² = 4· 5 = 20

= The difference of two squares

Problem 2. Multiply, then simplify:

Example 1. Multiply ( + )( − ).

Solution. The student should recognize the form those factors will produce:

The difference of two squares

( + )( − )= ( )² − ( )²

= 6−2

= 4.
Problem 3. Multiply.

a) ( + )( − ) = 5−3=2
b) (2 + )(2 − ) = 4· 3 − 6 = 12 − 6 = 6

c) (1 + )(1 − ) = 1 − (x + 1) = 1 − x − 1 = −x

d) ( + )( − ) = a−b

Problem 4. (x − 1 − )(x − 1 + )

a) What form does that produce?

The difference of two squares. x − 1 is "a." is "b."

b) Multiply out.

(x − 1 − )(x − 1 + )= (x − 1)² − 2

= x² − 2x + 1 − 2, on squaring the

= x² − 2x − 1

Problem 5. Multiply out.

(x + 3 + )(x + 3 − )= (x + 3)² − 3

= x² + 6x + 9 − 3

= x² + 6x + 6

Dividing radicals

For example,

= =

Problem 6. Simplify the following.

a) b) c) a· a
= = = a = =
8 a ²
Conjugate pairs

The conjugate of a + is a − . They are a conjugate pair.

Example 2. Multiply 6 − with its conjugate.

Solution. The product of a conjugate pair --

(6 − )(6 + )

-- is the difference of two squares. Therefore,

(6 − )(6 + ) = 36 − 2 = 34

When we multiply a conjugate pair, the radical vanishes and we obtain a rational

Problem 7. Multiply each number with its conjugate.

a) x + = x² − y

b) 2 − (2 − )(2 + )=4−3=1

c) + You should be able to write the product immediately: 6 − 2 = 4.

d) 4 − 16 − 5 = 11

Example 3. Rationalize the denominator:

Solution. Multiply both the denominator and the numerator by the conjugate of the
denominator; that is, multiply them by 3 − .

1 = =
9−2 7

The numerator becomes 3 − . The denominator becomes the difference of the two

Example 4. = =
3−4 −1
= −(3 − 2 )

= 2 −3

Problem 8. Write out the steps that show the following.

a) 1
= ½( )

1 = = = ½( − )
5−3 2

The definition of division

b) 2
= ½(3 − )

= = = ½(3 − )
3+ 9−5 4

c) _7_
3 + 6

= = =
3 + 9· 5 − 3 42 6

= 3+2

= = 2+2 + 1, Perfect square trinomial

−1 2−1

= 3+2

1+ x
1+ 1 − (x + 1)

= , Perfect square trinomial



= on changing all the signs.


Example 5. Simplify

Solution. = on adding those fractions,

= on taking the reciprocal,

on multiplying by the
6−5 conjugate,

= 6 −5 on multiplying out.

Problem 9. Simplify
= on adding those fractions,

= on taking the reciprocal,

= on multiplying by the conjugate,


= 3 +2 on multiplying out.

Problem 10. Here is a problem that Calculus students have to do. Write out the steps
that show:

= −
x + (x + h)

In this case, you will have to rationalize the numerator.


1 · _____x − (x + h)_____

1 · ____x − x − h_____
h x + (x + h)

1 _______−h_______
= ·
h x + (x + h)

_______ 1_______
= −
x + (x + h)

WE SAY THAT A SQUARE ROOT RADICAL is "simplified" when the radicand has no
square factors.

Example 1. 33, for example, has no square factors. Its factors are 3· 11, neither of which
is a square number. Therefore, is simplified, or, as we say, in its simplest form.

Example 2. 18 has the square factor 9. 18 = 9· 2. Therefore, is not in its simplest

form. To put a radical in its simplest form, we make use of this theorem:

The square root of a product

is equal to the product of the square roots
of each factor.

(We will prove that when we come to rational exponents, Lesson 29.)


= = · =3 .
We have simplified .

Example 3. Simplify .

Solution. We have to factor 42 and see if it has any square factors. We can begin the
factoring in any way. For example,

42 = 6· 7

We can continue to factor 6 as 2· 3, but we cannot continue to factor 7, because 7 is a

prime number (Lesson 31 of Arithmetic). Therefore,

42 = 2· 3· 7

We now see that 42 has no square factors -- because no factor is repeated. Compare
Example 1 and Problem 2 of the previous Lesson.

therefore is in its simplest form.

Example 4. Simplify .


180 = 2· 90 = 2· 2· 45 = 2· 2· 9· 5 = 2· 2· 3· 3· 5


= 2· 3 =6 .

Problem 1. Simplify the following. Inspect each radicand for a square factor: 4, 9, 16,
25, and so on.

To see the answer, pass your mouse over the colored area.
To cover the answer again, click "Refresh" ("Reload").
Do the problem yourself first!

a) =

b) = = =5

c) = = =3

d) = =7
e) = =4

f) = = 10

g) = =5

h) = =4

Problem 2. Reduce to lowest terms.

a) = = =
2 2 2

b) = = = 2
3 3 3

c) = The radical is in its simplest form. The fraction cannot be reduced.


Similar radicals

Similar radicals have the same radicand. We add them as like terms.

7+2 +5 +6 − = 7+8 +4 .

2 and 6 are similar, as are 5 and . We combine them by adding their


As for 7, it does not "belong" to any radical.

Problem 3. Simplify each radical, then add the similar radicals.

a) + =3 +2 =5

b) 4 −2 + =4 −2 +

= 4· 5 − 2· 7 +

= 20 − 14 +

c) 3 + −2 =3 + −2

= 3· 2 +2 − 2· 4

=6 +2 −8

=2 −2

d) 3 + + = 3+ +

= 3+2 +3

= 3+5

e) 1 − + = 1− +

= 1−8 +3

= 1−5

Problem 4. Simplify the following.

a) = = on dividing each term in the
2 2 ,
numerator by 2.

b) = = 2+
5 5
c) = =
6 6 3