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ICEA - FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference.faa.ro
The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest
The International Conference on Economics and Administration, Faculty of Administration and Business, University of Bucharest, Romania ICEA – FAA Bucharest, 14-15th November 2009
THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN ROMANIAN ENTERPRISES: A POSSIBLE CULTURAL APPROACH
Claudia – Mihaela NICOLAU; ”Al. I. Cuza” University of Iași; Faculty of Law; firstname.lastname@example.org; Professor coordinator: Professor Dr. Dumitru ZAIȚ ; ”Al. I. Cuza” University of Iași; Faculty of Economics and Business Administration; Director of the Center of the Research in Management (CEMEX); email@example.com
Abstract Business Intelligence (in the present material we will use only the short form – BI) and intercultural management are considered, but also framed in the category „of the last arrived” ( in February 1994 the BI was formally defined in France) management science sub domains (it is used the singular form of the term, because in this context it is mentioned the fundamental sub domain and not the variety of approaches whom it can be assimilated to management – case in which it will be used the plural form: the term of the „management sciences”), resultant of some generalizing tries to propose solutions of success of organizations. Although still fulfills a resumative function regarding the organization of ideas, of its theoretical enunciations and not only, BI represents a discipline in continuous development (mostly because of its intentional and practical elements). These anticipative research will try to propose solutions (which can present interest in the enterprises daily practice, but also in the science) for the difficulties encountered in the enrolling of the BI’s activities and practices in the Romanian enterprises, keeping in mind the employees and the managers position towards the BI occurred fallowing an deduced behavior by the Romanian cultural peculiarity. Key words: Business Intelligence, intercultural management, national culture, surveillance, strategy.
1. Introduction The present research paper upon BI uses the constructivist paradigmi, because of the formal – abstract approach manner adopted, and its reader difficult to frame into one of the management sciences or into one unique business administration discipline. Is a research with a profound multi – and interdisciplinary complex character, and it is situated at the intersection of some fundamental disciplines as – strategic management and competitive management with “new” disciplines as – knowledge management, business intelligence and intercultural management influenced by socio – human disciplines as – sociology, anthropology, psychology (e.g. perception, behaviors adopted by fellows towards BI, used norms, etc.). According to the classification of economic sciences, for example the one proposed in “The Journal of Economic Literature” (from September 1987), BI is framed in the category “Administration; Business finance; Marketing; Accounting”, in the major sub domain “Administration”. The BI, like the general management, is a science/a discipline of action (especially in the French literature approaching) and holds a projective character, through its own nature of proposing projects, that will represent into an intelligible manner possible interventions that take/will take within the enrolling of enterprise’s activity.
it can be extracted a few main characteristics.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA . as well as through other organizational resources. But. and it was outlined as being: “the ensemble of the researching. as well.the a priory established objectives can be fulfilled with and through the human resource. The evolution technological and scientific of the '90 expended and improved the BI domain and it is predicted that BI will became a constitutive part of the enterprise informational system. and not only at the organizational one. financial. and on the other side helps at holding competitive advantages. the concept of “management” can refer simply to the process that the managers fallow for fulfilling the objectives of organization.). etc. in the same measure. know-how. The conceptualizing covers all the possibilities of investigations susceptible to compete of the firm’s competitivity growth. the treatment and the spreading of information’s but. appeared in France in February 1994.represents an informational system. the management represents a system of information’s that offer elements related by the manner in which the organization can be directed. organizational level) and experimental (the interconnection and the pursuance of connection of causality – effect between the intercultural management and BI in the context of Romanian enterprises). national. frequently. The precise definition through which it was institutionalized the concept of BI was included into the Rapport of the Eleven Plan. some of them finding also within the BI (fact observable in the conceptualizing of the term below). This process situates in the field of interferences between theoretical (a literature review of the present stage of knowledge of BI at international. we outline the process of defining interconnectivity encounters: the research action – the gathering information’s action – the treatment of information’s action – the action of spreading information’s useful take-in strategically decisions. 2. Synthesizing the defining enunciations of the concept of “management” presented above. to the persons that guide or lead the organizations or to a career devoted to guide and to lead the organizations.the managers establish objectives and coworking at their fulfilling. . between logical and emotional. such as: .FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference. with support for predictive decisions determined the development of BI that became reality with the new technologies emergency. Literature review The concept of “management” was and is. that on one side once assimilated transforms in knowledge available to the managers of organization. in the delineation of the research upon BI framed into the Romanian national cultural specificity it will appeal to a stepby-step approach of the subject. This is a global approach. Moreover. but also through other resources (material.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest Synthesizing upon the thematically area in which the BI is framed in the Romanian national cultural specificity. as well. the ones of competitional and juridical environment are determined for the success of the firm’s actions. Business Intelligence (either wrongly fitted in the Competitive Management or in the 595 . the demand for dynamic reporting systems. into a more comprehensive definition. But. For example. the undertaken of some actions of influencing the creation of some environmental conditions favorable for the firm. in this context. The term can refer. hold information’s. collecting. to a knowledge system. The practice of BI doesn’t mean only the gathering. bydimenssional and without analytical facilities. The term of “management” can refer. the “management is the process of fulfilling the objectives of organization working with and through people. between subjective and objective (regarding the sampled population). Appeared in the specialist’s language since the oldest times.faa. The analyst Howard Dresner from Gartner Group. used in different manners. proposed the usage of the term BI in 1989. at the national level. . the roots of this concept find itself in the '70 in the report systems of the mainframes. treatment and spreading actions so that the economic agents exploit the useful information”. multi – dimensional. when the reports were static. from theoretical – to experimental – to applicative. BI outlined and institutionalized as a concept and as a discipline only after it was defined by the General Commission for Plan (The Eleven Rapport) in the paper “Business Intelligence and the enterprise’s strategy”. Through these.
to the discovering of competitors strategies. within the material it was “ventured” a more precise conceptualizing of the BIii. . . Germany.the conceiving of the data base according to the user’s needs.the mobilization of the education world and the forming in this aspect. . The final Rapport of The Martre General Commission specifies: “The gathering. 1998. 14 ] As any scientific research towards to a yet unexploited domain such as: the interconnection of cultural specificity (national) with the implementation/exploitation and the development of Business Intelligence. . and until now doesn’t exist a unique ethical code). to the correct spreading in interior of information’s and to keep. Reverting at the paper edited by the General Commission for Plan in 1994. .the general reporting.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA . pg.the budgeting.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest Strategic Management. The importance given to enterprises points out clearly into the formulating of the four recommendations of the Rapport. The effects of assembling a system of BI are amazing. is so imperious as well as useful to realize a synthetic – epistemology foray of the existing specialist literature. Managementul Inteligenței Economice. etc. . București.g. because of the projective character of the approached subject. .faa.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference.the profitability analysis. Japan.the spreading of BI’s practice in the enterprise’s interior. where the enterprise is place on the first position: . the treatment and the spreading of useful information determine from now on the enterprises competitivity as well as the economic power of the states”. to the means development and to the methods of exploiting information’s. Ion. . Although the Business Intelligence is a domain and a discipline founded relatively recent (if we keep in mind the fact that the first time when the concept was used was in 1994.the financial strengthen. or considered in it a discipline) contributes. we will have firstly to drill in others researches and the materials existent in the domain. nowadays. The practice of Business Intelligence in the main countries of the world [ Source : Dijmărescu. Editura Lumina Lex. These co-work at the anticipation of the future undertaken actions. 100% 0% 100% Germany England 40% Figure 1. Sweden.).the optimizing of fluxes of information’s between the public and the private sector.the sales analysis (in the marketing area). there are some countries that were already preoccupied with its implementation in enterprise (e. to finalize the delineation of the general theoretic frame will be useful also the enumeration of the domains of applying the BI’s solutions in an enterprise: .the planning and the foresight. because this produces the information needed at the moment that is needed assuring one of the ingredients of 80% 200% Japan Italy 60% 55% 300% USA France 55% 50% 30% 500% 400% Sweden China 596 . in the same time the competitional advantages. At this theoretical level of the scientific knowledge – of social constructivism type. as it fallows: “In the contemporary world the enterprise’s competitively bases greatly on their capacity of acquiring necessary information’s and of treatment – transforming it into efficient information’s. Once it was realized the conceptualizing of the term and the presentation of a succinct history.
and to the connections with BI that emerge as a result of the analysis of the estimated to obtain data. The new adepts of the company will be constituted into a group of Business Intelligence. BI represents the art of knowing and putting in good use the information’s.the content analysis to process the information’s related by the manner in which the cultural specificity will impact the implementation and the future development of BI in the Romanian enterprises. Concept relatively new appeared and still unexploited sufficiently (certain dimension).works with the existing material and human means. . formal or nonformal. Regarding the validation part of the estimated results fallowing the testing itself. Also. The development of BI in Romanian enterprises: a possible cultural approach 4. will contribute substantial at the growth of the performances in economy.uses modern communication systems such as Intranet. gaining competitional advantages. BI can offer answers at the essential problems of an organization. 4. 3.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA . BI gave birth to new vocations that offer to companies new scopes.g.7). that will have the purpose to face the exigencies imposed by the large and various number of information. These new jobs related to BI appeared without doubts in the interior of the companies. complete.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest business success. treatment and spreading of some information’s (only the one’s useful for the enterprise) to gain a competitional advantage. . undifferentiated initially by industrial/economic espionage. The finding of answers is based on the analyze and on the comparison of historical data. Extranet and Internet.the frequency analysis for determining the essential aspects of the cultural specificity characteristics. From all of these reveals the necessity of these discipline introduction in the curricula of management universities. these outlining in the fallowing elements: . of the strenghts and of the weakness. to the “weight” and the frequency of apparition of the dimensions specific to each characteristic.faa.the determining of the α-Cronbach internal consistence coefficient (the elimination of the inadequate items so that the consistence coefficient will be bigger then 0.spreads global. and often framed into the strategic management.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference. it will appeal to an analysis of the Romanian national culture specificity (per ensemble). on a long term. as fallowing: . From the world's experience it can be appreciated that the adepts in Business Intelligence mission has two significant elements such as: the identifying and the improving of the BI potential of the company and the creation and development of competitional advantage of it.The gathering and the analyze of these data allow the comprehension of the business tendencies. practices. the analyze of the competitors and of the market situation. soliciting seldom and in a small measure additional economic efforts. in the enrolling of 597 . but also on the data obtained from external sources. leadership and checking actions. the competitive management or the performance managementiii. . as well on the ones created in the organization frame. fundamental features of the manager. in establishing strategies. Scope research and objectives of the BI represents a process of undertaken some actions of gathering. There are many reasons for which the Business Intelligence is considered one of the youngest disciplines with economic character. . It is considered that the implementation of BI's projects brings along forecast. Theoretical Background In the first phase of the research – the pretesting (which will be presented in the section 4) it will appeal to a statistical analysis. BI covered from its apparition and its conceptualizing an anfractuous and long road – from its beginnings in which either it was mistaken with the economic espionage or it was ignored as an integrative element in the enterprise’s life (e. but also in the external. necessary to face futures challenging trends. acquired the title of fundamental discipline on its own (without denying its profound multi – and interdisciplinary character).1. organizing. helping her to take decisions for resolving it. These elements constitute only a few reasons for which it is considered that this discipline. recent and sure information’s.
a considerable proportion from the patterns of national cultural orientations didn’t take into consideration the East – Central European area (e. not the last. on one side.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA .to outline the diagnosis of the Romanian national culture according to the cultural dimensions on the basis of the typologies from the specialty literature. etc) in their researches. strategies.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference. 4. BI doesn’t enroll after an ethical and deontological code unanimous accepted by the specialists. and created its own professions etc. the pattern of R. .to correlate the cultural specificity with the future development of BI in the Romanian enterprises.to distinguish the adopted position and the importance given by the Romanian enterprises (the research sample) to BI. The cultural specificity that involves a universe of values. enterprises with mixed capital) and specific criteria (the size of the enterprise according to the number of employees.faa. but also to help to the achievement of the above – mentioned objectives. Nath. but also the discover the eventual causative relations between Business Intelligence. Regarding the intercultural management. one of the relative new discipline appeared within the management science. we declare that the purpose of descriptive nature of this scientific research is to observe the measure in which the characteristics of national culture influences the implementation and the development of Business Intelligence. .ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest activities). This mixed research type is realized into a first part of the research through the presenting of national cultural patterns and the framing of Romania into the typology (doting in the same time its cultural specificity characteristics).2. . and from a general hypothesis). to analyze the manner in which the predictor – the cultural specificity will influence the future development of BI (at the level of practices. of motivations. The premise of which the research is initiated has a pronounced monographic character. so that in the pure monographic/casuistic part through the research tool that will be constructed – the questionnaire. Once with the punctuation of the necessity and the novelty of the assumed research direction (it was considered that the Cultural Specificity is a good predictor for the present research).to realize the delineation of the cultural specificity characteristics of the researched population and the framing of these on the basis of the typologies from the specialty literature. and the national cultural specificity dimension on the other side. has defined its undertaken actions. that is – the BI’s actions are oriented/determined fundamental by the cultural specific. using a type of research mixed inductive – deductive. The present research paper. enterprises with foreign capital. of Geert Hofstede.g. isn’t only a pure analytical research. . the nature of the “selled” products/services).and. the financial constitution – enterprises with 100% Romanian capital.to distinguish the role of the cultural specificity towards the BI’s strategies implemented into the Romanian enterprises. . of 598 . to putt the basis of a specific methodology through the typologizing or through the construction of a questionnaire of which items can allow the outlining of sampled population according to general criteria (e. The methodology for data collection The analytical research of Business Intelligence framed into the Romanian national culture specificity is an applicative research in management. The present research proposes for fulfilling the declared purpose as specific objectives. but also an explicative research (begins from a premise. Presently. in the Romanian enterprises. in the sense that its proposes to reach the a priory established objectives. Into an environment of businesses competitional in its depths and precarious (in the middle of economic crisis). . the fallowing: . BI not reached at all the apogee of its possibilities. to present – in which BI already has undertaken its fulfilling functions. and didn’t exploit yet all the interdisciplinary interconnections – the intercultural management representing a good example in this sense. actions) and to explore the dimension of each cultural characteristics.g. through the results that will be obtained – it will present explanatory aspects for this. in the conclusion part realizing the interpretation and the systematizing of the data obtained fallowing the implementation of the research. its guiding principles.to explore the relation employee – manager – performance obtained through BI.
tabling.the determining of . they enjoying of trust because of the old activities. but moreover in collectivities heart (according to Jon Hawkes. even if there are a few exceptions that trespasses the law. for example). . the employee’s and the managers behaviors as a consequence of the subject’s perceptions.the mainly testing: using as a research tool (analytical) a questionnaire (applicable to the employees and as well to the managers) more ample and more complex. The election of this analytical research method for the data collection owed to the fact that allows a better measurement. being without doubts an assumed culture and not a constructed one (as in the case of organizational culture.Cronbach internal consistence coefficient – for the two questionnaires (the one used in pretesting and the one used in the mainly testing) and the elimination of the inadequate items so that the consistence coefficient will be bigger then 0.7. the necessity of the existence of a deontology appears today more important. having in its body five questions (semi-opened as well as semiclosed). The phasing of this scientific research includes the fallowing aspects: . Through these requests is necessary to be understood the clear appeal for the manifestation of the willing of eliminating all the ambiguities regarding the Business Intelligence practice.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest aspirations. . Other countries promotes however in jobs related by Business Intelligence former members of the secret services. not only in the humans spirit.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference. that had the role not only to investigate the subject’s opinion on the given theme – the implementation and the development of BI. with all the guarantees necessary to the patrimonial protection of the firm’s and in the best quality conditions. In some countries the Business Intelligence is still be darken by economic espionage or by the espionage in general. Business Intelligence it is based on the observation and the active surveillance of the firm’s environment through the documents reading. Although this young discipline is still at its first stages of development. 2001). such as a combination between the questionnaire of factual data (its first part) and the opinion questionnaire. The unclear image of Business Intelligence activities doesn’t correspond to the reality. 5.the consulting and the epistemological treatment of the specialty literature and of the national legislative framework under the auspices under which the enterprises uses BI. terms and costs. the dreams and the projects aims in the same time the soul and the heart. The research tool applied within the pretesting – the questionnaire can be framed into the general category of the opinion questionnaire. graphical representations of the future obtained data etc. and even the perceptions (undertaken elements from the socio – human methodology) towards the Romanian managerial system that uses BI (per ensemble). to fulfill the objective of identifying the Romanian enterprises that understand and apply BI.faa. self-administrated (by the questioned subject)..the preliminary/finale analysis (the correlation of the obtained data with the objectives settled a priory to the research itself) and the generalizing of the obtained data.a pretesting (“filter” role) with the purpose of gathering data through the applying the research tool – the questionnaire (will be applied only to the managers). behaviors that transform in norms which will influence the adopted strategies regarding the BI’s activity. This study of interpretative type used as a research strategy the casuistic quantitative analysis method (the monograph will be realized on a sample of subjects within the Romanian enterprises from different regions) to collect the data.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA . a world in which the aspirations. . of attitudes and of creativity. the interlocutor listening or attentively looking around to form an opinion. plus that because of the researched population (especially the manager’s constitution) in this study the time economy in the implementation of the researched tool will represent a plus. . because it constitute a decisive 599 . Conclusions and implications The actions of Business Intelligence have to be legally conducted.the processing the resulted data as a consequence of the quantitative analysis through systematizing. The research tool that will be used in this phase of testing will be a more complex one. .
Paris: Éditions d'Organisations. 2003. Jakobiak. Paris: Éditions d'Organisations.. Fabrice et al. Moss. Denis. L'intelligence économique. T. Donald. the Business Intelligence appears as a strong strategic tool at the firm’s disposal. Phatak. Dresner. 600 . Business Intelligence Roadmap: The Complete Project Lifecycle for Decision-Support Applications. Jon. et Cook. Roger J. cercetării calitative. “Why enterprisses must make business intelligence an imperative”. Metode cantitative și București: Editura Economică. Jakobiak.ro. București: Editura Economică. inferred from phenomena. Curtis. Melbourne : Common Ground and the Cultural Development Network. București: Editura third edition. Dijmărescu. 2003. Luminița. or projected from the measures of Heaven.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest factor of recognition and of integration of Business Intelligence in the firm. C. François. L'intelligence économique en pratique. London: McGraw Hill Education. The importance of comprehension of "competition" was recognized by the military strategic Sun Tzu since VI century before Christ. Hislop. 2005. Japonia și SUA. The Fourth Pillar of Sustainability: Culture’s Essential Role in Public Planning. 2006. l' utiliser.S. 2005. Hourst. François. Metodologia științelor socioumane. Still doesn’t exist until at this date a unique deontological code for all the professionals in the world. “Tehnologia Business Inteligence în managementul strategic al firmei”. Different organizations existing in the world that promotes the Business Intelligence and the competition suggests the necessity of establishment of a common deontological code (in U.A. New York: McGraw – Hill/Irwin. 2005. third edition. Bhagat. Moscovici. International management. Managementul Inteligenţei Economice.gartnergroup. Bruno and Plan. București: Editura Teora. 2001. Jacob. Create an intelligent organization and compete to win. The gathering. London: Kogan Page. 2008. Nina. Iași: Editura Polirom. La comprendre. Management comparat Uniunea Europeană. Arvind V. the establishment and the undertaken of some actions of influence. existed such a try in 1994). these includes not only the ensemble of spreading and information’s usage actions within the firms. References Added. Paris: Éditions Dunod. Koen. the treatment and the spreading of the information’s useful to the firm is the most important vocation of Business Intelligence. comparat Economică. Rabi S. especially. Metodologia sociologice. Having as an origin the strategic surveillance. Septimiu. but must be gained from men for it is the knowledge of the enemy's true situation”. Eugen. Comment bâtir son propre système d'intelligence économique. the lobbying is one of the known one. Chelcea.net/public/ifi/images/upload /document/doc_pdf_1. Burduș. Carla J. Comparative international management. Hawkes. 2007. and Atre. L. Hurbean. Bucureşti: Editura Lumina Lex.http://www. 2004. 2002. “Intelligence economique PME”. Michelle and Cook.Business – Inteligence. André. Serge. deuxième edition.S. Managing in a Diverse and Dynamic Global Environment. 2000.com. 2001. The analysis of intelligent data was always important because through this analysis it is generated the comprehension.faa. Imtercultural management. Certo. Management et intelligences multiples.. but aside this exist another active action that wasn’t a lot taken in account. Haward. 1998. La théorie de Gardner appliquée à l'entreprise.pdf. Ion. London: Kogan PAGE. l'implanter. Buschini. 2006. 2001. Managementul modern. regarding the concurrencies and the environmental surveillance. Ovidiu.http://a-de. Management internațional. S. Boston: Addison Wesley.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA . This necessity for knowing the opponent was asserted through the spy usage: „Advance knowledge cannot be gained from ghosts and spirits. Knowledge management in organizations: a critical introduction. but also the firm’s actions through which the environment is influenced.http://www. and Kashlak. New York: Oxford University Press.FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference. Nicolescu.
Stanc. 2002. i 601 . Management internațional. 1994. Jean – Louis. iii Only the finality of BI holds of the competitive management (one of the BI’s objectives is the one of gathering information’s for obtaining competition advantage) and of the performance management (the obtaining of competition advantages being desired that the enterprise reaches the financial objectives or only to survive on the market).FAA 2009 14 – 15 NOVEMBER 2009 http://conference. ii In the mentioned paper the concept was named ”Intelligence Economique”. Sasu. Inteligenţa Economică. Introducere în epistemologia economică. Redmond: Microsoft Press. G. and Barsoux. Olin.ro The Faculty of Business and Administration University of Bucharest Pohoață. Jean – Claude. Alain. Blanchet. François. and Sava. the translation into french of BI. Singly. Raisinghani. Business Intelligence: Making better decisions faster. interviul de producere a datelor. Zaiț. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.. Gotman.faa. M. 2004. Valorizarea diferențelor culturale. Iași: Editura Universității ”Alexandru Ioan Cuza”. because the object and the subject of the research mix up and to research it’s attributed a priory a social construction – a premise. Business Intelligence in the Digital Economy – Opportunities. Zaiț. 2004. “Business Intelligence Succes. Thompson. Management intercultural.technologevaluation. 1998. Anne and Kaufmann. Cercetarea în economie și management. interviul comprehensiv. Ancheta și metodele ei: chestionarul. 2002. Hershey: Idea Group INC. A. Timișoara: Editura Orizonturi Universitare.wikipedia. 2006. Dumitru et al. Paradigme de gândire. http://www. *** Wikipedia – The http://en. free encyclopedia. Lessons Learned”. Elizabeth. Iași: Editura Polirom. Iași: Editura Universității ”Al. Schneider. armă a războiului global. Ion. Is dominated by subjective.org. Constantin. V.com Vitt. Repere epistemologice și metodologice.I. Dumitru and Spalanzani. București: Editura Economică. Alain. 2003. Managing across cultures. 2006. Limitations and Risks.The International Conference on Administration and Business ICEA . București: Editura Economică.Cuza”. Susan C. Silaşi.