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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. . INTRODUCTION. . Members. Objectives. Instruments. Procedure. . . . . . . . . .

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.2 .3 .5 .5 .6 .7 . .9 .10 .15 . .17 .18 .

PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET .8 FINAL DATA SHEET. . .

SAMPLE COMPUTATIONS. . SKETCH. . . . . . . . . . . .

DISCUSSION. 16 CONCLUSION.

RELATIVE RESEARCH. .

[FIELDWORK NO. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION]

EVALUATION

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“Do your ordinary duties extraordinarily well”

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to thank God, our beloved creator, for making this field work possible. I would like to acknowledge His presence on every step that I take. I am heartily thankful to our professor, Engr. Bienvenido Cervantes for giving us the lecture, particularly the review on DMD, which enabled us to understand further the concepts and the formulas needed on our fieldwork. I would like to commend for patiently imparting his knowledge to our noisy class. For the surveying technicians, I would like to recognize their thoroughness in keeping our instruments that we didn’t had any problem with the total station that we used.

[FIELDWORK NO. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION]

I would like to thank my group mates for being cooperative and responsible for the given tasks to them. O Lord. our God! And in your plans for us there is none to equal you. should I wish to declare or tell them? They would be too many to recount” Psalm 40:6 A. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .P. “How numerous you have made your wondrous deeds. INTRODUCTION [FIELDWORK NO. Mr. Spearheading our team.E. Harf Miranda. I would like to recognize his organize leadership that made us finish our work on time.

and Z or northing. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] . The best quality total stations are capable of measuring angles to 0.5 arc-second.A total station is an electronic/optical instrument used in modern surveying. However. GNSS measurements may require longer occupation periods and offer relatively poor accuracy in the vertical axis. Angle measurement Most modern total station instruments measure angles by means of electrooptical scanning of extremely precise digital bar-codes etched on rotating glass cylinders or discs within the instrument. Robotic total stations allow the operator to control the instrument from a distance via remote control. Distance Measurement Measurement of distance is accomplished with a modulated microwave or infrared carrier signal. This eliminates the need for an assistant staff member as the operator holds the reflector and controls the total station from the observed point. generated by a small solid-state emitter within the [FIELDWORK NO. The total station is an electronictheodolite (transit) integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to read distances from the instrument to a particular point. easting and elevation) of surveyed points relative to the total station position are calculated using trigonometry and triangulation. Angles and distances are measured from the total station to points under survey. Y. Inexpensive "construction grade" total stations can generally measure angles to 5 or 10 arc-seconds. some total stations also have a Global Navigation Satelite System interface which do not require a direct line of sight to determine coordinates. and the coordinates (X. Coordinates of an unknown point relative to a known coordinate can be determined using the total station as long as a direct line of sight can be established between the two points. TECHNOLOGY Coordinate Measurement Coordinates of an unknown point relative to a known coordinate can be determined using the total station as long as a direct line of sight can be established between the two points. To determine an absolute location a Total Station requires line of sight observations and must be set up over a known point or with line of sight to 2 or more points with known location. For this reason.

1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] . and reflected by a prism reflector or the object under survey. They are also used by archaeologists to record excavations and by police. Most total stations use purpose-built glassPorro prism reflectors for the EDM signal. 4 CHIEF OF PARTY: MIRANDA [FIELDWORK NO. and vertical angle measured. APPLICATIONS Total stations are mainly used by land surveyors. and determining the integer number of wavelengths to the target for each frequency.[2] Reflectorless total stations can measure distances to any object that is reasonably light in color. private accident reconstructionists and insurance companies to take measurements of scenes. horizontal angle. while other models are equipped to write these measurements to an external data collector. GROUP NO. The modulation pattern in the returning signal is read and interpreted by the computer in the total station.900 ft). The distance is determined by emitting and receiving multiple frequencies.instrument's optical path. crime scene investigators.0049 ft) + 2 parts per million over a distance of up to 1. application software can be used to compute results and generate a map of the surveyed area. such as a hand-held computer.500 metres (4.5 millimetres (0. A typical total station can measure distances with an accuracy of about 1. When data is downloaded from a total station onto a computer. to a few hundred meters. Data processing Some models include internal electronic data storage to record distance.

Yoshiaki MIRANDA. Harf MISSION. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] . Charmaine Ninia REYES. To learn how to read horizontal angle and distance on a total station. 3. Alvin REGUINDIN.) 2. To develop the ability to lead or follow the designated/desired task of one’s party or group and to be fully responsible in the performance of the assigned task. To acquire the knowledge in getting the area of a pentagonal filed by staking a central station (NOTE: Select a station wherein all corner points of the pentagonal filed are visible form. [FIELDWORK NO. Mark Paolo PANGILINAN.MEMBERS: ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ MIKAMI. Julienne Karenina PURUGGANAN. Almar Ernest FUNA. Fernando OBJECTIVES: 1. Nico ○ ○ ○ ○ PUNO.

The total station is an electronic theodolite (transit) integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to read slope distances from the instrument to a particular point. Total Station [FIELDWORK NO. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .INSTRUMENTS: A total station is an electronic/optical instrument used inmodern surveying.

Drive on each corner hubs or mark each corner with a chalk on a pavement.Chalk is a soft. [FIELDWORK NO. Name the points as stations T1. white. T2. porous sedimentary rock. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] . T3. Calcite is calcium carbonate or CaCO3. Chalk PROCEDURE: 1. The professor assigned the corners of the pentagonal field to be observed. and T5. It forms under relatively deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite plates (coccoliths) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. It is common to find chert or flint nodules embedded in chalk. T4.

orient the instrument to the magnetic south by setting the horizontal angle to zero. [FIELDWORK NO. 5. Invert the instrument by 180°. Follow the same procedure until you reach the last station. NOTE: See the Operating Manual of the Total Station to determine the horizontal distance. 4. Move to the next station (T2) and follow the same procedure 2. Site T1 and record the horizontal distance and horizontal angle given by the total station. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .2. Site the first station (T1) of the pentagonal field. Set-up the total station on the first station. Level the bubbles of the total station. 6. set the horizontal angle to zero and then site the third station (T3). 7. Preferably the recorder must already sketch the area to be traversed making remarks on the locations of each corner to have an overview of the extent of the fieldwork.

1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .[FIELDWORK NO.

1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .FINAL DATA SHEET [FIELDWORK NO.

788 [FIELDWORK NO.56 16.556 3. Σ = 63.708 -6.791 -299.5 12.FIELD WORK 1: AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION DATE: 10 / 21 / 10 TIME: 12:00 NN – 4:30 PM WEATHER: Cloudy STATION OCCUPIED T5 T1 T2 T3 T4 STATION OBSERVED T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 AZIMUTH 330°40’ 25°59’ 108°19’ 150°25’ 259°02’ TAPE DISTANCE 13.46 m 13. Cervantes BEARING S29°20’E S25°59’W N71°41’W N29°35’W N79°2’E A.75 7.597 -69.604 9.576 TOTAL AREA = 262.989 m 13.723 -27.778 6.39 -51.234 LAT (-) W DMD DOUBLE AREA -77.65 Σ = 2.234 2A = -527.23 11.86 LATITUDE LAT (+) N LAT (-) S 11.908 -16.146 DEPARTURE LAT (+) E 6.536 m GROUP NO.072 6.479 m 7. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .182 4.289 m 16.604 3.57 -25. 4 LOCATION: Intramuros’ Wall PROFESSOR: Engr.2 m Σ = -1.

604 Obj100 Latitude=tape distance × cosbearing Latitude=13.75 6.75 Departure=tape distance × sinbearing Departure=21.479 m S29°20’ E -11.113 m × sin29°24' [FIELDWORK NO. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .SAMPLE COMPUATION STATION OCCUPIED STATION OBSERVED AZIMUTH TAPE DISTANCE BEARING LATITUDE DEPARTURE T5 T1 70°52’ 13.479 m × cos29°24' Latitude=-11.

182 -3.5 Obj101 [FIELDWORK NO.989 m S25°59’ W -7. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .Depatrure=6.604 SAMPLE COMPUATION STATION OCCUPIED STATION OBSERVED AZIMUTH TAPE DISTANCE BEARING LATITUDE DEPARTURE T1 T2 25°59’ 7.

5 SAMPLE COMPUATION STATION OCCUPIED STATION OBSERVED AZIMUTH TAPE DISTANCE BEARING LATITUDE DEPARTURE T2 T3 108°19’ 13.23 -12.46 m N71°41’ W 4. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .Latitude=tape distance × cosbearing Latitude=7.989 m × cos25°59' Latitude=-7.989 m × sin25°59' Depature=-3.778 Obj102 [FIELDWORK NO.182 Departure=tape distance × sinbearing Departure=7.

56 Obj103 [FIELDWORK NO.Latitude=tape distance × cosbearing Latitude=13.46 m × cos71°41' Latitude=4.46 m × sin71°41' Depature=-12.556 -6.778 SAMPLE COMPUATION STATION OCCUPIED STATION OBSERVED AZIMUTH TAPE DISTANCE BEARING LATITUDE DEPARTURE T3 T4 150°25’ 13.289 m N29°35’ W 11. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .23 Departure=tape distance × sinbearing Departure=13.

Latitude=tape distance × cosbearing Latitude=13.536 m N79°2’E 3.289 m × cos29°35' Latitude=11.556 Departure=tape distance × sinbearing Departure=13. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .289 m × sin29°35' Depature=-6.234 Obj104 Latitude=tape distance × cosbearing [FIELDWORK NO.146 16.56 SAMPLE COMPUATION STATION OCCUPIED STATION OBSERVED AZIMUTH TAPE DISTANCE BEARING LATITUDE DEPARTURE T4 T5 259°02’ 16.

576 [FIELDWORK NO.39 -51.234 SKECTH Obj105 DMD METHOD STATION OCCUPIED T5 T1 T2 T3 T4 STATION OBSERVED T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 DMD 6.Latitude=16.723 -27.234 DOUBLE AREA -77. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .57 -25.708 -6.908 -16.604 9.597 -69.146 Departure=tape distance × sinbearing Departure=16.536 m × cos79°2' Latitude=3.072 2A = -527.791 -299.536 m × sin79°2' Depatrure=16.

Traverse operations are conducted for basic area control. Harf Miranda. This is to compensate the objectives in this experiment regarding the use of the total station. After the first station. We checked the angles by applying our knowledge in [FIELDWORK NO. large construction projects. such as buildings and roads. the positions may be referred to that system. control of hydrographic surveys. angles are being measured digitally in azimuth initially. To do such task. After setting up the total station. In the particular fieldwork. a traverse is always classified as either a CLOSED TRAVERSE or an OPEN TRAVERSE. the group leader. assigned the roles and tasks of each member-making sure that everyone will get their turn in being the instrument man. road. additional data can be measured for layout of new features. such as military installation or air bases. every station in the traverse will have different group members on a task providing that each will have equal chance of being a certain role to everybody else.788 DISCUSSION A survey traverse is a sequence of lengths and directions of lines between points on the earth. A survey traverse may determine the relative positions of the points that it connects in series. railroad.TOTAL AREA = 262. and pipeline alignment. obtained by or from field measurements and used in determining positions of the points. From these computed relative positions. the angles of the succeeding stations will be relative the line segment of the preceding sides of the traverse. In general. mapping. if tied to control stations based on some coordinate system. This is done by reversing the eyepiece of the instrument relative to the previous line segment and measuring the angle from and through the succeeding line segment to be observed. and. and for many other projects. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .

unlike in theodolite and transit. This show that the total station is more efficient and accurate than all the surveying instruments we used so far. This is to compare our measured distance to the actual one and visualize how accurate the total station is. the location of the magnetic north and south. [FIELDWORK NO. It does not affect. This fieldwork aims to acquire the knowledge in getting the area of a pentagonal filed by staking a central station. we omitted the last side of the traverse and solved for it theoretically. But this is only minor for the said objective. As an example. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] . we can say that it is amazingly accurate enough up to four decimal places.trigonometry and as far as the data are concern. Since measurement of distances are digital. the angles are perfectly measured. It minimized the errors that are prone in using transit or theodolite. total station follows its own electronic magnetic south which cannot be interfered by other magnetic fields emitted by some electronic devices that we frequently use. the main goal is to determine the area of a closed traverse using DMD or DPD method. It is also to learn how to read horizontal angle and distance on a total station and to develop the ability to lead or follow the designated/desired task of one’s party or group and to be fully responsible in the performance of the assigned task. As far as the surveying theory is concern. According to the instruction. CONCLUSION This particular field is adopted from the course Surveying 1 Field. which effectively minimizes the errors in calculations and lay outing and ultimately in the overall outcome of the fieldwork. we can see that the measurements are close to the computed value and the checking on the azimuths is accurate to the nearest second. the bottom line is for us to experience how efficient and accurate the total station when used in such scenario. With regards to the data shown in the PDS and FDS.

Overall. In the strict sense.[1] i. this fieldwork is sensible and can be said to have a positive outcome in using a new surveying instrument which is the total station. RELATIVE RESEARCH Polygon triangulation (Another Method in Getting the Area) In computational geometry. When there are no holes or added points. [FIELDWORK NO. Polygon triangulation without extra vertices Over time a number of algorithms have been proposed to triangulate a polygon.. the cases of triangulation of a simple polygon and of a polygonal area with polygonal holes are treated separately. points can be added anywhere on or inside the polygon to serve as vertices of triangles. Triangulations may be viewed as special cases of planar straight-line graphs. In a less strict sense. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] . we only had an error of less than a percentage and we can say that the objectives stated in this report were all met. these triangles may have vertices only at the vertices of P.According to our results and computed data. Going out of the instrument and going to the theories tested in this fieldwork. polygon triangulation is the decomposition of a polygonal area (simple polygon) P into a set of triangles. In addition. everyone did well in performing the fieldwork and therefore this is a successful start of more fieldworks to come. they were tested to be reliable in determining the area of a closed traverse. triangulations form maximal outerplanar graphs. As far as the group is concern. finding the set of triangles with pairwise non-intersecting interiors whose union is P.e.

and Godfried Toussaint.Special cases A convex polygon is trivial to triangulate in linear time. This method is known as ear clipping and sometimes ear trimming. Fournier and D. Montuno.Y. The algorithm then consists of finding such an ear. Ear clipping method One way to triangulate a simple polygon is based on the fact that any simple polygon with at least 4 vertices without holes has at least two so called 'ears'. or the algorithm of Godfried Toussaint. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] . and it only works on polygons without holes. This algorithm is easy to implement. [FIELDWORK NO. An efficient algorithm for cutting off ears was discovered by Hossam ElGindy. by adding edges from one vertex to all other vertices. which are triangles with two sides being the edges of the polygon and the third one completely inside it (and with an extra property unimportant for triangulation). but suboptimal. removing it from the polygon (which results in a new polygon that still meets the conditions) and repeating until there is only one triangle left. An implementation that keeps separate lists of convex and concave vertices will run in O(n2) time. A monotone polygon can easily be triangulated in linear time with either the algorithm of A. Hazel Everett.

check if the vertices are both on the same side of the 'sweep line'. Bernard Chazelle showed in 1991 that any simple polygon can be triangulated in linear time. They mark a split in the polygon. Break the polygon on the line between the original point and one of the points on this one.Using monotone polygons A simple polygon may be decomposed into monotone polygons as follows. Using this algorithm to triangulate a simple polygon takes O(n log n) time. If they are. Note that if you are moving downwards. Computational complexity For a long time there was an open problem in computational geometry whether a simple polygon can be triangulated faster than O(n log n) time. in practice. though the proposed algorithm is very complex. have O(n log* n) behaviour which. the points where both of the vertices are below the sweep line are 'split points'. a horizontal or vertical line. 1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] .[1] In 1990 David G. Robert E. From there you have to consider both sides separately. For each point. Simple randomised methods such as Seidel's or Clarkson et al's. Kirkpatrick. Maria M. are indistinguishable from O(n). check the next sweep line on the other side. [FIELDWORK NO. Klawe. Tarjan discovered an O(n log log n) algorithm for triangulation.

1] | [AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING TOTAL STATION] . Kostyuk The fastest of these algorithms employs dynamic caching for triangles. Skvortsov and Yuri L.org/wiki/Polygon_triangulation” [FIELDWORK NO.Finally. in 1998 the first practical O(n) average time algorithms were discovered and published by Alexey V.wikipedia. The time complexity of triangulation of a polygon with holes has an Ω(n log n) lower bound. REFERENCE: “http://en.

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