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A seminar report on CLOUD COMPUTING

Submitted by ASHISH KHERA 08IT07 8th semester In Partial Fulfillment For The Award Of The Degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in INFORMATION & TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 20011-12

Certified that the seminar work entitled CLOUD COMPUTING is a bonafide work presented by ASHISH KHERA bearing 08IT07 in a partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering in INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY of the Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak during the year 2011-2012. The seminar report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements with respect to seminar work presented for the Bachelor of Engineering Degree.




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I am thankful to my seminar guide . for her proper guidance and valuable suggestions. I am also greatly thankful to .., the head of the Division of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY and other faculty members for giving me an opportunity to learn and do this seminar. If not for the above mentioned people, my seminar would never have been completed in such a successfully manner. I once again extend my sincere thanks to all of them.



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Computers have become an indispensable(essential) part of life. We need computers everywhere, be it for work, research or in any such field. As the use of computers in our day-to-day life increases, the computing resources that we need also go up. For companies like Google and Microsoft, harnessing the resources as and when they need it is not a problem. But when it comes to smaller enterprises, affordability becomes a huge factor. With the huge infrastructure come problems like machines failure, hard drive crashes, software bugs, etc. This might be a big headache for such a community. Cloud Computing offers a solution to this situation. Cloud computing is a paradigm shift in which computing is moved away from personal computers and even the individual enterprise application server to a cloud of computers. A cloud is a virtualized server pool which can provide the different computing resources of their clients. Users of this system need only be concerned with the computing service being asked for. The underlying details of how it is achieved are hidden from the user. The data and the services provided reside in massively scalable data centers and can be ubiquitously accessed from any connected device all over the world. Cloud computing is the style of computing where massively scaled IT related capabilities are provided as a service across the internet to multiple external customers. Many cloud computing providers have popped up and there is a considerable growth in the usage of this service. Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, IBM and Amazon have started providing cloud computing services. Amazon is the pioneer in this field. Smaller companies like SmugMug, which is an online photo hosting site, has used cloud services for the storing all the data and doing some of its services. Cloud Computing is finding use in various areas like web hosting, parallel batch processing, graphics rendering, financial modeling, web crawling, genomics analysis, etc.


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The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network, and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. What is cloud computing exactly? As a beginning here is a definition An emerging computer paradigm where data and services reside in massively scalable data centers in the cloud and can be accessed from any connected devices over the internet It is a Pool of virtualized computer resources. A cloud can: Host a variety of different workloads, Allow workloads to be deployed and scaled-out Support self-recovering, highly scalable programming models Monitor resource use in real time. Cloud is a term used as a metaphor for the wide area networks (like internet) or any such large networked environment. It came partly from the cloud-like symbol used to represent the complexities of the networks in the schematic diagrams. It represents all the complexities of the network which may include everything from cables, routers, servers, data centers and all such other devices.

It is the term used to describe both a platform and type of application. It is the locationindependent computing, whereby shared servers provide resources, software, and data to computers and other devices on demand, as with the electricity grid. It is the natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization and utility computing. Cloud Computing is the next generation platform that provides dynamic resource pools, virtualization, and high availability. Cloud applications are applications that are extended to be accessible through the Internet. Cloud applications use large data centers and powerful servers that host Web applications and Web services.

2. Cloud Computing
A definition for cloud computing can be given as an emerging computer paradigm where data and services reside in massively scalable data centers in the cloud and can be accessed from any connected devices over the internet. Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet). Cloud computing entrusts, typically centralized, services with your data, software, and computation on a published application programming interface (API) over a network. It has a lot of overlap with software as a service (SaaS). End users access cloud based applications through a web browser or a light weight desktop or mobile app while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. Cloud application providers strive to give the same or better service and performance than if the software programs were installed locally on end-user computers. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand. Cloud computing is a way of providing various services on virtual machines allocated on top of a large physical machine pool which resides in the cloud. Cloud computing comes into focus only when we think about what IT has always wanted a way to increase capacity or add different capabilities to the current setting on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel or licensing new software. We have lots of compute power and storage capabilities residing in the distributed environment of the cloud. What cloud computing does is to harness the capabilities of these resources and make available these resources as a single entity which can be changed to meet the current needs of the user. The basis of cloud computing is to create a set of virtual servers on the available vast resource pool and give it to the clients. Any web enabled device can be used to access the resources through the virtual servers. Based on the computing needs of the client, the infrastructure allotted to the client can be scaled up or down. From a business point of view, cloud computing is a method to address the scalability and availability concerns for large scale applications which involves lesser overhead. Since the resource allocated to the client can be varied based on the needs of the client and can be done without any fuss, the overhead is very low. One of the key concepts of cloud computing is that processing of 1000 times the data need not be 1000 times harder. As and when the amount of data increases, the cloud computing services can be used to manage the load effectively and make the processing tasks easier. In the era of enterprise servers and personal computers, hardware was the commodity as the main criteria for the processing capabilities depended on the hardware configuration of the server. But with the advent of cloud computing, the commodity has changed to cycles and bytes - i.e. in cloud computing services, the users are charged based on the number of cycles of execution performed or the number of bytes transferred.

Why Cloud Computing?

What could we do with 1000 times more data and CPU power? One simple question. Thats all it took the interviewers to bewilder the confident job applicants at Google. This is a question of relevance because the amount of data that an application handles is increasing day by day and so is the CPU power that one can harness. There are many answers to this question. With this much CPU power, we could scale our businesses to 1000 times more users. Right now we are gathering statistics about every user using an application. With such CPU power at hand, we could monitor every single user click and every user interaction such that we can gather all the statistics about the user. We could improve the recommendation systems of users. We could model better price plan choices. With this CPU power we could simulate the case where we have say 1,00,000 users in the system without any glitches. There are lots of other things we could do with so much CPU power and data capabilities. But what is keeping us back. One of the reasons is the large scale architecture which comes with these are difficult to manage. There may be many different problems with the architecture we have to support. The machines may start failing, the hard drives may crash, the network may go down and many other such hardware problems. The hardware has to be designed such that the architecture is reliable and scalable. This large scale architecture has a very expensive upfront and has high maintenance costs. It requires different resources like machines, power, cooling, etc. The system also cannot scale as and when needed and so is not easily reconfigurable. The resources are also constrained by the resources. As the applications become large, they become I/O bound. The hard drive access speed becomes a limiting factor. Though the raw CPU power available may not be a factor, the amount of RAM available clearly becomes a factor. This is also limited in this context. If at all the hardware problems are managed very well, there arises the software problems. There may be bugs in the software using this much of data. The workload also demands two important tasks for two completely different people. The software has to be such that it is bug free and has good data processing algorithms to manage all the data. The cloud computing works on the cloud - so there are large groups of often low-cost servers with specialized connections to spread the data-processing chores among them. Since there are a lot of lowcost servers connected together, there are large pools of resources available. So these offer almost unlimited computing resources. This makes the availability of resources a lesser issue. The data of the application can also be stored in the cloud. Storage of data in the cloud has many distinct advantages over other storages. One thing is that data is spread evenly through the cloud in such a way that there are multiple copies of the data and there are ways by which failure can be detected and the data can be rebalanced on the fly. The I/O operations become simpler in the cloud such that browsing and searching for something in 25GB or more of data becomes simpler in the cloud, which is nearly impossible to do on a desktop. The cloud computing applications also provide automatic reconfiguration of the resources based on the service level agreements. When we are using applications out of the cloud, to scale the application with respect to the load is a mundane task because the resources have to be gathered and then provided to the users. If the load on the application is such that it is present only for a small amount of time as


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Compared to the time its working out of the load, but occurs frequently, then scaling of the resources becomes tedious. But when the application is in the cloud, the load can be managed by spreading it to other available nodes by making a copy of the application on to them. This can be reverted once the load goes down. It can be done as and when needed. All these are done automatically such that the resources maintain and manage themselves. So we can say that we need cloud computing because of the following reasons: Requirement of more flexible IT environments to help companies realize their goals. Reducing costs, accelerating processes and simplifying management. Transformation of existing server infrastructures into dynamic environments. Expanding and reducing server capacity depending on their requirements.


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Network architecture for cloud data storage

Three 1. 2. different network entities can be identified as follows: User: have data to be stored in the cloud rely on the cloud for data computation, Consist of both individual consumers and organizations. Cloud Service Provider (CSP): has significant resources expertise in building and managing distributed cloud storage servers Owns and operates live Cloud Computing systems.

3. Third Party Auditor (TPA): Trusted to assess and expose risk of cloud storage services on behalf of the users upon request.


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Customers Perspective It is Faster, simpler, cheaper to use cloud applications. No upfront capital required for servers and storage. No ongoing operational expenses for running datacenter. Applications can be accessed from anywhere, anytime. Vendors Perspective Easier for application vendors to reach new customers Lowest cost way of delivering and supporting applications Ability to use commodity server and storage hardware Ability to drive down data center operational costs


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Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:

Device and location independence: enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places. Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. However, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. In addition, user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, selfservice basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads. Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. This is purported to lower barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control, as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be shared and utilization be increased. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another. Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface
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1. Security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity, concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model can differ widely from those of traditional architectures. The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. Physical control of the Private Cloud equipment is more secure than having the equipment off site and under someone elses control. Physical control and the ability to visually inspect the data links and access ports is required in order to ensure data links are not compromised. Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors' unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services, private or public, that promote external management of provided services. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. Security issues have been categorized into sensitive data access, data segregation, privacy, bug exploitation, recovery, accountability, malicious insiders, management console security, account control, and multi-tenancy issues. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary, from cryptography, particularly public key infrastructure (PKI), to use of multiple cloud providers, standardization of APIs, and improving virtual machine support and legal support. 2.Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing, certain legal issues arise; everything from trademark infringement, security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control, thus, can monitor at will, lawfully or unlawfully, the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. Using a cloud service provider (CSP) can complicate privacy of data because of the extent to which virtualization for cloud processing (virtual machines) and cloud storage are used to implement cloud service. Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider at any point in time, may access the data that is on the cloud. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing", there is no published study to substantiate this assumption. Citing the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available, the environmental effects will be more moderate. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers.) Thus countries with favorable conditions, such as Finland, Sweden and Switzerland are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation.


Public cloud: Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream. Public clouds are run by third parties, and applications from different customers are likely to be mixed together on the clouds servers, storage systems, and networks. A public cloud provides services to multiple customers. Hybrid cloud: Hybrid clouds combine both public and private cloud models. This is most often seen with the use of storage clouds to support Web 2.0 applications. Private cloud: Private clouds are built for the exclusive use of one client, providing the utmost control over data, security, and quality of service. The company owns the infrastructure and has control over how applications are deployed on it. Private clouds can be built and managed by a companys own IT organization or by a cloud provider.


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Cloud computing builds on decades of research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, and more recently networking, web and software services. It implies a service oriented architecture, reduced information technology overhead for the end-user, great flexibility, reduced total cost of ownership, on demand services and many other things. In today's global competitive market, companies must innovate and get the most from its resources to succeed. Cloud computing infrastructures are next generation platforms that can provide tremendous value to companies of any size. They can help companies achieve more efficient use of their IT hardware and software investments and provide a means to accelerate the adoption of innovations. Cloud computing increases profitability by improving resource utilization. Costs are driven down by delivering appropriate resources only for the time those resources are needed. Cloud computing has enabled teams and organizations to streamline lengthy procurement processes. Cloud computing enables innovation by alleviating the need of innovators to find resources to develop, test, and make their innovations available to the user community. Innovators are free to focus on the innovation rather than the logistics of finding and managing resources that enable the innovation. Cloud computing is a powerful new abstraction for large scale data processing systems which is scalable, reliable and available. In cloud computing, there are large self-managed server pools available which reduces the overhead and eliminates management headache. Cloud computing services can also grow and shrink according to need. Cloud computing is particularly valuable to small and medium businesses, where effective and affordable IT tools are critical to helping them become more productive without spending lots of money on in-house resources and technical equipment. Also it is a new emerging architecture needed to expand the Internet to become the computing platform of the future.


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. PDF Demystifying Clouds - discusses many players in the cloud space 9.


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