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A

Project
on
Study of youth profile
of FM Radio in Delhi.

To: Prof. Swati Singh By: Shweta Sharma


Prof. Sonu Verma Ankur Gupta
Ashish Jindal

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ACKNOWLEDMENT

I take the privilege to thank Prof. SWATI


SINGH & Prof. SONU VERMA, my teacher and
mentor for teaching and guiding me to complete the
project.

I extend my gratitude to my friends who have


given me complete encouragement to complete the
project.

I would like to thanks all the peoples who helps


me to complete this survey.

My special thanks to my beloved family who


have encouraged me to complete this project
successively.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page no.
1. INTRODUCTION 4
1.1 About consumer buying behavior
1.2 FM industry in India

2. OBJECTIVES 12
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 13
2.1 Objectives of Research
2.2 Data collection techniques
2.3 Sample size
2.4 Sampling Method
2.5 Sampling Unit
2.6 Geographical Area Covered

4. HYPOTHESIS 15

5. FINDING AND ANALYSIS 17


3.1 Graphical Representation

6. CONCLUSION 25

7. RECOMMENDATIONS 28

8. QUESTIONNAIRE 30

9. BIBLIOGRAPHY 33

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INTRODUCTION
A consumer behavior is a study of how individual
make decisions to spend their available resources on
consumption related items. Studying the consumer
buying behavior is a complex process, as it involves
not only the economic factors but also the emotional
factors. However marketers need to study the
consumer behavior, as it help them position their
products better and to develop effective marketing
strategies.
Consumer buying behavior is affected by
various factors that determine the product and brand
preference of consumer. The factors that influence
the consumer buying behavior include cultural,
social, personal and psychological factors.

Cultural Factors: Culture is considered as a set of


rules, values, beliefs, and concepts that is common to
binds together the member of society. Our culture
reflects what we eat, what we wear, the code of
conduct, our buying habits, consumption patterns and
the way we use and dispose products.

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Every subcultures has its own set of subcultures. To
tackle the problems created by sub cultural differences
marketers need to understand the requirements of the
sub cultural groups and adopt strategies like altering
the product, promotion, packaging, or prices suitable
to this groups.

Social Factors: Social factors include family, friends,


colleagues and consumer action groups influence the
consumer buying behavior significantly. An
individual’s family greatly influences the buying
patterns of the individuals. An friendship group is also
an informal and unstructured group. The influence of
this group is significant on individual buying process.
These social groups influence buyers to refrains from
buying those goods and services that exploit customer
vulnerabilities.
Personal factors: Personal factors include age, sex,
lifecycle stage, occupation, economic conditions,
personality, etc are unique to every individual.

Age and lifecycle stage: People at different stages will


have different tastes in food, clothes, shoes etc.
Therefore marketers should determine the need of
target markets and introduce different products and
marketing efforts targeted at different stages.

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Occupation and financial status: the financial status
condition of an individual such as his disposable
income, saving his ability to buy costly products and
services on installment and bear the interest rates, etc
will have a significant influence on his buying
behavior.

Life style: An individual’s way of leading his life


will determine his lifestyle. Factors such as worklife,
interest, social groups, etc influence the lifestyle of an
individual.

Psychological factors: Psychological factors like


motivation, perception and attitudes of consumers.

Motivation: A motivation is a strong urge that drives


a person’s activities toards unfulfilled needs and
wants. Marketers must work to create these wants in
the customers and target/position their product in
such a way as to invoke desire in the customer to
fulfill these wants.

Perception: Perception is defined as the process by


which an individual selects, organizes and interprets
stimuli in to meaningful thought and pictures.

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Therefore marketers must make an effort to
understand the perceptions of the customers and
adjust their marketing mix accordingly.

Beliefs and attitude: A belief is a descriptive image or


thought that an individual holds about something.

Marketers can use several methods like observation,


personal interviews, and direct questionnaires to
study the attitudes of the customers.

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RADIO

Radio has made a comeback in the lifestyles of


Indians. Radio has the reputation of being the oldest
and the cheapest medium of entertainment in India.
The radio industry has been completely reshaped by
the various private players that entered the sector
after the government allowed foreign investment into
the segment and opened the licenses to the private
players.

The Indian government has already given 338


licenses for FM radio channels in 91 big and small
towns and cities. The current size of the radio market
is India is Rs 300 crores and is expected to achieve
the highest growth rate of 32 per cent in coming
years. The quality of the sound and the music has
improved significantly with the emergence and use of
satellite radio. The audience profile has also shifted
to the high-income group. Local advertising, lower
amount of money spent by the companies to advertise
on radio is an added attractiveness for the players.

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Music all the way
They gave it their own tags - superhit music, hot
adult contemporary music, latest hits - but the fact
remained that recent Bollywood music played on
most stations throughout the day, with experiments
like western music and ‘old’ tracks relegated to the
very early mornings or the very late nights.
Very few, like Radio Indigo and Fever played
differential western music and could attract only
niche audiences, and fewer like Meow FM decided to
take the ‘talk’ format and address the female
audience directly. While Meow claimed that it had
managed to hook the feminine ears in both Delhi and
Kolkata, the other stations played safe and stuck to
the ‘less talk, more music’ formula.
All India Radio
The reign of the unchallenged state sponsored
monarch was challenged in a big way in 2007, but
some of the RAM figures indicate that AIR’s own
FM, operational even in border areas where
terrrestrial reach is a problem, continues to hold its
own. AIR also continues to enjoy a monopoly on
news and current affairs aes well as live cricket
commentary, an area that gives it a huge edge over
private FM competitors. The other player in the

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satellite space, Worldspace Radio, did not fare much
better, despite innovations like a tie up with MSN
India for streaming its content online.
Community radio, 26 stations of which became
operational this year, should become a force to
reckon with this year. The government is also
considering the proposed 5,000 licenses it plans to
issue to be divided into sectors, such as farming
community, fishing community, women and children
and others, and issue the licenses accordingly.At
present 26 stations, all by educational institutions are
using community radio.

Upward swing
Needless to say, the sudden spurt of FM brought
with it a fresh wave of young listeners, a wave
aided in no small measure by the increasing
reach of the mobile phone, which came loaded
with the FM features. Over 85 per cent of radio
listenership in metros by the end of the year
happened on the move. The figures will only go
up this year. Whether the curve is matched by an
increased burst of creativity now remains to be
seen.

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The FM Radio operating in Delhi

Frequency (MHz) Station


90.4 DU 90.4 FM (Delhi University)
90.4 Radio Jamia (Jamia Millia Islamia University
95.0 HIT 95 FM
96.9 IIMC Radio (Indian Institute of Mass
Communication, IIMC)
94.3 Radio Mirchi

102.6 All India Radio (AIR FM Rainbow / Akashvani)


104.0 Fever 104 FM (HT Media Ltd / Virgin)
104.8 Radio Today (Radio Meow FM)
105.6 Gyan Vani
106.4 All India Radio (AIR FM Gold / Akashvani
94.3 Radio One
91.1 Radio City
92.7 Big 92.7 FM
93.5 Red FM

OBJECTIVES
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1) Identification of the most preferred FM channel
& show.

2) Considering the most preferred channel, test


whether the sample of male & sample of female
are taken from the same universe or not.

3) To test is there any association between type of


programme & professional profile of
individuals.

4) To identify the personal profile of the listeners


of particular channels.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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Data collection Techniques

Sample survey
In order to gather accurate information, a surveyor relies on
censuses and sample survey method. Sampling allow
stasticians to draw conclusion about a whole by examining
a part. It is essential that a sample survey be correctly
defined & organised.

Sample size
The level of precision needed for the survey estimate will
impact the sample size. Our sample size for this survey is
60.

Sampling Techniques
Non-Probability Sampling: In non-probability sampling,
there is an assumption that there is an even distribution of
characteristics within the population. Since elements are
chosen arbitrarily, there is no way to estimate the
probability of any one element being included in the
sample.

Drawback: Reliability cannot be measured in non-


probability sampling. Statisticians are reluctant to use it
because there is no way to measure the precision of the
resulting sample.

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Despite this drawback, non-probability sampling methods
can be useful when descriptive comments about the sample
itself are desired.
Secondly, they are quick, inexpensive and convenient.

The most common types are:

• Convenience or haphazard sampling


• Volunteer sampling
• Judgement sampling
• Quota sampling.

SAMPLING UNIT

Peoples of Delhi.

Geographical Area Covered

Delhi.

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HYPOTHESIS

It is a tentative explanation for an observation,


phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested
by further investigation. It can also be defined as
something taken to be true for the purpose of
argument or investigation; an assumption and it is the
antecedent of a conditional statement.
In attempting to arrive at decision about the
population on the basis of sample information, it is
necessary to make assumption or guesses about the
population parameters involved. Such an assumption
is called statistical hypothesis which may or may not
be true. The procedure which enables us to decide on
the basis of sample, whether a hypothesis is true or
not, is called test of hypothesis or test of significance.

Null & Alternative Hypothesis


In test of hypothesis, we always begin with an
assumption, the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis
asserts that is no significant difference between the
statistic and the population parameter and whatever
observed difference is there, it is merely due to

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fluctuations in sampling from the sample population.
Null hypothesis is usually denoted by the symbol H0.
Any hypothesis which contradicts the null hypothesis
H0 is called an Alternative hypothesis and is denoted
by the symbol H1.
If we have to test whether the population mean µ has
a specified value µ0, then
Null hypothesis is H0: µ = µ0 and
Alternative hypothesis is H1: µ ≠ µ0

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Table below shows the data collected for the most


preferred FM channel & show.

Channels Shows Total no. of Total no.of


people people

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preferred the preferred the
show channel
Red FM
1) Good morning 12
Delhi
2) Happy hours 5
with Sachin
3) Total time pass 4 21
with Gaurav &
Safia
Radio Mirchi

1) Hello Delhi 5
with Nitin
2) Dilli meri jaan 4
with Dev
3) Bumper to 2
bumper with
Pallavi Rao
4) Total filmi 2 13
with ANG
Radio city
1) Route no:91 4
with Sarandeep
Nanda
2) Masala mix 3
with Richa
sayal
3) Yaden with 4 11
Karan Singh
Big 92.7 FM
1) Chal cut ley 5
2) Kiss of love 2 7

17
Meow 104.8
FM
1) Meow matinee 4
2) Safer India 4 8
Total sample 60

preferences of channels & shows

70
no. of individuals

60
50
40
30
20
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channels & shows

Shows Total no. of people preferred the show Total no.of people preferred the channel

Above table & graph shows that in the sample survey


of 60 individuals the total no. of individuals who
preferred Red Fm is 21, Radio Mirchi is 13, Radio
City is 11, Big 92.7 Fm is 7, Meow 104.8 FM is 8. So
the most preferred channel is Red FM. In the listeners
of Red fm no. of listeners to show Good morning

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Delhi is 12, Happy hours with Sachin is 5, Total time
pass with Gaurav & Safia is 4. So the most preferred
show is Good Morning Delhi.

1st Hypothesis: For the most preferred channel


whether the sample of male & female are taken from
the same universe or not. H0: µ1=µ2 (two samples are
taken from same universe). H1: µ1≠µ2 (two samples
are not taken from same universe).

Rank by male Rank by female X1- 1 (X1- 1)2 X2- 2 (X2- 2)2
X1 X2
2 1 -0.47 0.2209 -1.13 1.2769
3 4 0.53 0.2809 1.87 3.4969
6 2 3.53 12.4609 -0.13 0.0169
1 3 -1.47 2.1609 0.87 0.7569
1 1 -1.47 2.1609 -1.13 1.2769
3 3 0.53 0.2809 0.87 0.7569
1 1 -1.47 2.1609 -1.13 1.2769
1 3 -1.47 2.1609 0.87 0.7569
2 1 -0.47 0.2209 -1.13 1.2769
3 2 0.53 0.2809 -0.13 0.0169
1 3 -1.47 2.1609 0.87 0.7569
2 1 -0.47 0.2209 -1.13 1.2769
3 1 0.53 0.2809 -1.13 1.2769
2 1 -0.47 0.2209 -1.13 1.2769
7 3 4.53 20.5209 0.87 0.7569
1 4 -1.47 2.1609 1.87 3.4969
5 1 2.53 6.4009 -1.13 1.2769

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3 2 0.53 0.2809 -0.13 0.0169
2 1 -0.47 0.2209 -1.13 1.2769
1 4 -1.47 2.1609 1.87 3.4969
2 1 -0.47 0.2209 -1.13 1.2769
5 2 2.53 6.4009 -0.13 0.0169
2 1 -0.47 0.2209 -1.13 1.2769
1 3 -1.47 2.1609 0.87 0.7569
2 2 -0.47 0.2209 -0.13 0.0169
1 1 -1.47 2.1609 -1.13 1.2769
3 3 0.53 0.2809 0.87 0.7569
2 2 -0.47 0.2209 -0.13 0.0169
3 3 0.53 0.2809 0.87 0.7569
3 4 0.53 0.2809 1.87 3.4969
∑X1=74 ∑X2=64 69.467 35.467

1 = ∑X1/n1 2 = ∑X2/n2
n1 = 30 n2 = 30
1 =74/30 2 =64/30
1 = 2.47 2 = 2.13

Z=( 1 - 2)/ SE ( 1- 2)

SE ( 1- 2) = √ (S12/ n1) + (S22/ n2)


= √ (1.52/30) + (1.08/30)
= √ 3.47/30
= √0.116
= 0.34

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Z = (2.47- 2.13)/0.34
= 0.34/0.34
=1
Hence calculated value of Z is 1.
For critical value of Z we have to make an
assumption for α (level of significance). So let us
assume α=10%.
At α=10%, critical value of Z is ±1.64

Since the calculated value of Z i.e. 1 falls in the


acceptance region i.e. ±1.64. Therefore H0: µ1=µ2 is

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accepted which means that the sample of male &
female are taken from the same universe.

2nd Hypothesis: IS there any association


between type of programme & professional profile of
individuals.

H0:(There is no association between type of


programme & professional profile.)
H1:(There is an association between type of
programme & professional profile.)

Contingency table
Entertainment News Music Total
Management 8 12 9 29
Technical 3 2 14 19
Others 3 1 8 12
Total 14 15 31 60

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Row Col. Fo Fe Fo-Fe (Fo-Fe)2 (Fo-Fe)2/Fe
1 1 8 6.77 1.23 1.5129 0.2234
1 2 12 7.25 4.75 22.5625 3.1121
1 3 9 14.98 -5.98 35.7604 2.3872
2 1 3 4.43 -1.43 2.0449 0.4616
2 2 2 4.75 -2.75 7.5625 1.5921
2 3 14 9.28 4.18 17.4724 1.7792
3 1 3 2.8 0.2 0.04 0.0142
3 2 1 3 -2 4 1.333
3 3 8 6.2 1.8 3.24 0.5225
Total 11.4116
The value of calculated chi-square is χ2 = 11.4116.

The number of degree of freedom is given by


(Number of rows-1)(Number of column-1)
= (3-1) (3-1)
= 2*2
=4

From the χ2 table, for 4 degree of freedom and


α=10%, the value of chi-square statistic is given
by7.779.

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Since the value of calculated chi-square statistics falls
outside the acceptance region, null hypothesis H0 is
rejected and by default alternative hypothesis H1 is
accepted, which means that there is an association
between types of programme and professional
profile.
CONCLUSION
From the sample of 60 individuals it is concluded that
the listeners of different channels have different
personal profile, which means they have different
income level, life style, likes, dislikes, clothing,
needs etc. To discuss this let us consider the channels
one by one.

RED FM:

Out of 21 listeners of Red fm:

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1) 11 falls under the category of below 10,000
monthly income level, 7 falls under the
category of 10,000-25,000 & 3 falls under the
category of above 25,000.
2) 2 individuals use different brand of clothing,
mobile & shoes because these shows their life
style, 10 because of durability, 5 for quality &
4 because they are cheap in prices.
3) And the listeners of Red fm usually hang out at
shopping malls, M’donalds & shopping
markets.

RADIO MIRCHI:
Out of 13 listeners of Radio mirchi:

1) 3 falls under the category of below 10,000


monthly income level, 4 falls under the
category of 10,000-25,000 & 6 falls under the
category of above 25,000.
2) 5 individuals use different brand of clothing,
mobile & shoes because these shows their life
style, 4 because of durability, 2 for quality & 2
because they are cheap in prices.
3) And the listeners of Radio mirchi usually hang
out at shopping malls, cinema halls.

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RADIO CITY:
Out of 11 listeners of Radio city:

1) 2 falls under the category of below 10,000


monthly income level, 6 falls under the
category of 10,000-25,000 & 3 falls under the
category of above 25,000.
2) 5 individuals use different brand of clothing,
mobile & shoes because of durability, 3 for
quality & 3 because they are cheap in prices.
3) And the listeners of Radio city usually hang out
at malls, pubs etc.

BIG 92.7 FM
Out of 7 listeners of Big 92.7 fm:

1) 4 falls under the category of below 10,000


monthly income level, 2 falls under the
category of 10,000-25,000 & 1 falls under the
category of above 25,000.
2) 1 individuals use different brand of clothing,
mobile & shoes because these shows their life
style, 2 for quality & 4 because they are cheap
in prices.
3) And the listeners of Big 92.7 fm usually hang
out at Eating points, cyber café.

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.

MEOW 104.8 FM:


Out of 8 listeners of Meow 104.8 fm:

1) 1 falls under the category of below 10,000


monthly income level, 2 falls under the
category of 10,000-25,000 & 5 falls under the
category of above 25,000.
2) 5 individuals use different brand of clothing,
mobile & shoes because these shows their life
style, 3 for quality.
3) And the listeners of Meow 104.8 fm usually
hang out at Restaurants & shopping malls.

RECCOMENDATION

RED FM: While advertising, Red fm should address


mainly to the people of middle level income group, it
may distribute prizes to the listeners which are
durable in nature & should mainly advertise at
shopping malls, M’donalds & shopping markets.

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RADIO MIRCHI: While advertising, Radio mirchi
should address mainly to the people of relatively
higher group, it may distribute prizes to the listeners
which shows their life status & should mainly
advertise at shopping malls, cinema halls.

RADIO CITY: While advertising, Radio city should


address mainly to the people of middle level income
group, it may distribute prizes to the listeners which
are durable in nature & should mainly advertise at
malls, pubs etc.

BIG 92.7 FM: While advertising, Big 92.7 fm should


address mainly to the people of low level income
group, it may distribute prizes to the listeners more
frequently & small in nature.

MEOW 104.8 FM: While advertising, Meow 104.8


fm should address mainly to the people of relatively
higher group, it may distribute prizes to the listeners
which shows their life status & should mainly
advertise at Restaurants & shopping malls.

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Questionnaire

PROFILE

Name:…………………
Age :…………………

Gender: ( ) Male ( ) Female

Monthly Income: ( ) Below 10,000 ( ) 10,000-25,000

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( ) Above 25,000

Occupation: ( ) Business
( ) Service
( ) Student
( ) House wife

Education Background: ………………………

Which brand is indispensable to you & why?


Clothing…………………………………………………………
Mobile…………………………………………………………..
Shoes……………………………………………………………

Which are the places that you hang out & why?
…………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………

Q. 1 Rank the following FM channels from 1 to 10.


1 for the most preferred channel & 10 for the least preferred.

( ) Radio City
( ) Radio Mirchi
( ) Red FM
( ) Radio ONE
( ) Meow 104.8 FM
( ) Big 92.7 FM
( ) Fever 104 FM
( ) AIR Rainbow
( ) AIR FM Gold
( ) HIT 95 FM

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Q. 2 Which is your favourite show your most preferred channel &
why?
Ans.
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………

Q. 3 Which type of programme your prefer most?

Ans. ( ) Entertainment ( ) News ( ) Music

Q. 4 Who is your favourite RJ & why?

Ans.
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………

Q. 5 Where do you listen FM?

Ans. ………………………..

Q. 6 When do you listen?

Ans. …….......................

Q. 7 How much time a day you listen to FM?

Ans. ………………………………..

Q.8 Do you participate in the Games/Quizzes on FM channels?

Ans. ……………….........................

Q.9 Do this channel regularly make you aware about traffic?

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Ans. ……………………………....

Q. 10 Are you a regular listener?

Ans. ……………………………

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1) Marketing management, ICFAI university Press

2) Quantitative Aptitude , ICFAI university Press

3) www.google.co.in

4) www.wikipedia.com

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