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**COMPLEX NUMBERS AND PHASORS
**

Professor Andrew E. Yagle, EECS 206 Instructor, Fall 2005

Dept. of EECS, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122

I. Abstract

The purpose of this document is to introduce EECS 206 students to the concept of phasors–complex

numbers used to represent sinusoids, to simplify the math of manipulating sinusoids. Phasors will be used

again in EECS 215 and 314. It also includes a brief primer on complex numbers and their manipulations.

A. Table of contents by sections:

1. Abstract (you’re reading this now)

2. Complex numbers: Magnitude, phase, real and imaginary parts

3. Complex numbers: Polar-to-Rectangular conversion and vice-versa

4. Complex numbers: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division

5. Complex numbers: More complex manipulations

6. Phasors: Phasor-to-sinusoid conversions and vice-versa

7. Phasors: Real-world applications (borrowing from EECS 215)

B. Motivation for using Phasors (other than against the EECS 206 instructor)

What do complex numbers have to do with electrical engineering? What good are they? Before you say,

“Beam me up, Scotty,” consider the following circuits problem:

• Circuits problem: A voltage source 5 cos(6t) is connected in series with a 4Ω resistor and a

1

2

H inductor.

The goal is to compute the current i(t) which ﬂows through all three devices.

• Hard Way: In EECS 215 or 314 you will learn that Kirchoﬀ’s voltage law leads to 5 cos(6t) −4i −

1

2

di

dt

= 0.

– In Math 216 you will learn to solve this using the trial solution i(t) = Acos(6t) +Bsin(6t).

– Substituting this gives 5 cos(6t) −4Acos(6t) −4Bsin(6t) +

1

2

6Asin(6t) −

1

2

6Bcos(6t) = 0.

– Collecting terms gives [5 −4A−3B] cos(6t) + [−4B + 3A] sin(6t) = 0. Set t = 0 and t =

π

12

→

– 5 = 4A+ 3B and 0 = 3A−4B. Solving→ A = 0.8 and B = 0.6, so that i(t) = 0.8 cos(6t) + 0.6 sin(6t).

– Using the cosine addition formula three times, this simpliﬁes to the answer i(t) = cos(6t −37

o

).

• Are we having fun yet? But if we use complex numbers and phasors, we can solve the problem this way:

• Easy Way: Phasor I = 5/[4 +j(6)(1/2)] = 5/(4 +j3) = 1e

−j37

o

→ i(t) = cos(6t −37

o

).

Hard way or easy way? You make the call! Want to learn more about the easy way? Read on...

2

II. Complex numbers: Magnitude, phase, real and imaginary parts

A. You’re in EECS Now!

You’ve seen complex numbers before. For example, solving the quadratic equation z

2

−6z +13 = 0 using

the quadratic formula results in the complex number 3 + 2j and its complex conjugate 3 −2j where. . .

Wait a minute! j? It should be i! Wrong. You’re in EECS now, and in EECS i denotes current and

j =

√

−1 (note the problem in the section above). Get used to it! Fortunately, Matlab accepts either i or j

as

√

−1. We now return you to your regularly scheduled program of complex numbers review.

B. Euler’s formula

(Leonhard) Euler’s formula relates complex exponentials and trig functions. It states that

e

jθ

= cos θ +j sinθ (1)

The easiest way to derive it is to set x = jθ in the power series for e

x

:

e

jθ

= 1+(jθ)+

(jθ)

2

2!

+

(jθ)

3

3!

+

(jθ)

4

4!

+. . . = 1−

θ

2

2!

+

θ

4

4!

−

θ

6

6!

+. . .+j

_

θ

1!

−

θ

3

3!

+

θ

5

5!

+. . .

_

= cos θ+j sin θ (2)

This isn’t a rigorous derivation, but it will do for EECS 206.

Note the following immediate implications (these are worth writing on your exam cheat sheet):

• e

jπ/2

= j and e

j3π/2

= e

−jπ/2

= −j (to visualize this, see below on Argand diagrams);

• e

jπ

= −1 and e

jπ

+ 1 = 0 cogently relates the ﬁve most important numbers in mathematics;

• A few people wax rhapsodic about this formula (I think they need to get lives).

C. Deﬁnitions of Sine and Cosine in Terms of e

jθ

By adding and subtracting Euler’s formula and its complex conjugate, we get

cos θ =

1

2

(e

jθ

+e

−jθ

); sin θ =

1

2j

(e

jθ

−e

−jθ

) (3)

These are called the “inverse Euler formulae” in the oﬃcial EECS 206 lecture notes. A mathematician would

call them deﬁnitions of cos θ and sinθ (never mind all that opposite-over-hypotenuse stuﬀ...)

These are important formulae of which you will make extensive use in EECS 206. To remember them:

• cos θ is an even (symmetric) function of θ, so changing the sign of θ should not change the deﬁnition;

• sinθ is an odd (anti-symmetric) function, so changing the sign of θ should change the sign in the deﬁnition;

• The j in the denominator of sinθ is tricky; you simply have to remember it.

3

D. Polar and Rectangular Forms of Complex Numbers

Multiplying Euler’s formula by a constant M > 0 yields the two forms of complex numbers:

z =

POLAR

¸ .. ¸

M

.¸¸.

MAG

e

jθ

.¸¸.

ARG

=

RECTANGULAR

¸ .. ¸

M cos θ

. ¸¸ .

REAL

+j M sinθ

. ¸¸ .

IMAG

(4)

This allows us to deﬁne two ways of representing a complex number:

• Its polar form z = Me

jθ

, in which M=its magnitude and θ=its phase; and

• Its rectangular form z = M cos θ +jM sin θ = x +jy, in which:

• x = M cos θ=its real part and y = M sin θ=its imaginary part.

The following notation is used to represent the above four parts of a complex number z:

• Magnitude: M = |z|. Phase: θ = arg[z] (argument of z is another term for phase of z)

• Real part: x = Re[z]. Imaginary part: y = Im[z]. Warning: Im[3 +j4] = 4 NOT j4!

• Polar form is sometimes written using: z = Me

jθ

= M

**θ (this is easier to read since θ is larger).
**

III. Complex numbers: Polar-to-Rectangular Conversion and vice-versa

A. Procedures: Polar-to-Rectangular Conversion and vice-versa

The above equation allows easy conversion between the polar and rectangular forms of a complex number:

• Given the polar form z = Me

jθ

, its rectangular form z = x +jy is computed using:

– x = M cos θ = Re[z]=real part of z;

– y = M sinθ = Im[z]=imaginary part of z.

• Given the rectangular form z = x +jy, its polar form z = Me

jθ

is computed using:

– M =

_

x

2

+y

2

= |z|=magnitude of z;

– θ = arctan(

y

x

) = tan

−1

(

y

x

)=phase of z. IF x < 0 then use θ = arctan(

y

x

) +π = tan

−1

(

y

x

) +π.

What’s this about x < 0? Try converting z = −1 −j to polar form:

• M =

_

(−1)

2

+ (−1)

2

=

√

2 and θ = arctan(

−1

−1

) =

π

4

→ −1 −j =

√

2e

jπ/4

. NOT! (try P → R).

• The problem is that there are two solutions to the always-correct tan θ =

y

x

, 180

o

apart.

• You have to choose the correct one. The sign of the real part x tells you which one is correct.

Your calculator has, somewhere on it, both an R → P key or function and a P → R key or function.

Please don’t ask me to ﬁnd it for you; some of your calculators look like the dashboard on the space shuttle!

Find them, and learn to use them–you will use them a lot in EECS 206 and 215 or 314.

B. Examples: Polar-to-Rectangular Conversion and vice-versa

3 + j4 = 5e

j0.927

: 3 = 5 cos(0.927) 4 = 5 sin(0.927) 5 =

√

3

2

+ 4

2

0.927 = arctan(

4

3

)

1 + j =

√

2e

j0.785

: 1 =

√

2 cos(0.785) 1 =

√

2 sin(0.785)

√

2 =

√

1

2

+ 1

2

0.785 = arctan(

1

1

)

−5 +j12 = 13e

j1.966

: −5 = 13 cos(1.966) 12 = 13 sin(1.966) 13 =

√

5

2

+ 12

2

1.966 = arctan(

12

−5

) +π

4

You can visualize these using an Argand diagram, which is just a plot of imaginary part vs. real part of a

complex number. For example, z = 3 + j4 = 5e

j0.927

is plotted at rectangular coordinates (3, 4) and polar

coordinates (5, 0.927), where 0.927 is the angle in radians measured counterclockwise from the positive real

axis (try it). This is an excellent way of picking up errors, especially in the phase being oﬀ by π radians=180.

o

IV. Complex numbers: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division

So why bother with rectangular-to-polar or polar-to-rectangular conversions? Here’s why:

• To multiply or divide complex numbers, convert them to polar form and use Me

jθ

Ne

jφ

= (MN)e

j(θ+φ)

;

• In particular, note that the magnitude of a product is the product of the magnitudes;

• To add or subtract, convert to rectangular form and use (a +jb) + (c +jd) = (a +c) +j(b +d).

The following two examples (side-by-side) show how to do this:

5e

j0.927

+

√

2e

j0.785

= 6.4e

j0.896

3 +j4 × 1 + j = −1 +j7

⇓ P → R ⇓ P → R ⇑ R → P ⇓ R → P ⇓ R → P ⇑ P → R

3 + j4 + 1 +j = 4 +j5 5e

j0.927

×

√

2e

j0.785

= 5

√

2e

j1.71

add in rectangular form multiply in polar form

Note that we have already seen all of the P → R and R → P conversions used here.

Yes, for this simple example you could compute

(3 +j4)(1 +j) = ((3 · 1) −(4 · 1)) + j((4 · 1) + (3 · 1)) = −1 +j7 (5)

but for more complicated examples you won’t want to do this.

Another example (from the oﬃcial lecture notes):

Compute 2

√

3e

jπ/6

+ 2e

−jπ/3

by converting polar to rectangular :

= 2

√

3 cos(π/6) +j2

√

3 sin(π/6) + 2 cos(π/3) +j2 sin(−π/3)

= 2

√

3(

√

3/2) +j2

√

3(1/2) + 2(1/2) −j2(

√

3/2) = 4(!) (6)

Another example, entirely in the polar domain:

(2

√

3e

jπ/6

)/(2e

−jπ/3

) =

2

√

3

2

e

j(π/6−(−π/3))

=

√

3e

jπ/2

= j

√

3 (7)

V. Complex numbers: Complex Manipulations

A. Complex Conjugates

The complex conjugate z

∗

of z is z

∗

= x −jy = Me

−jθ

= M

**−θ. This turns out to be useful:
**

• Re[z] =

1

2

(z +z

∗

): We can get the real part by adding the complex conjugate and halving;

5

• |z|

2

= zz

∗

: We can get magnitude by multiplying by the complex conjugate and taking a square root;

• e

j2ARG[z]

=

z

z

∗

: We can get the phase by dividing by the complex conjugate and taking half the log;

• Also, |z

∗

| = |z|; arg[z

∗

] = −arg[z]; z = Me

jθ

→ z

∗

= Me

−jθ

;

1

z

=

1

M

e

−jθ

; −z = Me

j(θ±π)

.

B. Complex Expressions

Try this: compute |

5(8+j)(8+j6)(5+j12)(5+j10)

26(7+j4)(7+j24)(2+j11)

| (!) Are you kidding me? And yet it’s quite easy:

5(8 +j)(8 +j6)(5 +j12)(5 +j10)

26(7 +j4)(7 +j24)(2 +j11)

=

5|8 +j| · |8 +j6| · |5 +j12| · |5 +j10|

26|7 +j4| · |7 +j24| · |2 +j11|

=

¸

(25)(65)(100)(169)(125)

(26)

2

(65)(625)(125)

= 1

(8)

Two very important rules (they will be even more important in EECS 215 and 314):

• Magnitude of the product of complex numbers is product of magnitudes.

• Argument of the product of complex numbers is the sum of arguments.

The following identity is true to an overall sign. Why? (Try doing this solely in rectangular form!)

(a +jb)(c +jd)

(e +jf)(g + jh)

=

¸

(a

2

+b

2

)(c

2

+d

2

)

(e

2

+f

2

)(g

2

+h

2

)

exp j[tan

−1

(b/a) + tan

−1

(d/c) −tan

−1

(f/e) −tan

−1

(h/g)] (9)

VI. Phasors: Phasor-to-sinusoid conversions and vice-versa

A. Procedures: Phasor-to-sinusoid conversions and vice-versa

The bottom line: A phasor is a complex number used to represent a sinusoid. In particular:

sinusoid x(t) = M cos(ωt +θ), −∞ < t < ∞ functionof time

phasor X = Me

jθ

= M cos θ +jM sin θ complexnumber

What do these two things have to do with each other? Consider the following:

• x(t) = Re[Xe

jωt

] = Re[Me

jθ

e

jωt

] = Re[Me

j(ωt+θ)

] = M cos(ωt +θ).

• This relates the phasor X with the sinusoidal signal x(t).

• Now apply this trick to the sum of two sinusoids at the same frequency:

• Acos(ωt +θ) +Bcos(ωt +φ) = Re[Ae

j(ωt+θ)

+Be

j(ωt+φ)

] = Re[e

jωt

(Ae

jθ

+Be

jφ

)]

• Note the crucial step: The complex exponential e

jωt

factors out of the sum!

• Now let Ae

jθ

+Be

jφ

= Ce

jψ

for some C and ψ (as we were doing before).

• Then: Re[e

jωt

(Ae

jθ

+Be

jφ

)] = Re[e

jωt

(Ce

jψ

)] = C cos(ωt +ψ).

• The trigonometry equation Acos(ωt +θ) +Bcos(ωt +φ) = C cos(ωt +ψ) (ugh)

• Is equivalent to the complex number equation Ae

jθ

+Be

jφ

= Ce

jψ

(OK!)

How does this work in practice? Try some examples:

6

B. Examples: Phasor-to-sinusoid conversions and vice-versa

• Example #1: Simplify 5 cos(ωt + 53

o

) +

√

2 cos(ωt + 45

o

)

• The hard way: Use the cosine addition formula three times (the third time to simplify the result)(ugh).

• The easy way: Phasors: 5e

j53

o

+

√

2e

j45

o

= (3 +j4) + (1 +j) = (4 +j5) = 6.4e

j51

o

.

• So 5 cos(ωt + 53

o

) +

√

2 cos(ωt + 45

o

) = 6.4 cos(ωt + 51

o

).

• Example #2: Simplify cos(ωt + 30

o

) + cos(ωt + 150

o

)) + cos(ωt −90

o

).

• The hard way: Use the cosine addition formula three times (the third time to simplify the result)(ugh).

• The easy way: Phasors: e

j30

o

+e

j150

o

+e

−j90

o

= 0 (think resultant; draw an Argand diagram).

• So cos(ωt + 30

o

) + cos(ωt + 150

o

)) + cos(ωt −90

o

) = 0. You didn’t even need your calculator!

• This fact is used in three-phase current (still used in some rural areas) so current ﬂow is conserved.

• I could have made it a little harder by making the last term sin(ωt) = cos(ωt −90

o

).

• Use the trig identity sin(ωt +θ) = cos(ωt +θ −π/2) as a deﬁnition, as necessary.

VII. Phasors: Real-world applications (borrowing from EECS 215)

Don’t panic–these won’t be on any EECS 206 exams! (But they WILL be on EECS 215 or 314 exams.)

In EECS 215 or 314 you will encounter a lot of circuits problems like this:

• Problem #1: A voltage source 26 cos(50t) is connected to a small motor. The motor is modelled by a 12Ω

resistor (coil resistance) in series with a 0.1H inductor (coil inductance eﬀects).

• Compute the current i(t) passing through the motor and the average power dissipated in the motor.

• In EECS 215 or 314, you will learn that the current phasor I and average power P can be written as:

• I =

26+j0

12+j50(0.1)

=

26

0

13

22.6

o

= 2

−22.6

o

→ i(t) = 2 cos(50t −22.6

o

). Peak current=2 amps (a lot!)

• P =

1

2

Re[V I

∗

] =

1

2

Re[26(2

−22.6

o

)] = 26 cos(22.6

o

) = 24 watts.

This next problem is about power factor correction, which uses lots of complex numbers and phasors:

• Problem #2: A blender motor is modelled by a 30Ω resistor (modelling the coil resistance) in series with

a

40

377

H inductor (modelling the inductive eﬀects of the coil). What power is dissipated by the motor?

• The blender is plugged into a wall socket which delivers a sinusoidal voltage at 120 volts rms at 60 Hertz.

This implies an amplitude of A = 120

√

2 ≈ 170 volts (did you know that peak voltage is 170 volts, not 120?)

and a frequency of ω = 2π60 ≈ 377

RAD

SEC

. Tell your aunt/uncle engineer you know about the number 377.

• rms current phasor = I =

120+j0

30+j(2π60)(40/377)

=

120+j0

30+j40

= 2.4

−53

o

→ i(t) = 2.4

√

2 cos(377t −53

o

).

• Average power dissipated = P = Re[V

rms

I

∗

rms

] = Re[(120)(2.4e

−j53

o

)] = 172.8 watts.

• Problem: The voltage and current are 53

o

out of phase, so the motor draws more current than it should.

7

• So what? Detroit Edison will charge you big-time for this! And they will be right! Why?

– Detroit Edison’s generators need to generate more current than they should have to;

– Need physically bigger (thicker and heavier) transmission lines to carry the current;

– More current→greater losses and heating (power dissipation) due to line resistance;

– Hotter transmission lines expand and sag, touching something; this causes blackouts.

• So what do we do? Hook a capacitor C in parallel with the motor. RMS current phasor:

• I

rms

= 120[1/(30 +j40) +j2π(60)C)] (see EECS 215 or 314 when you study admittance).

• What value of C makes the phase of I

rms

zero? You should obtain C = 42.4 ×10

−6

= 42.4µF.

• Then I

rms

= 1.44

**0 and average power dissipated=Re[V
**

rms

I

∗

rms

] = (120)(1.44) = 172.8 watts.

• But note: The current amplitude has dropped from 2.4

√

2 amps to 1.44

√

2 amps!

• We have almost halved the peak current, while maintaining average power=172.8 watts.

A. Miscellaneous Problems

The above problem shows why you care about problems like these:

• Problem #1: 2 cos(ωt +

π

3

) +Acos(ωt +

5π

4

) = Bcos(ωt) for what value of A?

• That is, what should the amplitude A be to make the left side be in phase with a pure cosine?

• Phasors: 2e

jπ/3

+Ae

j5π/4

= B → 0 = Im[2e

jπ/3

+Ae

j5π/4

] = 2 sin(

π

3

) +Asin(

5π

4

) → A =

√

6.

• Note this is the same problem as this: For what A is 2e

jπ/3

+Ae

j5π/4

purely real?

• Problem #2: The amplitude of 5 cos(7t + 0.927) +Asin(7t) is 3 for what value of A?

• Phasors: 5e

j0.927

+Ae

−jπ/2

= 3e

jθ

→ (3 +j4) −jA = 3 +j(4 −A) has magnitude=3 only if A = 4.

• Note that in general this type of problem will have two solutions or none.

• Problem #3: Derive the trig identity cos(3θ) = cos

3

θ −3 cos θ sin

2

θ without using any trig.

• Cube Euler’s formula: e

j3θ

= (cos θ +j sin θ)

3

= cos

3

θ + 3j cos

2

θ sinθ −3 cos θ sin

2

θ −j sin

3

θ.

• Equating real parts gives the desired trig identity. Also: try equating imaginary parts.

• Problem #4: Compute and put in rectangular form

_

√

2

2

(1 +j)

_

1003

. This is a stunt,

•

_

√

2

2

(1 +j)

_

1003

= (1e

jπ/4

)

1003

= e

j1000π/4

e

j3π/4

= e

j3π/4

=

√

2

2

(−1 +j). but illustrative.

• Problem #5: Compute the ﬁve 5

th

roots of 32, i.e., the ﬁve solutions of z

5

−32 = 0.

• {2e

j2π1/5

, 2e

j2π2/5

, 2e

j2π3/5

, 2e

j2π4/5

, 2e

j2π5/5

= 2}. HINT: Draw an Argand diagram.

• We will use this result for comb ﬁlters later on in EECS 206.

Matlab accepts either i or j √ as −1. but it will do for EECS 206. and in EECS i denotes current and √ j = −1 (note the problem in the section above). Note the following immediate implications (these are worth writing on your exam cheat sheet): • • • ejπ/2 = j and ej3π/2 = e−jπ/2 = −j (to visualize this.. A mathematician would call them deﬁnitions of cos θ and sin θ (never mind all that opposite-over-hypotenuse stuﬀ.) These are important formulae of which you will make extensive use in EECS 206. You’re in EECS now. . You’re in EECS Now! You’ve seen complex numbers before. . . sin θ is an odd (anti-symmetric) function. Complex numbers: Magnitude. . Wait a minute! j? It should be i! Wrong. so changing the sign of θ should not change the deﬁnition. For example. solving the quadratic equation z 2 − 6z + 13 = 0 using the quadratic formula results in the complex number 3 + 2j and its complex conjugate 3 − 2j where. so changing the sign of θ should change the sign in the deﬁnition. . ejπ = −1 and ejπ + 1 = 0 cogently relates the ﬁve most important numbers in mathematics. We now return you to your regularly scheduled program of complex numbers review.2 II... real and imaginary parts A. It states that ejθ = cos θ + j sin θ The easiest way to derive it is to set x = jθ in the power series for ex : ejθ = 1+(jθ)+ (jθ)2 (jθ)3 (jθ)4 θ2 θ4 θ6 + + +. To remember them: • • • cos θ is an even (symmetric) function of θ. = 1− + − +. we get cos θ = 1 jθ (e + e−jθ ).+j 2! 3! 4! 2! 4! 6! θ3 θ5 θ − + + .. see below on Argand diagrams). Euler’s formula (Leonhard) Euler’s formula relates complex exponentials and trig functions. phase. you simply have to remember it. Get used to it! Fortunately. . A few people wax rhapsodic about this formula (I think they need to get lives). B. 1! 3! 5! = cos θ+j sin θ (2) (1) This isn’t a rigorous derivation. The j in the denominator of sin θ is tricky. . C. Deﬁnitions of Sine and Cosine in Terms of ejθ By adding and subtracting Euler’s formula and its complex conjugate. 2 sin θ = 1 jθ (e − e−jθ ) 2j (3) These are called the “inverse Euler formulae” in the oﬃcial EECS 206 lecture notes.

some of your calculators look like the dashboard on the space shuttle! Find them. • • • y The problem is that there are two solutions to the always-correct tan θ = x . The following notation is used to represent the above four parts of a complex number z: • • • Magnitude: M = |z|.966) . What’s this about x < 0? Try converting z = −1 − j to polar form: √ √ M = (−1)2 + (−1)2 = 2 and θ = arctan( −1 ) = π → −1 − j = 2ejπ/4 .785 = arctan( 1 ) 12 1. Procedures: Polar-to-Rectangular Conversion and vice-versa The above equation allows easy conversion between the polar and rectangular forms of a complex number: • Given the polar form z = M ejθ .927 = arctan( 3 ) 1 0. III. Polar and Rectangular Forms of Complex Numbers Multiplying Euler’s formula by a constant M > 0 yields the two forms of complex numbers: POLAR RECTANGULAR z= M e jθ = M cos θ +j M sin θ REAL IMAG (4) MAG ARG This allows us to deﬁne two ways of representing a complex number: • • • Its polar form z = M ejθ .927) √ 1 = 2 sin(0. Complex numbers: Polar-to-Rectangular Conversion and vice-versa A. in which: x = M cos θ=its real part and y = M sin θ=its imaginary part. in which M =its magnitude and θ=its phase.966 = arctan( −5 ) + π −5 + j12 = 13ej1. – y = M sin θ = Im[z]=imaginary part of z. Warning: Im[3 + j4] = 4 NOT j4! Polar form is sometimes written using: z = M ejθ = M θ (this is easier to read since θ is larger).3 D.966) 12 = 13 sin(1. y y IF x < 0 then use θ = arctan( x ) + π = tan−1 ( x ) + π. Given the rectangular form z = x + jy. Your calculator has. The sign of the real part x tells you which one is correct.785) √ 5 = 32 + 42 √ √ 2 = 12 + 12 √ 13 = 52 + 122 4 0. Examples: Polar-to-Rectangular Conversion and vice-versa 3 + j4 = 5ej0. its rectangular form z = x + jy is computed using: – x = M cos θ = Re[z]=real part of z.785) 4 = 5 sin(0. • x2 + y 2 = |z|=magnitude of z.966 : −5 = 13 cos(1. −1 4 You have to choose the correct one. 180o apart. NOT! (try P → R). its polar form z = M ejθ is computed using: – M= y y – θ = arctan( x ) = tan−1 ( x )=phase of z. Real part: x = Re[z]. both an R → P key or function and a P → R key or function. and learn to use them–you will use them a lot in EECS 206 and 215 or 314. somewhere on it.927) √ 1 = 2 cos(0. B.927 : √ 1 + j = 2ej0. Please don’t ask me to ﬁnd it for you. and Its rectangular form z = M cos θ + jM sin θ = x + jy.785 : 3 = 5 cos(0. Phase: θ = arg[z] (argument of z is another term for phase of z) Imaginary part: y = Im[z].

927 is the angle in radians measured counterclockwise from the positive real axis (try it).927 × × 1+j ⇓R→P √ j0. Another example (from the oﬃcial lecture notes): √ Compute 2 3ejπ/6 + 2e−jπ/3 by √ √ = 2 3 cos(π/6) + j2 3 sin(π/6) + √ √ √ = 2 3( 3/2) + j2 3(1/2) + Another example. especially in the phase being oﬀ by π radians=180. convert to rectangular form and use (a + jb) + (c + jd) = (a + c) + j(b + d). real part of a complex number. .785 2e = −1 + j7 ⇑P →R √ 5 2ej1. convert them to polar form and use M ejθ N ejφ = (M N )ej(θ+φ) . To add or subtract. In particular.4ej0. note that the magnitude of a product is the product of the magnitudes. 0.785 2e ⇓P →R 1+j in rectangular = 6. z = 3 + j4 = 5ej0.927 ⇓P →R 3 + j4 add + + √ j0. 4) and polar coordinates (5. which is just a plot of imaginary part vs. Complex numbers: Complex Manipulations A. This turns out to be useful: (7) converting polar to rectangular : 2 cos(π/3) + j2 sin(−π/3) √ 2(1/2) − j2( 3/2) = 4(!) (5) (6) • 1 Re[z] = 2 (z + z ∗ ): We can get the real part by adding the complex conjugate and halving. multiplication. For example. Complex Conjugates The complex conjugate z ∗ of z is z ∗ = x − jy = M e−jθ = M − θ.71 form = multiply in polar Note that we have already seen all of the P → R and R → P conversions used here. Yes. where 0. This is an excellent way of picking up errors. Complex numbers: Addition. entirely in the polar domain: √ √ √ jπ/6 2 3 j(π/6−(−π/3)) √ jπ/2 −jπ/3 )/(2e )= =j 3 e = 3e (2 3e 2 V. division So why bother with rectangular-to-polar or polar-to-rectangular conversions? Here’s why: • • • To multiply or divide complex numbers.4 You can visualize these using an Argand diagram. subtraction. for this simple example you could compute (3 + j4)(1 + j) = ((3 · 1) − (4 · 1)) + j((4 · 1) + (3 · 1)) = −1 + j7 but for more complicated examples you won’t want to do this.896 ⇑R→P = 4 + j5 form 3 + j4 ⇓R→P 5ej0.o IV. The following two examples (side-by-side) show how to do this: 5ej0.927).927 is plotted at rectangular coordinates (3.

B. Phasors: Phasor-to-sinusoid conversions and vice-versa A.5 • • • |z|2 = zz ∗ : We can get magnitude by multiplying by the complex conjugate and taking a square root. −∞ < t < ∞ function of time phasor X = M ejθ = M cos θ + jM sin θ complex number What do these two things have to do with each other? Consider the following: • • • • • x(t) = Re[Xejωt ] = Re[M ejθ ejωt ] = Re[M ej(ωt+θ) ] = M cos(ωt + θ). Complex Expressions Try this: compute | 5(8+j)(8+j6)(5+j12)(5+j10) | (!) Are you kidding me? And yet it’s quite easy: 26(7+j4)(7+j24)(2+j11) 5(8 + j)(8 + j6)(5 + j12)(5 + j10) 5|8 + j| · |8 + j6| · |5 + j12| · |5 + j10| = = 26(7 + j4)(7 + j24)(2 + j11) 26|7 + j4| · |7 + j24| · |2 + j11| (25)(65)(100)(169)(125) =1 (26)2 (65)(625)(125) (8) Two very important rules (they will be even more important in EECS 215 and 314): • • Magnitude of the product of complex numbers is product of magnitudes. z = M ejθ → z ∗ = M e−jθ . In particular: sinusoid x(t) = M cos(ωt + θ). Now apply this trick to the sum of two sinusoids at the same frequency: A cos(ωt + θ) + B cos(ωt + φ) = Re[Aej(ωt+θ) + Bej(ωt+φ) ] = Re[ejωt (Aejθ + Bejφ )] Note the crucial step: The complex exponential ejωt factors out of the sum! Now let Aejθ + Bejφ = Cejψ for some C and ψ (as we were doing before). = 1 −jθ . Argument of the product of complex numbers is the sum of arguments. The following identity is true to an overall sign. Then: Re[ejωt (Aejθ + Bejφ )] = Re[ejωt (Cejψ )] = C cos(ωt + ψ). Procedures: Phasor-to-sinusoid conversions and vice-versa The bottom line: A phasor is a complex number used to represent a sinusoid. |z ∗ | = |z|. This relates the phasor X with the sinusoidal signal x(t). Why? (Try doing this solely in rectangular form!) (a + jb)(c + jd) = (e + jf )(g + jh) (a2 + b2 )(c2 + d2 ) exp j[tan−1 (b/a) + tan−1 (d/c) − tan−1 (f /e) − tan−1 (h/g)] (e2 + f 2 )(g 2 + h2 ) (9) VI. The trigonometry equation A cos(ωt + θ) + B cos(ωt + φ) = C cos(ωt + ψ) (ugh) Is equivalent to the complex number equation Aejθ + Bejφ = Cejψ (OK!) • • • • How does this work in practice? Try some examples: . ej2ARG[z] = z z∗ : We can get the phase by dividing by the complex conjugate and taking half the log. arg[z ∗ ] = −arg[z]. Me −z = M ej(θ±π) . 1 z Also.

The motor is modelled by a 12Ω resistor (coil resistance) in series with a 0.1H inductor (coil inductance eﬀects).6o)] = 26 cos(22. so the motor draws more current than it should. Tell your aunt/uncle engineer you know about the number 377.4 cos(ωt + 51o ). o o o • • • • So cos(ωt + 30o ) + cos(ωt + 150o)) + cos(ωt − 90o ) = 0.1) • • • = 1 P = 2 Re[V I ∗ ] = 26 0 = 13 22. In EECS 215 or 314. as necessary. √ So 5 cos(ωt + 53o ) + 2 cos(ωt + 45o) = 6.6o ) = 24 watts. • Compute the current i(t) passing through the motor and the average power dissipated in the motor. What power is dissipated by the motor? and a frequency of ω = 2π60 ≈ 377 RAD . SEC √ 120+j0 120+j0 o o • rms current phasor = I = 30+j(2π60)(40/377) = 30+j40 = 2. you will learn that the current phasor I and average power P can be written as: I= 26+j0 12+j50(0.8 watts. • ∗ Average power dissipated = P = Re[Vrms Irms ] = Re[(120)(2. The hard way: Use the cosine addition formula three times (the third time to simplify the result)(ugh). Use the trig identity sin(ωt + θ) = cos(ωt + θ − π/2) as a deﬁnition. draw an Argand diagram).6o → i(t) = 2 cos(50t − 22.4 − 53 → i(t) = 2.6 B. Phasors: Real-world applications (borrowing from EECS 215) Don’t panic–these won’t be on any EECS 206 exams! (But they WILL be on EECS 215 or 314 exams. Examples: Phasor-to-sinusoid conversions and vice-versa √ o • Example #1: Simplify 5 cos(ωt + 53 ) + 2 cos(ωt + 45o ) • • • The hard way: Use the cosine addition formula three times (the third time to simplify the result)(ugh). √ This implies an amplitude of A = 120 2 ≈ 170 volts (did you know that peak voltage is 170 volts.6o 1 2 Re[26(2 2 − 22.4e−j53 )] = 172. not 120?) • Problem: The voltage and current are 53o out of phase. You didn’t even need your calculator! This fact is used in three-phase current (still used in some rural areas) so current ﬂow is conserved. o The blender is plugged into a wall socket which delivers a sinusoidal voltage at 120 volts rms at 60 Hertz. This next problem is about power factor correction. The easy way: Phasors: ej30 + ej150 + e−j90 = 0 (think resultant.) • • • In EECS 215 or 314 you will encounter a lot of circuits problems like this: • Problem #1: A voltage source 26 cos(50t) is connected to a small motor. VII. which uses lots of complex numbers and phasors: • Problem #2: A blender motor is modelled by a 30Ω resistor (modelling the coil resistance) in series with 40 377 H a • inductor (modelling the inductive eﬀects of the coil). √ o o o The easy way: Phasors: 5ej53 + 2ej45 = (3 + j4) + (1 + j) = (4 + j5) = 6. .4 2 cos(377t − 53 ). I could have made it a little harder by making the last term sin(ωt) = cos(ωt − 90o ). Peak current=2 amps (a lot!) − 22.4ej51 .6o). Example #2: Simplify cos(ωt + 30o ) + cos(ωt + 150o)) + cos(ωt − 90o ).

. 2ej2π5/5 = 2}.44) = 172. We have almost halved the peak current. A. i.e. Equating real parts gives the desired trig identity. – More current→greater losses and heating (power dissipation) due to line resistance. – Need physically bigger (thicker and heavier) transmission lines to carry the current. what should the amplitude A be to make the left side be in phase with a pure cosine? √ Phasors: 2ejπ/3 + Aej5π/4 = B → 0 = Im[2ejπ/3 + Aej5π/4 ] = 2 sin( π ) + A sin( 5π ) → A = 6. 2ej2π4/5 . touching something. So what do we do? Hook a capacitor C in parallel with the motor.4 2 amps to 1. This is a stunt. but illustrative. the ﬁve solutions of z 5 − 32 = 0. 3 4 Note this is the same problem as this: For what A is 2ejπ/3 + Aej5π/4 purely real? • • • Problem #2: The amplitude of 5 cos(7t + 0. Problem #3: Derive the trig identity cos(3θ) = cos3 θ − 3 cos θ sin2 θ without using any trig. this causes blackouts. Miscellaneous Problems The above problem shows why you care about problems like these: • • • • Problem #1: 2 cos(ωt + π ) + A cos(ωt + 3 5π 4 ) = B cos(ωt) for what value of A? That is.44 2 amps! • • • • • • What value of C makes the phase of Irms zero? You should obtain C = 42. Also: try equating imaginary parts. RMS current phasor: Irms = 120[1/(30 + j40) + j2π(60)C)] (see EECS 215 or 314 when you study admittance). √ √ But note: The current amplitude has dropped from 2.8 watts.927 + Ae−jπ/2 = 3ejθ → (3 + j4) − jA = 3 + j(4 − A) has magnitude=3 only if A = 4. . 2ej2π2/5 . HINT: Draw an Argand diagram.7 • So what? Detroit Edison will charge you big-time for this! And they will be right! Why? – Detroit Edison’s generators need to generate more current than they should have to. while maintaining average power=172. Problem #5: Compute the ﬁve 5th roots of 32.8 watts. ∗ Then Irms = 1. • • • {2ej2π1/5 . We will use this result for comb ﬁlters later on in EECS 206. Note that in general this type of problem will have two solutions or none. 2ej2π3/5 .4µF . + j) 1003 = (1ejπ/4 )1003 = ej1000π/4 ej3π/4 = ej3π/4 = √ 2 2 (−1 + j).927) + A sin(7t) is 3 for what value of A? Phasors: 5ej0. • • + j) 1003 .44 0 and average power dissipated=Re[Vrms Irms ] = (120)(1. Problem #4: Compute and put in rectangular form √ 2 2 (1 √ 2 2 (1 • • • Cube Euler’s formula: ej3θ = (cos θ + j sin θ)3 = cos3 θ + 3j cos2 θ sin θ − 3 cos θ sin2 θ − j sin3 θ. – Hotter transmission lines expand and sag.4 × 10−6 = 42.

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