PBL report

Group b Lecture group 5 At 16 Group members:
Nur eliana bt mohmad noor Norjamnah bt ismail Salmiza bt zainal abidin Sandra meru Noor hajah sanita bt mohd satar (d20091035093) (D20091035097) (d20091035074) (d20091035087) (d20091035086)

Introduction

Problem-based learning (PBL) is a way of study which the students need to think creatively in solving the surrounding phenomenon. The most important part in PBL is the chart which is called the FILA chart. The chart consists of facts, ideas, learning issues and action plan.

Problem Scenario : A Food and Beverage student from local university is introduced to a famous hotel in Kuala Lumpur and she got some tips on cooking by the chef for her practical. From the given situation, she can learn the importance and the useful tips in preparing a healthy food for the hotel customers. Throughout her practical, she will be able to apply her new knowledge tips from the chef of the hotel.

Fila chart

Facts The hotel provide a balanced food for the customers

Ideas • Our body will get all the nutrients needed • Hotel cares about customer’s health

Learning Issues - What is the nutrient needed by our body? - What are the advantage of taking balance food?

Action Plan *Internet Address : • http://www.smartbala nce.com/SBFoodplan .aspx • Balancedfood.blogsp ot.com • http://www.annecolli ns.com/dietnutrition-issues.htm *Internet website address: • http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/honey • http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/honey.nutritio n *Internet Address : • http://thehealthadvant age.com/acdalkalineb alance.html

Honey is necessary for breakfast

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Honey can generate our mind-thinking Honey give energy to start our day Salty water can make apple lasts longer Soaking apple in salty water can makes the apple look fresh Vegetable easily wilt if overcooked We can keep the nutritious and freshness if the vegetable is cooked in shorter period.

-How honey can generate our mind thinking? -What are the ingredient in honey?

Apple were soak in a bit of salty water

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-What are the effect of salty water to the apple? -How the oxidation process can prevented by soaking the apple in salty water? - Why vegetable easily wilt when it is overcooked? - How to maintain its nutritious in vegetable?

Vegetable must be fry with big fire and shorter period

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*Internet source *cooking magazine

Gravy of bubur kacang and pengat pisang

Gravy may get burnt if not stir continuously

-Why must stir continuously with small fire?

* www.hotcookingtips.com

were stir with small fire Meat need to be stabbed with fork and cannot be over cooked

There will be clump at the bottom of the pot. In order to keep its nutritious in meat we must not cook for longer period

- Why meat need to be stabbed? - Why meat cannot be over cooked?

*Internet • http://www.tidbitsan dstuff.com/articles/fo od/sirloin.shtml

a) Prepare Balanced Food Learning issues 1. What are the advantages of taking balanced food? 2. What are the nutrient needed for our body ?

Balanced food is a healthy and well balanced diet which is about eating the right amounts and variety of foods from each of the main food groups every day. It contain sufficient amounts of fiber and various nutrients to ensure good health. The nutrients are carbohydrates, fats , proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrate are the main source of energy. It also protect our muscles and help regulate the amounts of sugar circulating in blood. There are three groups of carbohydrates which are monosaccharide, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Examples of carbohydrates are rice, cereals, bread, legumes and flour. Proteins are important for us by building new cells and repairing damage cells. Example of proteins are fish, meat, egg, soy, legumes and cheese. Fats also important for energy production, cell building, oxygen transport, and insulates our body. It is important for us to take balanced food because it can keep our body in good health and also can prevent chronic diseases. The chronic diseases that may affect

our health due to lack of balanced food are heart diseases, diabetes, cancer, stroke and also obesity. Conclusion Balanced food is necessary in our daily life because it can maintain a good health by preventing chronic diseases

b) Serve honey together other food during breakfast Learning issues 1. What are the nutrients contain in honey? 2. How honey can provide energy for us? Honey is a source of the carbohydrates that containing 80% natural sugar mostly fructose and glucose, 18% water and 2% minerals, vitamins and protein. Fructose and sucrose are the examples of monosaccharide. Monosaccharide are the simplest sugar and its main function is to provide energy through metabolic pathway. Glucose is the main organic resource of energy which being breakdown during metabolic process. So, we will get energy by practicing taking honey with other food during breakfast. As we all know, breakfast is important because it is a starter of our day. The other nutrients in honey are minerals and vitamins which important to maintain our health. Vitamins will strengthens our immune system and protects body from viral attacks.

Conclusion honey contain nutrients such as carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals that can give us energy and can improved our life quality.

c) Soak the prepared apple in a bit of salty water. Learning issues How the oxidation process can prevented by soaking the apple in salty water? When the apple is exposed to the air which contain oxygen, there will be an oxidation or enzymatic browning occur. These pigments are called flavonols (formerly called tannins), and are colorless in the fresh fruit, but turn a brown or grayish color when oxidized. Enzymes within the cell catalyze this reaction when oxygen is present, which occurs during the cutting of fruit. When the apple is soaked in a salt water, the acid will play important role in preventing the oxidation. Acid present in salt water will prevent the oxygen from contacting with the apple. Thus, it is called antioxidants. The acid in salt water will block the oxygen from contacting with the surface. Conclusion Salty water are acidic and can acts as antioxidants which prevent the apple from being oxidized.

d) Fry The Vegetables With A Big Fire And A Shorter Period Learning Issues 1. Why the vegetables easily wilt when it is overcooked?

2. How to maintain the nutrients in vegetables? The vegetables contains a lot of fibers and cellulose. Fibers are good for us as to prevent constipation. Vegetables should be taken in a large quantities in our diet. We should not fry the vegetables with a longer period because we will damage the structural component of the wall of the plant cells. The nutrients also may be lost if the vegetables are overcooked. Conclusion Vegetable must be cooked in a right way in order to keep its nutritious content.

e) Stir The Gravy While Cooking Bubur Kacang And Pengat Pisang With Small Fire Learning Issues Why we must stir the gravy of bubur kacang and pengat pisang with small fire ?

we need to stir the gravy of bubur kacang and pengat pisang with small fire to make sure the absorption of the gravy to the molecules of green nuts and banana. Coconut milk is used for the gravy of bubur kacang and pengat pisang. The gravy must be stirred continuously to prevent the formation of clumps at the surface. We must make sure that the green nuts and the banana will not accumulated at the bottom of the pot because it will decrease the surface area. We need to stir gravy constantly as to increase the activation energy to them so that they will mix well.

Conclusion In order for the absorption process to be successfully done, the gravy must be stir continuously.

f) Stab The Meat With Fork When Preparing Steak And Don’t Over Cooked Learning Issues 1. Why meat should be stabbed with fork and should not be overcooked?

Meat need to be stabbed to enlarge its surface area. As the larger the surface area, the less time required for the meat to be cooked. Protein contain in meat. The changes in shape and any lose of biological activities will denatured the protein. When the protein is heated with the high temperature, the structure will become disordered and the coiled peptide chain unfold, producing a more random confirmation. This unfolding which mainly due to the disruption of hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds is typically accompanied by a loss of normal function.

Conclusion As meat is protein, we must not overcooked it because it will disrupt the protein structure. Thus the function of protein also altered.

REFLECTION From the problem-based learning ( PBL), we get a few benefits which are : 1. we have gain more knowledge from the researches, book, internet and magazines

2.

each of members contributes and shares ideas among other members.

3. we can practiced the problem-solving skills by thinking the solutions for the problems given. 4. we also be more resourceful from the research that we conducted. 5. we also can improve our soft skills by communication and presentation our research. 6. From the activities, we learnt to use our times very well and wisely. 7. We learnt to conduct and doing task for our future. 8. our communicative skills also can be improved. 9. From the PBL, we can build a creative and critical thinking skills. 10. each member in the groups will give a full commitment and be responsible to the task that have been given.

APPENDICS
Nutrition Is Vital For Health and Weight Control
A nutritious diet is essential for good health and weight control. In particular, a nutritional eating plan will definitely improve your chances of fast weight loss. So

avoid fad diets or any type of eating plan that restricts you to certain foods. Instead, choose a healthy calorie-controlled diet rich in fruit and vegetables, moderate in protein and low in saturated fat or trans fatty acids, with foods from all main food groups. This helps to improve metabolism, maintain a stable appetite and eliminate cravings. Which makes weight reduction easier and faster, and future weight gain less likely.

The food guide pyramid (historical) known as the food pyramid, and formally titled the Improved American Food Guide Pyramid, was published by the USDA(United States Department of Agriculture) in 1992 to replace the earlier food groups classification system. The food guide pyramid suggested optimal nutrition guidelines for each food category, per day, using a mnemonic graphic of a pyramid with horizontal dividing lines, to represent suggested percentages of the daily diet for each food group. Currently published every five years, an update to the 2005 system is expected in 2010

Honey Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 300 kcal 1270 kJ Carbohydrates - Sugars 82.12 g 82.4 g

- Dietary fiber 0.2 g Fat Protein Water Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.038 mg Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.121 mg Vitamin B6 0.024 mg Folate (Vit. B9) 2 μg Vitamin C 0.5 mg Calcium 6 mg Iron 0.42 mg Magnesium 2 mg Phosphorus 4 mg Potassium 52 mg Sodium 4 mg Zinc 0.22 mg 0g 0.3 g 17.10 g 3% 1% 2% 1% 1% 1% 3% 1% 1% 1% 0% 2%

Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.068 mg 1%

Shown is for 100 g, roughly 5 tbsp. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Honey is a mixture of sugars and other compounds. With respect to carbohydrates, honey is mainly fructose (about 38.5%) and glucose (about 31.0%),[4] making it similar to the synthetically produced inverted sugar syrup which is approximately 48% fructose, 47% glucose, and 5% sucrose. Honey's remaining carbohydrates include maltose, sucrose, and other complex carbohydrates.[4] Honey contains trace amounts of several vitamins and minerals.[17] As with all nutritive sweeteners, honey is mostly sugars and is not a significant source of vitamins or minerals.[18] Honey also contains tiny amounts of several compounds thought to function as poisons, including sodium cyanide, pinobanksin, vitamin C, catalase, and pinocembrin.[19][20] The specific composition of any batch of honey depends on the flowers available to the bees that produced the honey.[18] Typical honey analysis[18]

Fructose: 38.5%

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Glucose: 31.0% Sucrose: 1.0% Water: 17.0% Other sugars: 9.0% (maltose, melezitose) Ash: 0.17% Other: 3.38%

Honey has a density of about 1.36 kilograms per liter (36% denser than water) Honey is a sweet aliment produced by honey bees (and some other species)[1] and derived from the nectar of flowers. According to the United States National Honey Board and various international food regulations, "honey stipulates a pure product that does not allow for the addition of any other substance…this includes, but is not limited to, water or other sweeteners".[2] This article refers exclusively to the honey produced by honey bees (the genus Apis); honey produced by other bees or other insects has very different properties.[3] Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and has approximately the same relative sweetness as that of granulated sugar (97% of the sweetness of sucrose, a disaccharide).[4][5] Honey has attractive chemical properties for baking, and a distinctive flavor which leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweeteners.[4]

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Enzymatic browning is the result of certain phenolic compounds within the fruit coming into contact with oxygen. These pigments are called flavonols (formerly called tannins), and are colorless in the fresh fruit, but turn a brown or grayish color when oxidized. Enzymes within the cell catalyze this reaction when oxygen is present, which occurs during the cutting of fruit.

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Aside from its use in the production of apple butter, enzymatic browning is an undesirable reaction since it produces an unappetizing discoloration.

Enzymatic browning can be prevented by: 1. Lowering the pH to make the fruit more acidic.

Dipping the cut fruit pieces in citric or acetic acid and water solutions or by dipping in acidic juices such as pineapple, orange, lime, or lemon can lower the pH. These acids also prevent enzymatic browning by preventing oxygen from coming in contact with the fruit. Therefore, they are called antioxidants. 2. Blocking the oxygen from contacting the fruit surface.

To do this, immerse the fruit in heavy sugar syrups or water. Sugar water affects the flavor and calories of the fruit; yet, water alone is not an effective method for long-term holding.

3. Cooking the fruit.
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Cooking kills the enzymes and degrades pectic substances. This is an acceptable method for fruit compotes. However, it is inappropriate to cook fruit if it is intended to be served in a fresh fruit cup.

4. Dipping in a high salt solution.
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This alters the flavor of the fruit and limits its use. Most people find salty fruit cups objectionable. Salt also acts as an antioxidant.

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