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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SECTORS OF BORDER AREAS, COMMUNICATION, INDUSTRY, MINING AND ENERGY

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2006 FIRST EDITION

500 COPIES

Printing and Publishing Enterprise, Ministry of Information.

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CONTENT

Sr. No.

Subject

Page No.

1.

Border Areas witness sustained progress

1

2.

Communication Sector witnesses sustained progress

17

3.

Industrial Sector witnesses sustained progress

31

4.

Mining Sector witnesses sustained progress

45

5.

Energy Sector

55

witnesses sustained progress

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Border Areas witness sustained progress

Development of Border Areas in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

Border Areas witness progress
The Tatmadaw Government is throwing all its energies into carrying out the tasks of Our Three Main National Causes namely non-disintegration of the Union, non-disintegration of national solidarity and perpetuation of sovereignty. “Our Three Main National Causes” is the correct work programme for national consolidation and perpetuation of the Union. In the past, national brethren living in border areas lagged behind in development due to evil legacy of colonialists, internal strife which was born together with independence and poor transport. After assuming duties of the State, the Tatmadaw government first established peace in border areas. Border areas development projects have been implemented for socio-economic development of people living in hilly regions. As a result, narrow-minded racial views among national brethren have vanished. National race armed groups have returned to the legal fold and now they are taking part in regional development drives with might and main. To accelerate the development undertakings in border areas, the Tatmadaw formed Ministry for Progress of Border Areas and National Races and Development Affairs in 1992. Moreover, Central Committee for Development of Border Areas and National Races and Work Committees were also formed to carry out development tasks effectively. Tens of billions of money have been spent on border areas development projects. As the saying goes, “actions speak louder than words” prevailing peace in border areas and its development are the tangible proof that the Tatmadaw

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has been energetically striving for border area development tasks. It has been paying serious attention to border area development projects which were unheard of in the past. Thanks to the genuine goodwill of the Tatmadaw Government, people are now witnessing development in border areas. The table shows progress in implementing border area development projects in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Border Areas development projects
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Development region Road (mile) Number of bridges Hospital Basic Education School Agriculture Camp Nursery farm Livestock breeding farm Generator Re-transmission station Post office Telephone service

-

22 5491 806 79 1034 117 14 19 262 106 52 85

22 5491 806 79 1034 117 14 19 262 106 52 85

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Sustainable Development

Aerial view of Mongla in Shan State (East)

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Development in border areas
In striving for narrowing the development gap among states and divisions of the Union, emphasis is being placed on socio-economic progress of people living in border areas. These endeavours are being made effectively in 22 border area development regions namely Kachin Special Region 1 and 2, Kokang, Wa, Shan, Kachin North East, Palaung, Kengtung East, Homein, Monghtaw Monghta, Mawhpa, Pa-O, Kayah, Rakhine, Chin, Sagaing (Naga), Kabaw Valley, Kayin, Taninthayi, Mon regions including Yangon and Magway Divisions. In these regions, roads and bridges are being built, hospitals, clinics and schools established, agricultural, forestry and water supply tasks carried out and such services as electricity, post office, telegram and telephone provided as well as TV retransmission stations opened. As a result, national people living in these areas are enjoying fruits of development. Border areas lagged behind in development in the past but now peace and stability prevails in these areas and development infrastructures have been established well. This is due to dispelling the misconception and reconsolidation of national unity and cooperating with the State. As the national people have come to realize the genuine goodwill of the Tatmadaw Government, they are now taking part in regional development drives hand in hand with the government. With marked development in border areas, the socio-economic life of national people have improved significantly. The table shows the development of roads and bridges and hospitals and clinics out of other developments in the border areas in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

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Development in border areas
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Subject Earth road (mile) Gravelled road (mile) Tarred road (mile) Maintenance of road (mile) Large bridge Small bridge Suspension bridge Hospital Clinic Rural Health Centre Rural Health Centre (branch) 1988 2005 3181 1995 351 3295 55 725 26 79 105 58 140 Progress 3181 1995 351 3295 55 725 26 79 105 58 140

Kyeinkha Ramkha hydel power plant in Kachin State.

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Emerging schools and agricultural development in border areas
Prevalence of peace and stability in border areas is the contributing factor for development of remote areas of the Union of Myanmar. With stability and peace in the respective regions, mutual friendship, understanding, mutual assistance, cooperation and coordination have taken root among national brethren. The Tatmadaw Government, placing emphasis on serving the interests of national brethren, is implementing border area development projects in each and every region as well as in remote areas. Thanks to the endeavours made by the government in 22 border area development regions, these areas have developed rapidly and markedly. The table shows the development of schools, agricultural camps and dams and reservoirs among others in the border areas in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Development in border areas
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 Subject Primary school Middle school High school Agricultural office Agricultural camp Dam completed and under 1988 2005 852 90 92 31 117 Progress 852 90 92 31 117

construction 7
8

-

46 17
5

46 17
5

Dam to be built
Canal

9

Tractor station

-

11

11

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Sustainable Development

A classroom of University for Development of National Races

A multi-media classroom for national races

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Development of forestry and livestock breeding sectors in border areas
In the Union of Myanmar, regions which experienced evil legacy of colonialists most were border areas. Colonialists have intentionally created development gap between the plain and the hilly regions to sow seeds of narrow-minded racism among national people. Therefore, remote areas of the country lagged behind in development after the plain. With the aim of totally wiping out these evil legacies, the Tatmadaw government has laid down the national policy— non-disintegration of the Union, nondisintegration of national solidarity and perpetuation of sovereignty— and is trying its best for ensuring stability of the State, strengthening national unity and narrowing development gap among national brethren. Thanks to these endeavours, border areas which have suffered evil legacy of colonialists have developed markedly. Development drives are being carried out systematically in 22 border area development regions. The table shows the development of forestry and livestock breeding sectors among others in border areas in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Development of forestry and livestock breeding sectors in border areas
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1 2

Reserved forest Reserved forest under implementation Forest nursery Livestock breeding farm Livestock breeding and Animal husbandry office Distribution of animals (1=100,000)

-

11 14 14 19

11 14 14 19

3 4 5

-

41

41

6

-

111

111

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Cash donation for regional development of Mongla in Shan State (East)

Panglong University in Shan State (South).

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Development of communication sector in border areas
Soon after the Union of Myanmar regained independence and restored sovereignty, peace and tranquillity in the country deteriorated due to the wedge driven by colonialists among national brethren. As a consequence of lack of peace and stability, regions in the country lagged behind in development. Especially, remote border areas had suffered this evil consequence most in comparison with other regions of the country. Moreover, telegraph or post offices were nearly non-existent in these regions. Therefore, the Tatmadaw government, after making peace with national race armed groups, has been accelerating momentum of border area development drives since 1989. With the establishment of telegraph offices, post offices and telephone offices in border areas, national people living there have been able to communicate each other conveniently. Communication stations have been built not only in major cities of border areas but also in hilly regions. The table shows development of the communication sector in border areas in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Development of communication sector in border areas

Sr

Subject

1988

2005

Progress

1 2 3 4

Post office Telegraph office Telephone station Telephone exchange

-

52 44 85 40

52 44 85 40

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A Telecommunication Station in Falan, Chin State.

Mulashidi suspension bridge in Kachin State.

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TV transmission progress in border areas
After ensuring national reconsolidation in the Union of Myanmar, national race groups are actively taking part in border area development undertakings hand in hand with the government and now fruitful results have been achieved. In the past, national brethren were far from realizing the true situation of the nation and doubts grew among them due to instability in their region and colonialists' and aliens’ attempts to incite racial hatred. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, priority has been given to regional stability and border area development projects. Thus, national people have come to realize and accept the genuine goodwill of the government and objective conditions of the country. To disseminate knowledge among national brethren, the Tatmadaw Government has been building TV retransmission stations in far flung areas of the country. The table shows increase in the number of TV retransmission stations in border areas in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Increasing TV retransmission in border areas

Sr

Subject

1988

2005

Progress

1 2 3

TV retransmission station (10 watt) TV retransmission station (50 watt) TV retransmission station (100 watt)

-

62 36 13

62 36 13

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Sustainable Development

A sub-printing house in Sittway, Rakhine State

A Basic Education High School in Myainggyingu, Kayin State.

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Narcotic drugs elimination gains accelerated momentum in border areas
Neither poppy fields thrived nor narcotic drugs were produced on the soil of Myanmar in the past, but as an evil legacy of colonialists, poppy cultivation has taken root in the country. Successive governments of the country tried to solve the problems of narcotic drugs but to no avail due to lack of regional stability. As a result of making peace with national race armed groups, peace prevails in border areas and measures to eliminate narcotic drugs have been taken effectively in the time of the Tatmadaw government. Myanmar is committed never to give up fight against the danger posed by narcotic drugs and she is carrying out the tasks with own internal strength. Starting from 1999, the 15-year drug elimination plan has been laid down and is being implemented with accelerated momentum. To tackle the drug menace, the Tatmadaw government is taking measures such as law enforcement, growing poppy-substitute crops, establishing agricultural and livestock breeding farms, providing medical treatment, rehabilitation and disseminating knowledge. Thus, Myanmar has achieved marked success in combating the menace of drugs and has gained momentum. People living in border areas also have abandoned the illegal cultivation of poppy on their own volition. Moreover, drug free zones have been established in the regions where poppy was grown in the past. As border areas develop, narcotic drugs are in the wane. The table shows success achieved in combating the drug menace in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

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Success achieved in fight against narcotic drugs in border areas
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 Subject Projected township Village tract Destruction of poppy field (acre) Handing over of poppy seeds (pyi) Number of destruction of drug Cultivation of poppy substitute-crops(acre) 1988 211 2005 51 1469 164965 100257 52 1430153 Progress 51 1469 164754 100257 52 1430153

Drugs Elimination Museum in Mongla, Shan State (East)

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Communication Sector witnesses sustained progress

Development of Communication in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

Developing communication sector of Myanmar
Now is the time when the science and technology sector sees unprecedented development with rapid changes. At such a time, information and communication technology penetrates every corner in the world. To be able to catch up with these changes, Myanmar is endeavouring for the development of its communication sector. In the past, people had to rely on mail service and the mail delivery took time to reach from one region to another. But, nowadays, with the communication system which covers all the regions in the country including villages, people can communicate each other easily and conveniently. In the past, there were only post offices, telegraph services and ordinary phones, but now people are able to access computer telegraph, facsimile, autophone, radio telephone, mobile phone, e-mail and the Internet. Myanma communication sector is being enhanced to be on a par with international community in the time of the Tatmadaw Government. The table shows development of the communication network which covers all the regions in the country. * * *

Myanma communication service witnesses development
Sr 1 2 3 4 Post office Telegraph office Facsimile (set) Computer telegraph service (urban area) 5 6 7 8 Number of telephone line Telephone office Telephone exchange Rural telephone exchange 71855 245 245 86 556708 853 641 212 86 484853 608 396 212 Subject 1988 1114 310 10 2005 1337 485 4210 Progress 223 175 4200

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Express Mail Service: Waiting for the word'Go"

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Sustainable Development

Every region enjoying better and more communication services
Communication is essential for a nation today, an ever-changing period. That is proved vividly in the areas with poor transport. So, the government has placed emphasis on the development of the communication sector and establishment of a communication network covering the entire nation. With smooth transport, communication services are making progress dramatically in Myanmar. National people have an easy access to modern communication systems apart from the means of post, telegraph and telephone. Now, each and every region in Myanmar has been served with microwave stations and local ground satellite stations in addition to post offices, telegraph offices, and auto exchange stations. A citizen can communicate another in rural regions through microwave stations. The regions where there are no auto exchange stations have been facilitated with DOMSAT stations, VSAT stations, and PSTAR stations through local ground satellite stations. Better transport in the time of the Tatmadaw Government has helped promote trade and enhance mutual assistance and amicable relations between national races. The following table shows an increase in the number of communication services.

Progress in communication services
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6. Subject Auto exchange Microwave station Microwave link Internet e-Mail Ground satellite station 1988 67016 71 21 2005 464971 226 111 76 6000 15 Progress 397955 155 80 76 6000 15

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A Satellite Communication Station.

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Sustainable Development

Development in domestic and overseas communication services
The domestic and overseas communication services play a leading role in striving for the success in economic, social and administrative sectors of the Union of Myanmar. People can widely use not only domestic communication services but also overseas ones with the improvement of communication services in the nation. Of the communication systems, satellite communication system is the best. Satellite links and new auto exchanges were introduced in the satellite communication system, and now the system covers 97 towns. In overseas communication system, 1,012 telephone channels have been installed through Submarine cable system in communicating with Singapore. Besides, more overseas ground satellite stations and new channels, overseas submarine cable systems and new channels, and new international telephone channels were installed to link with other nations. To keep pace with changes and developments in the world today, more modern satellite communication systems were installed in the time of the Tatmadaw Government. The table shows the increased number of communication services.

Progress of Myanma Telecommunication services
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1 2 3 4 5

Construction of MPT satellite terminal Installation of overseas satellite channel Overseas Submarine cable station Installation of external overseas cable communication channel International telephone channel

97 21 601 1 1012 1613

97 580 1 1012 1587

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Modern Postal Service.

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Development of communication services in States and Divisions
Myanma communication service is developing in parallel with national development, progress in higher living standard of national people and changing marketoriented economic system. In its drives for equitable development of all regions in the nation, the Tatmadaw government is implementing the 24 special regions development projects, rural area development projects and border area development projects. Thanks to the implementation of these projects, the communication sector is developing along with other development undertakings and, it is providing better services to people living throughout the country. Easy access to every region in the country contributes much towards regional development and development of socio-economic life of the people. The table provides the readers with facts and figures of increase in post offices, telegraph offices and telephone stations.

A modern telephone exchange unit.

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Development of communication services in States and Divisions
1988 2005 Telephone Post station office Telegraph Telephone office station Post office Telegraph office 8 4 6 6 16 6 20 125 85 29 20 41 34 148 103 142 47 51 42 106 75 70 79 94 56 1 17 9 13 8 35 18 11 2 6 41 57 13 11 8 5 10 19 11 15 5 79 28 11 13 22 18 25 88 45 29 25 24 15 56 13 33 45 64 81 157 158 46 124 145 12 3 5 8 11 17 27 23 6 30 23 27 22 31 Post office 64 20 3 7 11 16 19 31 32 9 33 29 37 32 31 8 27 29 58 61 101 157 29 115 132 140 68 124 Telegraph office Progress Telephone station 44 12 19 17 17 24 98 62 23 76 52 43 57 63

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State and Division

Kachin

Kayah

Kayin

Chin

Mon

Rakhine

Shan

Sagaing

Taninthayi

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Bago

Magway

Mandalay

Yangon

Ayeyawady

25

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Sustainable Development

Development of communication services in States and Divisions
Modern communication technologies are being effectively applied in political, economic and social sectors of the Union of Myanmar in parallel with ever changing information and communication technology. Information Technology is found to be contributing to uplift of socio-economic life of the people. Thanks to development of communication infrastructures and network systems, economic and management measures have undergone a great change. In Myanmar, there have emerged digital opportunities that provide a network linking all parts of the nation and abroad. The development of modern communications is at present wielding an influence on the daily lifestyle. One can witness the increased use of mobile telephones and auto telephones in the time of Tatmadaw government. The following table shows increasing numbers of auto telephones and mobile telephones.

Myanmar Teleport

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Development of communication services in States and Divisions
1988 2005 Mobile Telephone Telephone 9134 229 220 114 54 614 145509 18623 1991 805 1075 366 408 16355 112792 669 1359 2623 2891 5867 4685 22645 15162 4457 21568 14003 30720 40046 110152 14234 3999 1917 3266 3134 7908 6306 25516 17004 4926 25409 16582 8258 229 220 114 54 614 1991 805 Radio Telephone Radio Telephone Mobile Telephone Telephone Radio Telephone Progress Mobile Telephone 3999 1075 366 408 16355 112792 669

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State and Division

Telephone

Kachin 876 558 643 243

Kayah

Kayin

Chin

Mon

2401

Rakhine

1621

Shan

2871

Sagaing 469

1842

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Taninthayi

Bago

3841

Magway

2579

Mandalay

9326

Yangon

35357

Ayeyawady

4389

27

28

Sustainable Development

Developing communication services throughout the country
Information and communication technology is an important vehicle for the development of national economy as well as other sectors. To odeal with the future challenges, microwave, email and Internet services play a vital role in the information sector. Information and communication technology is being used extensively to keep abreast of current affairs of the world, to widen the people’s scope of knowledge and to facilitate the daily work. To catch up with the international community, Myanmar is taking steps to put high communication technology into service in all corners of the country. In doing so, a high communication technology has been employed for smooth communications between national brethren residing in the states and divisions and for facilitation of daily activities and sharing information. The following table shows the increase in the number of facilities such as microwave, email and Internet built in the states and divisions during the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

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Developing communication services in states and divisions
1988 State/Division microwave Email/ Internet 2005 microwave Email/ Internet Progress microwave Email/ Internet

Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Mon Rakhine Shan Sagaing Taninthayi Bago Magway Mandalay Yangon Ayeyawady

1 9 7 2 4 2 11 7 12 6 10

-

13 1 7 6 10 14 45 22 9 16 31 21 12 19

3 73 -

13 1 6 6 1 7 43 18 7 5 24 9 6 9

3 73 -

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Bagan Cybertech

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Industrial Sector witnesses sustained progress

Development of Industry in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Emerging factories and workshops throughout the country
In the drives for the Union of Myanmar to become an industrialized nation, plans are being made to build industrial infrastructures based on the agriculture sector. As a result of implementing these plans, industrial gap between one region and another in the country becomes narrow and industries develop simultaneously across the country. At present, industries manufacturing consumer goods and household items, iron and ironware industries, machine tools industries, agricultural machinery industries and automobile and spare parts industries have been established in the country. As large numbers of industries have been built within a short period in the time of the Tatmadaw government, these contribute much towards national development and raising the living standard of the people. The table shows increase in the number of State-owned factories and workshops, industrial zones, private-owned factories and workshops and cottage industries.

Increasing number of factories and workshops built in the country
Sr 1 Subject State-owned factories - Factories completed - Factories under construction Industrial zones - Industries Private-owned industries Cottage industries 1988 2005 Progress

641 26872 -

843 29 18 8463 42707 8500

202 29 18 8463 15835 8500

2

3 4

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Bicycle Factory using modern manufacturing technique.

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Development of industrial zones in states and divisions
The economy of Myanmar depends on the agriculture. Priority is given to the agricultural sector and the Government is also striving for development of the industrial sector. In an effort to develop the industrial sector, Myanmar Industrial Development Committee was set up in 1995 and the Government encourages the industrial sector. Thanks to the relentless efforts of technicians and industrialists and encouragement of the Government, Myanmar Industrial Sector was booming. As Myanmar is practising the market-oriented economic system, private industries are mushrooming in the country. In 2003, the Government organized 40,000 industries scattered across the country and established industrial zones. Therefore, the number of industrial zones reached 18. The industries have improved their rank from blacksmith’s workshop to heavy industry that can produce machinery parts. Now, efforts are being made to be able to manufacture machinery.At the time of Tatmadaw Government, it puts emphasis on development of industrial sector based on private industries. The table shows increase in the number of industries.

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Industrial zones emerged in the time of Tatmadaw Government
No 1 State/Division Yangon Industrial zone Yangon (East) Industrial Zone Yangon (West) Industrial Zone Yangon (South) Industrial Zone Yangon (North) Industrial Zone 2 Mandalay Mandalay Industrial Zone Myingyan Industrial Zone Meiktila Industrial Zone 3 Magway Yenangyoung Industrial Zone Pakokku Industrial Zone 4 5 Bago Ayeyawady Bago Industrial Zone Pathein Industrial Zone Myaungmya Industrial Zone Hinthada Industrial Zone 6 Sagaing Monywa Industrial Zone Kalay Industrial Zone 7 8 9 Mon Taninthayi Shan Mawlamyine Industrial Zone Myeik Industrial Zone Taunggyi (Ayethaya) Industrial Zone 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 1988 2005 4

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A plastic factory in an industrial zone.

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Development of the private industries
The Tatmadaw Government is rendering assistance to private industries to be able to make use of the advanced technology and produce marketable machinery parts meeting set standard. Hence, private industries have developed rapidly. In the industrial sector, private industries constituted 90 % of the industrial sector in 20022003, 92% in 2003-2004 and over 93% in 2004-2005. With the assistance of the Government, modern iron foundries were established in Mandalay, Monywa and Taunggyi industrial zones and now they produce quality parts of machinery in large quantities. Now local industries are enjoying the fruits of their efforts. For instance, Mandalay Industry Zone received an order of 97 types of machinery and so far 47 types of machinery parts numbering 6000 have been manufactured by the zone. Thanks to the efforts of private industrialists, industrial zones are manufacturing spare parts of machinery which were imported for local industries in the past, and it helps to reduce costs. The table shows increase in the number of industries in the private sector.

Development of the private industry sector
No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Subject Private industries Private industrialists Business in industrial zones Cottage industries Number of industrial exhibitions Number of Seminars on development of industrial sector 1988 26872 31200 2005 42707 40000 8463 8500 5 21 Progress 15835 8800 8463 8500 5 21

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Garment Factory in Pakokku, Magway Division.

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Emerging factories and workshops in states and divisions
Industrial development plays a vital role in national development. Nowadays, emphasis is being placed on development of the industrial sector along with the agriculture sector. In building infrastructures in the industrial sector needed for the country to become an industrialized one, efforts are being made to narrow the gap of development between one region and another across the country. As a result of active cooperation under the dynamic leadership, achievements have been made year after year in the industrial sector. For the development of the industrial sector, new State-owned factories are being built and at the same time, serious attention is being paid to running of the old factories in full capacity. Thanks to these relentless efforts, industries based on agricultural produce, automobile industry, industries manufacturing consumer goods and machine tool factories are thriving throughout the country. The table provides readers with facts and figures on development in factories and workshops in states and divisions in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Emerging State-owned factories
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 States and Divisions Kayah Kayin Chin Mon Rakhine Shan Sagaing Taninthayi Bago Magway Mandalay Yangon Ayeyawady 1988 4 6 5 24 5 22 53 79 38 102 194 59 2005 7 9 8 28 7 42 69 12 106 64 138 241 64 Progress 3 3 3 4 2 20 16 12 27 26 36 47 5

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Coal-fired power station in Tikyit, Shan State.

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Factories built to produce consumer goods
The third task out of the four major tasks declared by the Tatmadaw government when it assumed the State's duties was to raise the economic standard of the people. In carrying out this task, the Tatmadaw government has repaired old and damaged factories and built new ones in the suitable regions. Attention has been given to meeting the manufacturing targets of factories, running the factories in full capacity, substituting raw materials at home for the ones imported, quality control and research and development. To fulfil the people's needs, textile, foodstuff, pharmaceutical, ceramics, paper and chemical industries have been built in the time of the Tatmadaw Government. The table shows increase in the number of factories in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Emerging consumer goods factories
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Factory Textile factory Foodstuff industry Pharmaceutical and consumer goods factory Ceramics industry Paper and chemical factory General and maintenance industry Machine tool factory 15 16 8 12 9 19 21 10 29 34 4 5 2 17 25 1988 17 34 2005 37 52 Progress 20 18

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Cement Factory in Kyaukse, Mandalay Division.

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Manufacturing more import-substitute machine parts
Today, we are witnessing rapid development in the science and technology sector. At such a time, manufacturing of import-substitute machines becomes vital in the drive for national development. Previously, machinery spare parts needed for factories and workshops of both State-owned and private-owned sectors had to be imported spending a large sum of foreign exchange. As the industrial sector of the State has been developing year by year, quality import-substitute machinery parts are manufactured at home and used at various factories. With the encouragement of the State coupled with efforts made by private industrialists, mould and die industries and machine tool factories are being established together with foundry shops in industrial zones. Spare parts of machines manufactured at State-owned factories as well as in industrial zones meet the standards of international level and they have fulfilled the domestic needs. Moreover, they have bright prospects for penetrating markets abroad. Through the table, readers may find the development in manufacturing importsubstitute machines in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

More import-substitute machine parts manufactured
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subject Automobile Tractor Power tiller Tractor engine Harvester Trawler-G Road-roller Radiator Disc wheel Bearing Inlet and exhaust valve Bolt & nut (kilogram) Copper rod (ton) Copper wire (kilogram) 1988 606 700 440 2005 2132 1033 5575 8727 40 5842 56 4932 12675 12220 6268 30000 10785 665500 Progress 1526 333 5135 8727 40 5842 56 4932 12675 12220 6268 30000 10785 665500

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Natural-gas-fired Modern Electric Power Plant.

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Mining Sector witnesses sustained progress

Development of Mining in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Extended mining blocks and thriving gems market
The wealth of mineral resources contributes to the development of the national economy. In the time of the Tatmadaw Government, as peace and tranquillity prevail in the border areas and market economy is being practiced, production of mineral resource has been increasing year by year. Since 1988, groups of national races that returned to the legal fold have been extracting mineral resources in cooperation with the Government. The Government has always encouraged the growth of the gems market. Hence, the production rate of mineral resources has gone up. In an attempt to boost the gems sales, Myanma gems emporium, attracting local and foreign merchants, is held yearly. The table shows an increase in mining blocks and gems in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Increasing number of mining blocks and gems production
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1. 2.

Gems block Production of gems ( carat in thousand )

8 126

635 61232

627 61106

3. 4.

Jade blocks Production of jade (kilo in thousand )

3 130

1202 14436

1199 14306

5. 6.

Pearl camp Production of pearl (Momme)

2 8488

9 124207

7 115719

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Local and foreign gem merchants observe jade at 2005-mid-year Myanma Gem Emporium.

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Sustainable Development

Development in mining industry
Myanmar is rich in land and water resources. Effective use of invaluable natural resources helps raise the economy of the country and this contributes much towards national development. Hilly mountain ranges in the eastern part of the country and Taninthayi mountain range are made up of aged rock. Therefore, such precious stones as ruby and sapphire can be mined in these regions and minerals such as silver, lead, tin, tungsten, antimony, copper, platinum and others can also be found there. Kachin State located in the northern part of the country is famous for jade. Moreover, it is the land where gold and other minerals are mined. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, output of minerals has increased as joint ventures between the government and the national entrepreneurs have been conducted. The table shows increase in mining precious minerals in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

More minerals mined
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Subject Mining of pure gold (Troy oz) Mining of crude gold (Troy oz) Tin (Metric ton) Lead (Metric ton) Zinc (Metric ton) Crude Lead Zinc (Metric ton) Pure Lead Zinc (Metric ton) Copper (Metric ton) Limestone (industrial use)(Metric ton) Limestone (decoration) (Metric ton) 1988 438.78 818.91 241.24 67416 2005 4237 2684 493 209 6020 4273 228 29 215834 2762 Progress 3798.22 1869 252 209 6020 4273 228 29 148418 2762

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Coal-fired power station being run in Tikyit Region in Shan State (North).

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Sustainable Development

Increased output of mineral resources
Devoting all its energies to national development, the Tatmadaw government, relying on own strength, is seeking various ways and means to exploit minerals in all parts of the country and thanks to these relentless efforts, precious gems and minerals have been unearthed year by year. Coal is one of the minerals found in Myanmar. In the past, there was only 2 coal mining blocks namely Kalaywa coal mine and Namma coal mine, but now, there are 82 coal mining blocks in the country. Increase in the number of coal mining blocks fulfils the fuel needs of the country. There were very few antimony and marble mining blocks in the past but now the number of antimony and marble blocks has increased up to 68 each and 18 blocks of fireproof soil, 11 blocks of soft soil and 2 blocks of sandstone has emerged. Moreover, the number of gypsum blocks has reached 7 from one in the past. The table shows minerals exploited in ores of the country in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Increase in minerals mined
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Coal (metric ton) Antimony (metric ton) Marble (metric ton) Gypsum (metric ton) Fireproof soil (metric ton) Soft soil (metric ton) Sandstone (metric ton)

39332 21188 -

367025 5470 4064 72196 43654 7317 10533

327693 5470 4064 51008 43654 7317 10533

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Myanmar is abundantly rich in mineral resources: Jade lots at annual Gems, Jade and Perl emporium.

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Sustainable Development

More mines, mining blocks and factories emerge in states and divisions
Gems play an important role in the economic sector of the State. Joint Venture Enterprises are conducting their businesses such as surveying, mining, processing and trading of various minerals and gems. For the long-term interest, they are doing their business in accord with laws prescribed. In the country mineral deposits can be found most in Sagaing and Mandalay Divisions and border areas. Therefore, while taking measures for border area development, gems are mined in these areas. Such minerals as coal, limestone, lead, zinc, nickel, cromite, gypsum, platinum and iron are being explored and mined in Kengtung east region, Palaung region, Kachin special region, Wa Region and Taninthayi Region. Moreover, precious minerals are hunted in other states and divisions and thus mineral ores have emerged in various parts of the nation. The table shows increase in the number of mines, mining blocks and factories in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

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Mining blocks and Factories in states and divisions

Sr

states and divisions

1988

2005

Progress

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Kachin Kayah Kayin Mon Rakhine Shan Sagaing Tanithayi Bago Mandalay Ayeyawady

3 2 6 7 10 6 19 1 16 2

1246 12 17 31 8 344 627 54 22 687 5

1243 10 17 25 1 334 621 35 21 671 3

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Sustainable Development

The world's largest ruby (504.5 carats)

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Energy Sector witnesses sustained progress

Development of Energy in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

Extended work in inland oil fields, increased oil and gas output
Oil and gas is essential for humans. At present, with the development in science and technology, oil and gas consumption has increased. At such a time, exploring and drilling of oil and gas in inland areas only is not enough to fulfil the fuel consumption and thus the business has to be operated in offshore areas. Myanmar is rich in natural resources. Oil is drilled mostly in the central part of the country and Yenangyoung region has been famous for oil since ancient times. In the colonial period, colonialists drilled Myanmar’s oil at will. It is learnt that the amount of oil the colonialists drilled in the country reached about 250 million barrels. When defeated in the war, they also destroyed the oil fields of Myanmar. As successive governments have striven for revitalizing Myanmar’s oil fields, the situation has become normal. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, all-out efforts are being made to explore oil and gas. To be able to double these efforts by spending a large sum of money coupled with manpower, modern technology and machines, the government has invited foreign oil companies to explore oil and gas in the country. In the oil fields, the depth of the old wells are extended and new wells sunk and thus many achievements have been made. The table shows increase in drilling crude oil and production of oil and gas in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Increased drilling of oil and gas in inland areas
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 states and divisions Inland oil field Length of inland natural gas pipeline (mile) Gas production (cubic feet in million) Oil and gas factories Refining of crude oil (gallon in million) 1988 19 2005 19 Progress Upgraded under special projects 1008.88 10113 5 74.335

250.91 41913.97 8 156.461

1259.79 52026.97 13 230.796

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Well No 2 in Oil and Natural Gas Field in Nyaungdon Township.

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Sustainable Development

Increased production of natural gas in offshore blocks
One of the important factors in national development is increased production of oil and gas. With this end in view, the government is paying serious attention to increased production of oil and gas and in doing so ways and means are sought to gain technical know-how, capital and mechanical powers inviting foreign companies in accordance with Foreign Investment Law. As part of the drive to increase the production of oil and gas, projects namely Yadana Natural Gas Project, Yedagun National Gas Project and other projects are being implemented in blocks in offshore areas. Moreover, tasks to explore oil and gas are being carried out in Mottama, Taninthayi and Rakhine offshore areas. Now, these oil and gas blocks produce abundant natural gas and they contribute much towards earning foreign exchange. In the four months in 2005, Yadana Natural Gas Project exported over 70,000 cubic feet and the total amount of exported natural gas between 1998 and 2005 reached over one million cubic feet. In the four-month-period in 2005, Yedagun Natural Gas Project exported over 50,000 million cubic feet and from 1998 to 2005, the project exported about 500,000 million cubic feet of natural gas. Natural gas is also being explored in blocks off Rakhine coast. The table shows the length of natural gas pipeline and increase in production of natural gas in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Increase in production of gas in offshore areas
Sr 1 2 Subject Offshore oil field Length of natural gas pipeline (mile) - Inland (mile) - Offshore submarine (mile) - Offshore above-ground (mile) 3 Production of natural gas (cubic feet in million) 325226.61 325226.61 250.91 1259.79 342.00 81.00 1008.88 342.00 81.00 1988 2005 2 Progress 2

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Sustainable Development

Emerging oil refineries and petroleum product factories
In striving for emergence of a peaceful, modern and developed nation, emphasis is being placed on development of every sector. The energy sector plays an important role in nation-building endeavours. To be able to distribute oil and fuel to projects being implemented throughout the country, border areas, departments and workshops and factories and respective townships in time, more oil refineries and petroleum product factories have been built. The table shows increase in the number of oil refineries and petroleum product factories in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Oil refineries and petroleum product factories
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1 2 3 4 5 6

Oil refinery Gas plant Fertilizer factory Methanol factory Tar factory Carbon dioxide factory

3 1 3 1 -‘

3 3 4 1 1 1

Upgrading machine power 2 1 Upgrading machine power 1 1

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Sustainable Development

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