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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SECTORS OF ELECTRIC POWER, INFORMATION, URBAN AND RURAL AREAS, AND SOCIAL WELFARE

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February 2006 First Edition

500 Copies

Printing and Publishing Enterprise, Ministry of Information.

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CONTENT

Sr. No.

Subject

Page No.

1.

Electric Power Sector witnesses sustained progress

2.

Information Sector witnesses sustained progress

15

3.

Urban and Rural Areas Sector witnesses sustained progress

23

4.

Social Welfare Sector witnesses sustained progress

29

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Electric Power Sector witnesses sustained progress

Development of Electric Power in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

Fulfil needs in electricity consumption


The human society is ever advancing. With the increase in population, so do the towns, villages, buildings and factories. Before 1988 Myanmars population stood at over 34 million but now the number has reached over 54 million that is nearly double the previous amount. In the past, there were over five million households but now the number stands at over eight million. In the past, there were 314 townships, 288 towns but now there are 324 townships and 312 towns. Likewise, the number of factories stood at 27513 in the past, but now there are 43550 factories and thus 16837 factories have increased. Electricity consumption has increased in parallel with the development of the State and higher living standard of people. Therefore, measures are being taken systematically to fulfil the electricity needs of the people. In 1988, people consumed only 1,517 million units of electricity but now their electricity consumption has increased up to over 5,461 million units. The Tatmadaw Government is trying its best to fulfil the peoples electricity needs and the table which shows increase in the number of power stations and generating more electricity is the tangible proof of these efforts.

Increase in the number of power stations and generating more electricity


Sr 1 Subject 1988 1517.570 2005 Progress

Electricity consumption (unit in million)

5461.089

3943.519

2 3 4 5 6 7

Machinery installed (megawatt) Completed hydel power station Other power plants Hydel power project Projects to be implemented Total machinery installed (megawatt)

701.423 14 11 -

1596.81 44 19 12 8 6564.273

895.387 30 8 12 8 6564.273

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Zawgyi Hydel Power Plant in Shan State (South).

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Sustainable Development

Hydel power projects being implemented across the country


With the nations development, peoples living standard has improved markedly. As science and technology is changing and advancing year by year, people are able to access to modern electronic devices. In the past, television, electric iron, tape recorders and fans are regarded as luxuries and only elites had been able to reach these facilities. Housing in urban areas were separate ones but now skyscrapers have become symbols of urban areas. Almost every household uses fluorescent lamps, bulbs, televisions, video, fans, refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and electric stoves. Let alone other regions, there are over 500,000 households using electricity in Yangon and thus if one household uses a four-foot fluorescent lamp in the city it means over 20 megawatts of electricity have to be supplied. Therefore, the government is always seeking ways and means for the development of the electric power sector with the aim of enabling the people to be able to catch up with the higher living standard. Land and water resources are abundant in Myanmar. Exploring and exploiting these resources, electricity is being supplied to the people through hydel power stations. There are three ways to generate electricity hydel power, gas-fired power and fuelfired power. Hydel power projects are the most reliable ones for the country. In generating electricity through hydel power projects, there was only Lawpita hydel power project in the past, but now 30 new hydel power projects have been implemented throughout the country. The table shows the generating capacity of the completed nine major hydel power projects out of other projects implemented in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Generating capacity of hydel power stations (Electricity in megawatt daily supply)


Sr 1 Project Biluchaung (1) (2) State/Division/Town Loikaw, Kayah State 2 Kinda Myittha, Mandalay Division 3 Hsedawgyi Madaya, Mandalay Division 4 Zawgyi (1) Yaksawk, Shan State (South) 5 Zawgyi (2) Yaksawk, Shan State (South) 6 Thaphanseik Kyunhla, Sagaing Division 7 Paunglaung Pyinmana, Mandalay Division 8 Monechaung Sedoktara, Magway Division 9 Zaungtu Bago, Bago Division 20 20 70 70 270 270 12 12 9 9 8 8 18 18 18 18 120 360 240 1988 2005 Progress

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Sustainable Development

Zaungtu Hydel Power Plant in Ayeyawady Division.

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Hydel power projects being implemented across the country


The Government is trying its best to meet the electricity need of the nation and people. It is cost-effective to produce hydro electric power. Rivers and creeks are abundant in Myanmar and so it is possible to produce hydroelectric power. In an attempt to fulfil the need of electricity, priority is given to the implementation of hydel power projects. It is estimated that flow of rivers and creeks in Myanmar can produce 40,000 megawatts. Hence, the government is building hydel power plants in the entire nation with added momentum. A total of nine hydel power plants are under construction and, upon completion, they can generate 1,500 megawatts. Consumption of electricity in Myanmar reaches over 5,000 megawatts. On completion of hydel power plants, they will be able to meet the electricity need of the nation. In the time of the Tatmadaw Government, hydel power projects are being implemented in the interests of the people. The table shows the progress of hydel power projects in the nation.

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Sustainable Development

Hydel power plants under construction (Electricity in megawatt to be generated daily)

Sr

Project

State/Division/Town

1988

2005

Kengtawng

Mongnai, Shan State

54

Yeywa

Kyaukse, Mandalay Division

790

Shweli

Namkham, Shan State

400

Kunchaung

Pyu, Bago Division

60

Pyuchaung

Pyu, Bago Division

40

Khapaung

Toungoo, Bago

30

Pathi

Thandaung, Kayin State

Shwekyin

Shwekyin, Bago Division

75

Yenwe

Kyauktaga, Bago

25

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Biluchaung Power Station -2 in Kayah State.

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Sustainable Development

Hydel power projects to be implemented


On one occasion, Head of State Senior General Than Shwe gave guidance saying that in the third five-year plan efforts were to be made to generate 2000 megawatts of electricity and in doing so measures were to be taken based on the abundant water resources. In accordance with the guidance of the Head of State, 11 hydel power projects which can supply power to the national grid and other projects which will benefit 42 regions have been implemented and these projects generate nearly 2000 megawatts of electricity. It is estimated that throughout the country, there are 268 small, medium and large sites which have a total capacity to produce nearly 40,000 megawatts of electricity. Measures are being taken to implement the remaining projects and upon completion of all the projects, electricity needs of the country will be fulfilled. The table shows systematic arrangements being made to supply power in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

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Hydel power projects to be implemented


Sr 1 Project Upper Paunglaung Region Pyinmana Township, Mandalay Division 2 Htamanthi Homalin Township, Sagaing Division 3 Tarhsan (Thanlwin) Taunggyi Township, Shan State 4 Thahtaychaung (Thade) Thandwe Township, Rakhine State 5 Thaukyaykhat Toungoo Township, Bago Division 6 Thajet Taninthayi Township, Taninthayi Division 7 Dayaingchaung (Paingkyon) Hlaingbwe Township, Kayin State 8 An Chaung An Township, Rakhine State 15 25 20 140 100 7310 1200 140 Megawatt

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Ahlon Power Station in Yangon Division.

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Emerging power plants


Using abundant water resources in the country, Myanmar is generating electricity through hydel power stations and at the same time natural gas exploited both inland and offshore areas has been used to generate power. Hydel power stations supply 40 per cent and gas-fired power plants 60 per cent of the daily needs in consumption of electricity in the country. Electricity generated at hydel power stations is used as fundamental energy and at the gasfired power plants as supporting energy in supplying electricity across the country. In order to save natural gas, waste heat recovery power plants are generating electricity to supply power. Moreover, using coal, a coal-fired power plant in Tikyit region is supplying power. Small, medium and heavy diesel-used power plants are being built in the regions which are far from the national grid and border areas. In addition to these facilities wind-powered power plants, waste heat recovery power plants, bio-fuel used power plants and bio-diesel used power plants are being built to fulfil the electricity needs. Readers may vividly see the increase in the number of power plants built across the country in the time of the Tatmadaw Government through the table.

Increase in the number of power plants


Sr 1 2 3 4 5 Power plant Natural gas-used power plant Waste heat recovery power plant Steam-powered plant Coal-fired power plant Diesel-fired generator 1988 8 3 621 2005 11 4 3 1 944 Progress 3 4 upgraded 1 323

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Thaphanseik Hydel Power Plant in Magway Division.

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Information Sector witnesses sustained progress

Development of Information in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

The whole nation receives excellent media coverage


To raise the education standard of the entire people and for all the national people to be bright and intelligent and to posses the right concepts are the main factors which play an important role in striving to raise the living standard of the entire people and ensure national development. The information sector is serving as a bridge between the State and the people, between the State and the international community and among people. The information sector is enhanced with the aim of enabling the people to know news and information such as development undertakings carried out across the Union by the State. Myanmars news and information sector is developing in parallel with rapid development of information and communication technology. One can read newspapers as well as access to the Internet to know the daily developments of the State. Clear voice and pictures can be received in the northernmost part of the country such as Nanyun and Dawphonyan and southern part as Hainggyi Island and Coco Island. To disseminate knowledge to rural people and to enhance the media coverage, Information and Public Relations Department offices have been opened throughout the country and the number has reached up to 375. People are now able to view television programmes, and have access to libraries, wall magazines, self-reliant libraries and mobile libraries through these offices.

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As efforts are being made to enhance the media to cover the whole country in the time of the Tatmadaw Government, the table is the tangible proof of these efforts.

Developing media
Subject
1988 2005 Progress

Sr

Daily broadcasting hour of Myanma

Radio

16:5

18:45

2:40

Completed Retransmission station

15

197

182

Broadcasting hour of Myanma TV

10

Number of viewer & listener in million

26.1

47.77

21.67

MRTV Channel

Office and library of IPRD

100

375

275

Self-reliant rural library

48667

48667

Sub-printing house

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Sustainable Development

Sub-printing House in Mandalay.

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Expanding functions of Myanma Radio and Television


Prevalence of law and order, community peace and tranquillity, economic development of the State and the people and human resource development are essential for emergence of a peaceful, modern and developed nation. At a time when all-out efforts are being made for national development, there can be seen some elements disturbing and harming national interests. To expose the acts of these destructive elements, counter-measures are being taken through media. In serving the States interest through mass media, Myanma Radio and Television is trying its best in broadcasting programmes aimed at providing information, education, entertainment and special programmes. In doing so, Radio Myanmar has enhanced its programmes and the programmes aired on short waves and medium wave frequencies are also channelled through FM frequency. Yangonites are able to view the programmes broadcast by Myanma Television through the transmitter. And through satellite, 197 TV retransmission stations broadcast TV programmes for people from states and divisions. These programmes cover over 89 per cent of the nations population. The table shows increase in the programmes broadcast by Myanma Radio and Television in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

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Enhancing programmes of MRTV


Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Subject
Broadcasting hour of Radio Myanmar Channel of Radio Myanmar Broadcasting hour of nationalities programmes TV telecasting hour Number of TV viewer in million TV Channel Countries covered by MRTV-3 Completed TV retransmission station TV retransmission station under construction

1988 16:05 10 4 5 24.66 1 15 -

2005 18:45 10 6 11 47.55 6 156 197 16

Progress 2:40 upgraded 2 6 22.89 5 156 182 16

Sub-printing House in Magway Division.

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Development of mass media


In the age of rapid information technology, mass media reach and influence almost all fields. Taking full advantage of the advanced information technology, some big countries are trying to influence upon political, economic and social affairs of other countries. During the time, the government is carrying out the nation-building tasks and disseminating news and information to the people at home and to those around the world. Being the major component in the mass media, the information and public relations task plays an important role in sending the authentic news to people. In an effort to disseminate knowledge to the people in urban and rural regions Information and Public Relations Department - IPRD is providing information to all over the country. Self-reliant libraries have been set up in 48,667 villages, out of over 60,000 villages in the country. Arrangements are being made to establish libraries in the rest of villages in 2006. In an attempt to distribute dailies without delay, sub-printing houses were established in different regions. Moreover, daily newspapers are available online today. The table shows increase in the mass media tasks in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Development of the mass media tasks of the Information Sector


Sr 1

Subject
IPRD offices in townships and libraries

1988 100

2005 375

Progress 275

2 3 4

library membership (million) self-reliant libraries sub-printing houses

3.10 48,667 9

3.10 48,667 9

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A mobile library of IPRD.

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Urban and Rural Areas Sector witnesses sustained progress

Development of Urban and Rural Areas in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

Development of rural areas


Based on peace and stability and national solidarity, the Tatmadaw Government has been carrying out the tasks for all-round development of states and divisions including rural and border areas. It is obviously seen that significant progress has been made in all regions. The government is also undertaking measures for raising of living standard of the people. As a result, urban and rural areas have been developed. More bridges are being built in urban and rural regions and model villages were established. Water supply projects are being implemented in villages in the arid zone which are far from dam and reservoir areas in order to get drinking water. Rural roads were upgraded to earth ones, literite ones, gravel ones and tarred ones. Schools in rural areas are also upgraded and priority is given to the increase in school enrollment in villages. Moreover, the Government is also fulfilling the requirements for the development of the economy of rural areas. The table shows increase in the number of rural roads, bridges, water supply tasks and rural housing.

Development of rural areas


Sr 1.

Subject
Rural road (mile) - tar road (mile) - gravel road (mile) - laterite road (mile) - earth road (mile) New bridges constructed in rural areas Water supply tasks - villages where tasks have been undertaken - tasks completed

1988 3,939 295 822 730 2,092 -

2005 23,898 1,182 3,957 1,689 17,070 6,324

Progress 19,959 887 3,135 958 14,978 6,324

2. 3.

14,540 20,904

14,540 20,904

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Local service personnel enjoy reading dailies published by the sub- printing house in Sittway.

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Sustainable Development

Development of urban areas


As part of efforts for the development of the State, urban and rural areas development projects were carried out by the Government joining hands with the people. Being not easily accessible by road in the past, inland areas were lagged behind the development. During the time of the Tatmadaw Government, the Development Affairs Department has constructed road network linking villages, towns and districts. At present, rural and urban areas enjoy the fruits of the smoothful transportation. Besides, water supply projects were also implemented. Therefore, economy of the urban areas are booming in parallel with the improvement of the living standards of the people. Therefore, there is gradually narrowing development gap between the urban and rural areas. The number of school, hospital and station hospital has increased in urban and rural areas. Moreover, special development zones were designated and implemented across the country. The table is the tangible proof of progress of the urban and rural areas.

Development of urban areas


Sr 1.

Subject
Urban road (miles) - tar road (mile)945 - gravel road (mile)768 - laterite road (mile) - earth road (mile) Urban bridge - new concrete bridges in urban areas - new wooden bridges in urban areas Water supply tasks in urban areas - townships where tasks to be carried out - tasks completed

1988 2,971 1,007 198 1,060 -

2005 5,386 1,963 321 2,095 5,809 3,673

Progress 2,415 1,018 239 123 1,035 5,809 3,673

2.

3.

285 127

285 127

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Developing Pangsang in Shan State (North).

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Mongla: A town that shows development in border areas.

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Social Welfare Sector witnesses sustained progress

Development of Social Welfare in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

Development of social welfare sector


It is Myanmar custom to care about somebody's problems, to feel sympathy for and to give support to other people and these good habits always flourish in the Myanmar society. Myanmar has made progress in economic sector while social welfare activities are being carried out with added momemtum. Regarding the social welfare activities, not only the government but also well-wishers make valuable contribution to the success of the activities. Thanks to the stability of the State, unity of all national races and high nationalistic spirit, national forces that will serve the interests of the State have emerged. As part of national forces, social organizations are participating in social welfare activities in an attempt to improve the living standards of the people. Moreover, as wellwishers play an active part in social welfare activities joining hands with social organizations, and standards of the needy people have improved. The table is the tangible proof of the progress of the social welfare works.

Progress of social welfare works


Sr 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Subject
Day care nursery Cetana nursery Rehabilitation centre Domestic science training school Cetana vocational training school Home for the aged Training school for the disabled

1988 17 578 113 2 20 4

2005 62 734 152 7 10 42 5

Progress 45 156 39 5 10 22 1

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Giving educative talk by members of Myanmar Women's Affairs Organization.

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Associations and organizations serving national interest


No one can deny the fact that tangible results have been achieved in striving for emergence of a peaceful, modern and developed nation and thanks to the active participation of non-governmental organizations in these endeavours, nation-building tasks have gained momentum. The power of social organizations plays an important role in serving the interests of the nation. Such associations and organizations as Union Solidarity and Development Association, Myanmar Red Cross Society, Myanmar War Veterans Organization, Myanmar Women's Affairs Federation, Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association and Auxiliary Fire Brigade, are actively taking part in nation-building tasks. Together with these associations and organizations, the entire national people, based on patriotism and Union Spirit, are committed themselves with heart and soul to these tasks and thus great achievements have been realized in all sectors. The table shows emerging associations and organizations taking part in nation-building tasks in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Emerging organizations and associations


Sr

Subject

1988

2005

Progress

1. 2. 3. 4.

Federation Organization Association Asiayon

5 1 -

2 17 3 4

2 12 2 4

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Tatmadawmen giving a helping hand to a patient.

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Sustainable Development

Social index up
As the social sphere of a country is very wide, one can observe a country's development through social index of the country. Literacy rate, decrease in crude death rate, falling in unemployment rate and developments in the social sector of a country reflect its development. Year after year, Myanmar is witnessing development in all sectors which are the fruitful results of the combined efforts of the State, the people and the Tatmadaw. With the economic development of the State, the social sector of the country has improved markedly. Emerging educational infrastructures in the country help increase not only the literacy rate but also the number of highly qualified human resource. Life expectancy of citizens has become high as a result of development in the health sector as well as the country enjoying food sufficiency. Moreover, increase in the number of economic infrastructures creates job opportunities for the people. This helps bring down the rate of unemployment and raise the socio-economic life of the national people. In the time of the Tatmadaw Government, social standard of the people has improved significantly and increase in the social index is shown in the table.

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Rising social index

Sr

Subject

1988

2005

Progress

1. 2. 3.

KG enrollment rate Literacy rate Decrease in crude death rate (in one thousand persons) - Rural area - Urban area

67.13 79.7

97.58 94.1

30.45 14.4

9.9 8.96

7.1 6.2

(-)2.18 (-)2.7

4.

Life expectancy - Rural area - Male - Female - Urban area - Male - Female 59.0 years 63.2 years 19 61.5 years 65.6 years 29 2.5 years 2.4 years 10 56.2 years 60.4 years 60.8 years 63.3 years 4.7 years 2.9 years

5.

Employment (million)

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Champion Myanmar soccer team of U-23 that celebrates the time of glory for the nation.

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