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Education Layout

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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION SECTOR & HEALTH SECTOR

Education Layout

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Education Layout

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Education Layout

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Education Layout

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Education Layout

Nowadays, education dominates all sectors of development. The Government has adopted the task for uplift of health, fitness and education standards of the entire nation as a national objective and implementing it in all seriousness for ensuring long-term development of the nation and to enable the country to keep abreast of international community. As a result, todays education sector has witnessed a lot of dvelopments and changes for the better. Learning goes beyond the limit of classrooms till linking with environmental, regional and national development. In striving for promotion and uplift of the education standard of the entire nation, arrangements are being made harmoniously for enabling all citizens to have basic literacy skills and for ensuring the emergence of a constant learning Myanmar society in the long run, in addition to flourishing of modern science and technologies that contributes towards the development of the State, and turning out a large number of highly-qualified intellectuals and intelligentsia in the education sector.

Development of basic education in the time of Tatmadaw Government

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION SECTOR

A new school building of Basic Education Post - Primary School in Yangon Northern District.

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As the Government is carrying out educational tasks for enabling every citizen to have the opportunity to get access to basic education for uplift of the education standard of the entire nation and ensuring literacy. At present the tasks are bearing sound results. The Government is implementing plans to extend primary schools, upgrading post-primary schools and building middle schools to open opportunities for all school-age children to pursue primary education. The next step is for the students to pursue middle and high school education. With public participation, the government is launching programmes that enable all children of school-going age attend classes and reduce the drop-out rate. Furthermore, the project also covers the adult literacy campaign that is being systematically launched. Special non-formal education programmes and mobile teaching programmes are being made for school-age and over school-age children who have difficulties to get access to formal education. The Government is realizing formal education programmes for the disabled children, who are not able to attend the schools due to various reasons. Priority is being given to the education promotion programmes and special tasks across the nation. Please study the following education indicators to know more about the actual developments of the basic education sector:

Basic Education High School of Aungthaya Model Village in Rakhine State

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Index of Development in Basic Education


Sr No.. 1. 2. Index Net Intake Rate-NIR Enrolment of children above five years at KG Net Enrolment Rate-NER Primary Level (aged 5-9) Middle level (aged 10-13) High Level (aged 14-15) Retention Rate by Level Primary Level Middle level High Level Completion Rate by Level Primary Level Middle level High Level Transition Rate From Primary to Middle Levels From Middle to High Levels Students Flow Rates Primary Level- Average Promotion Rate - Average Repetition Rate - Average Dropout Rate - Coefficient of Internal Efficiency Middle Level - Average Promotion Rate - Average Repetition Rate - Average Dropout Rate - Coefficient of Internal Efficiency Ratio of Teachers to Students Primary Level Middle Level High Level 1988 (up to) 2005

67.13 74.70 23.60 10.10 33.00 78.50 92.20 24.80 47.10 30.70 45.60 53.70 59.00 21.20 19.70 27.60 59.60 22.90 17.50 33.80 1:43 1:24 1:20

97.58 82.17 44.15 29.41 69.90 84.76 98.48 69.75 78.86 41.88 76.16 92.96 93.03 00.48 6.49 86.10 87.68 0.63 11.69 89.30 1:32 1:37 1:31

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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Number of schools, teachers and students increasing proportionately


High education qualification is the main national driving force in this age that sees the education sector playing a leading role in every aspect. As it is in the time, education is the engine of growth for the nation-building undertaking, the government has assigned itself specially to the task of ever developing the qualification and strength of education sectors most basic force. The government has been implementing the 30-year long-term national education promotion plan to gear up the education sectors progress. Included in the plan is the ten major work programmes laid down and being implemented in the basic education sector. Of the ten work programmes, the programme to uplift the standard of basic education covers the project to develop the art of teaching. Thanks to the Tatmadaw governments efforts to open new schools in every nook and cranny of the Union, the nation now has one school in every one-and-half-mile radius. Increase in the number of students is in proportion to rise in teacher population. The 2004-2005 statistics indicate that over 93 per cent of primary teachers have completed their respective teachership courses. The teacher-student ratio in the primary school level is 1:30.4 meaning that the government has provided adequate number of schools and classrooms for the increasing number of students in addition to the rising number of teachers. The above-mentioned endeavours of the government is to implement its prioritized national education promotion projects. Looking forward to future with goodwill, the government has been laying a sound foundation for education development of the nation. Now the relevant tables have been inserted in the paper to study the proportionate rise in the number of students and teachers.

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Increase in the number of basic education schools


Schools High school Middle school Post primary schools Primary school Total 33747 1988 722 1696 2005 1962 2604 5545 31329 40525 Increased number 1240 908

4630 30414 6778

Increase in the strength of teachers


Schools High school Middle school Primary school Total 1988 11828 44994 116950 173772 2005 21243 57009 163602 241854 Increased number 9415 12015 46652 68082

Increas e in the number of students


School High school Middle school Primary school Total 1988 241355 1094844 3903679 5239878 2005 657982 2064589 5076482 7799053 Increased number 416627 969745 1172803 2559175

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Basic Education Middle School in Weing Taung in Shan State (North).

Opening ceremony of Basic Education Post - Primary School in Hmawby Township, Yangon Division

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Multi-media classrooms and e-Education Learning Centres in Basic Education School in States and Divisions
At such a time, the government, without losing sight of current developments, is providing necessary assistance to new generation student youths enabling them to operate computer and use electronic devices in the learning process. In doing so, modern teaching and learning aids are being supplied to schools in accord with their levels. Wellwishers from the respective localities, on their part, are also extending a helping hand to these endeavours. Teachers are also training their pupils how to effectively use the teaching and learning aids. In Myanmar, human resource development through the education sector is introduced as national duty and emphasis is being placed on it and thus success is achieved every year. With the successful implementation of long-term and short-term education promotion programmes, opportunities have been opened up for every student.
State and Division 2005 2005 e-Education 1988 Multi-media Learning classroms Centres 66 21 44 28 152 52 63 79 100 202 173 77 267 53 65 33 182 1657 31 13 17 16 66 18 22 26 40 63 24 25 54 30 30 18 59 552

Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Sagaing Taninthayi Bago (East) Bago (West) Magway Mandalay Mon Rakhine Yangon Shan (South) Shan (North) Shan (East) Ayeyawady Total

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With the aim of building stable, firm and all-round developed national structure, nurturing todays youth and turning out intellectuals and intelligentsia who are able to keep abreast of international community, modern teaching and learning centres have been built throughout the country. The table shows the development in the basic education sector in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Students are learning in multi-media classroom at Mongla Basic Education High School in Shan State (East)

A TV set provided for multi - media classroom of Manman Hsaing Primary School in Shan State (North).

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1-11-2005 NLM

Completion of education at basic education level


Development of student youths has been made in the environment of education in Myanmar. There is no differentiation between boys and girls in school and they are being trained to improve their education with noble outlook.

The new building of Basic Education High School in Pa - O Kyauk Shitlon in Shan State (South).

In order to implement the tasks of education for all in the Union of Myanmar, preliminary measures were undertaken from 1990 to 1995. In 1996, Central Coordination Committee for Education for All and Leading Committee for Education for All were formed to supervise the tasks of education for all. Moreover, the national level work committee and the work committee for education for all were formed in 2002 and the objectives of education for all in Myanmar are being undertaken in connection with long-term project of basic education sector. In doing so, completion of education at basic education level becomes higher and higher each year due to the assistance of the government and educational organiza-

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tions, coordination of committees and basic education schools and concerted efforts of local and social organizations and the people. With the aim of ensuring learning of school-going-age children effective plans were laid down to achieve the targets of the completion of education. Active organizational activities were carried out as mass movement. As a result, completion of education at basic education level improves every year. With the increase in the rate of completion of education, learning rate from one level to another has increased. The learning rates from primary level to middle level and those from middle to high levels are increasing considerably. After the implementation of educational programmes to create opportunities for all, conditions of completion of education at primary, middle and high school levels and learning rate from one level to another in the 17-year period of the Tatmadaw government can be seen.

The rate of completion of education at basic education level

Level Primary level Middle level High level

1988 24.80 47.10 30.70

2005 69.75 78.86 41.88

The learning rate from one level to another at basic education level

Level From primary level to middle level From middle level to high level

1988

2005

45.60 53.70

76.16 92.96

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Basic Education High School in Mongla (Special Region 4).

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Literacy rate in states and divisions

Secretary - 1 of the State Peace and Development Council viewing research papers at the Seminar on Uplift of National Education standards, 2005.

Today is the knowledge age which dominates all sectors. Constant learning is a must in this knowledge age and thus it is necessary to possess reading and writing skills as a first step. It can be said that an illiterate person will not be able to serve the interest of the nation and even his own. Therefore, every government in the world is paying serious attention to literacy campaign. In Myanmar, efforts have been made in the consecutive eras to tackle the problem of illiteracy which is the evil legacy of colonial period and to promote the number of literate persons. Thanks to the endeavours made for the public to be literate in the Union of Myanmar, the literacy rate has become higher and higher year after year. In 1950, the literacy rate of the country stood at 35 per cent and in 1988 it was 79.7 per cent.

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TV set for Panhpeing Basic Education Primary School of Eastern Part of Thanlwin, Shan State (North).

In the time of the Tatmadaw government, literacy campaigns have been launched with momentum and as a result adult literacy rate jumped to 91 per cent in 2000 from 83 per cent in 1996. In 2004, the number rose up to 93.3 per cent. In 2005, special programmes for summer literacy campaigns have been implemented and due to these campaigns, 203,293 illiterates have become literate persons. With the implementation of the projects, the adult literacy rate of Myanmar in 2005 reached 94.1 per cent. Success has been achieved in the literacy campaign. Moreover, programmes to enhance the reading skills of literate persons have been implemented continuously. The table shows the increased literacy rate which is the result of endeavours of the government with the active cooperation of educational, social and regional organizations and the people in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Literacy rate in states and divisions


Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 State and Division Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Sagaing Taninthayi Bago (East) Bago (West) Magway Mandalay Mon Rakhine Yangon Shan (South) Shan (North) Shan (East) Ayeyawady 1988 72.7 59.0 59.2 56.9 80.9 80.2 87.8 90.6 85.9 81.7 79.2 59.8 90.5 62.8 47.3 31.9 91.1 2005 93.2 97.4 97.2 92.2 95.6 98.6 96.4 99.6 95.1 98.5 96.6 75.0 97.4 91.0 68.4 49.7 99.0 Progress 2 0.5 38.4 38.0 35.3 14.7 18.4 8.6 9.0 9.2 16.8 17.4 15.2 6.9 28.2 21.2 17.8 7.9

Total

79.7

94.1

14.4

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Dropout rates in states and divisions

Basic Education High School seen in Mongla.

The educational vision of the Union of Myanmar is Emergence of an education system that creates a life-long learning society that can face the challenges in the knowledge age. The Government is creating a constant learning education in conformity with the vision after laying down the national education promotion work programmes to be able to overcome the difficulties in the life-long learning education. Educational plans are being implemented throughout the nation to effectively reduce the dropout rates due to various reasons such as economic, social and health problems in the learning society. In its drive for reduction of dropout rates, the government has placed emphasis on increasing school enrolment rate and ensuring completion of the school to put into motion one of work programmes of a long-term plan of the basic education sector for all school-age children to complete primary education.

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Dropout rates in states and divisions


Sr State and Division 1988
Primary Middle

2005
Primary Middle

Reduction
Primary Middle

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Sagaing Taninthayi Bago (East) Bago (West) Magway Mandalay Mon Rakhine Yangon Shan (South) Shan (North) Shan (East) Ayeyawady Average

45.35 37.45 35.60 40.73 42.02 44.82 42.62 40.47 46.60 38.67 39.99 44.32 28.23 44.58 43.84 48.07 46.88 40.99

44.93 39.25 43.86 40.79 41.23 42.53 41.46 37.18 39.8 36.77 40.80 45.98 39.93 42.27 44.95 43.28 40.58 40.36

14.37 6.65 15.85 14.43 11.50 13.80 10.23 9.16 7.87 9.80 7.64 3.57 7.75 13.12 13.18 8.03 3.90 8.89

12.28 7.97 17.59 25.54 12.60 29.11 13.03 11.56 9.90 7.34 13.46 23.12 5.06 10.63 12.67 6.69 19.09 23.32

30.98 30.80 19.75 26.30 30.52 31.02 32.39 31.31 35.73 28.87 32.35 40.75 20.48 31.46 30.66 40.04 42.98 32.10

32.65 31.28 26.27 15.25 28.63 13.42 28.43 25.62 29.28 29.43 27.34 22.86 34.87 31.64 32.28 36.59 21.49 28.04

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A multi - media classroom.

To achieve the goal, the government is taking all possible measures such as teaching the children from respective wards and villages who dropped out of the schools and helping them to rejoin the basic education schools in the following academic year, providing school textbooks for the children who are facing various problems to pursue education, and providing assistance for the needy children through discussions with their parents in order to continue their education. Now, the dropout rates have been reduced drastically thanks to various forms of assistance rendered by the Myanmar Education Committee, regional administrative bodies, social organizations, wellwishers, the people and the Ministry of Education. The table shows the reduction in the dropout rates in states and divisions.

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Chairman of Myanmar Education Committee Secretary-1 of the State Peace and Development Council Lt-Gen Thein Sein cordially converses with trainees at the opening ceremony of Special Refresher Course.

Enhancing of teachership education in states and divisions


No one can deny the fact that teachers are discharging the most delicate and gigantic duties in human society. With perseverance and full capacity, teachers in Myanmar are trying their best in nurturing their pupils to become outstanding intellectuals and intelligentsia on whom the State can rely in the future. The government is paying serious attention to uplift of the educational skills of students through national education promotion programmes and at the same time, emphasis is being placed on promoting the role of teachers in the education sector. Moreover, it is trying to promote the leading role and prestige of teachers. Teachership education promotion programmes is included in the third task out of the ten tasks carried out in the basic education sector. With the aim of bringing about teachers with high caliber, altogether 20 teachers training college have been opened in the country and pre-job courses, on-job training courses, refresher courses and special refresher courses are conducted. With the assistance provided by the State, there emerged teachers with high capacity throughout the country. The table shows the number of schools, teachers and trainees under the teachership education promotion programme in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Enhancing of teachership education in states and divisions


1988 Number of School Number of Teacher Number of Trainee Number of School Number ofTeacher Number of Trainee 2005

24

Sr State/Division Institute/ College Institute/ Pre-job College School School On-job Institute/ Institute/ School College School College Pre-job On-job

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 3 15 15 22 30 28 59 33 15 85 16 138 153 146 334 266 114 788 409 239 756 208 1103 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 1 3 36 39 92 47 41 34 80 94 45 31 145 38 117 4516 20 839 456 17

Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Sagaing Taninthayi Bago (East) Bago (West) Magway Mandalay Mon Rakhine Yangon Shan (South) Shan (North) Shan (East) Ayeyawady

676 507 1395 478 915 607 1406 1815 810 620 2032 869 2140 14270

930 338 2962 890 1151 749 1458 3312 834 1757 3633 1309 2491 21814

Total

Increase in number of school, teacher and student in border areas


Increase in number of shcool in border areas
Subject High school Middle school Primary school Total 1988 2005 91 90 853 1034

Increase in number of teacher in border areas


Subject High school Middle school Primary school Total 1988 Subject High school Middle school Primary school Total 1988 2005 899 1841 2529 5269 2005 12704 52461 105755 170920

Increase in number of student in border areas

Education is the main driving force in every step of national development. Therefore, the government, with national vision, is striving for development of the education sector and is creating the educational opportunities in the urban as well as rural areas. In the past, border areas lagged behind in development due to the weakness in promoting education there. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, the Central Committee and the Work Committee for implementing border areas and national races development projects have been formed to pay attention to border area development tasks. In the education sector of border areas, educational development tasks have been carried out in 19 regions. In the drive for development of the education sector of border areas, basic education schools have been opened, literacy courses conducted, reading corners opened, stipends provided to students and cash assistance extended to teachers discharging their duties there. In 58 townships of border areas, 25 middle schools have been upgraded into high schools and teachers graduated from the University for Development of National Races have been assigned duties in their own regions. Nowadays, people living in border areas have been witnessing fruits of education development projects. The table shows increase in the number of schools, teachers and students in the time of Tatmadaw government in border areas.

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Increase in number of school, teacher and student in border areas


1988 Sr State/Division Number of School Number Number Number of of of Teacher Student School 198 41 60 34 98 33 1 39 69 94 234 133 1034 2005 Number Number of of Teacher Student 747 225 460 232 396 152 2 452 466 743 825 569 5269 24055 9524 20043 5467 13885 4827 28 15368 13818 22406 26489 15010 170920

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Sagaing Taninthayi Mandalay Mon Rakhine Shan (South) Shan (North) Shan (East) Total

A multi - media classroom of No. 8 BEHS in Mandalay.

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Development of Higher Education in the time of Tatmadaw Government

Nationalities Youth Resource Development Degree College in Yangon. Latest developments have a great impact on economic, social, health and education sectors of the nations around the world. At such a time, the Union of Myanmar is making arrangements to keep abreast of developed nations and emphasis is being placed on applying know-how and technologies.

New generation youths pursuing their education applying modern learning aids.

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In this regard, a constant learning society has been established in Myanmar to be able to pursue the ever advancing technologies. Starting from 2001-2002 academic year, Myanmar Education Objective was set to promote the education sector. According to the education objective, special four-year plans have been implemented since 2002-2003 academic year with the slogan Build a modern and developed nation through Education. This is aimed at building a modern and developed nation through the might of developed human resources. In the higher education sector, altogether 21 work programmes have been laid down to implement the national education promotion four-year plan. Universities and colleges have been opened, infrastructures for development of the ICT sector established, teachers trained, arrangements made to confer degree and diploma certificates through teaching programmes as well as through human resources development sector and learning opportunities created for students to promote the higher education sector. The table provides the readers with the facts and figures on achievements made in the higher education sector in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Development of the higher education sector


Subject University and college - Vocational education Institute - Arts and Science University - Degree college - College - Science Total e-Education Learning Centre Wide Area Network - No of WAN sites Number of teacher Count 1988 2005

Progress
* 27 3 9 ** 37 71 1 95 4616

institute university college college science centre network site teacher

6 3 6 11 1 27

5638

5 30 9 20 0 64 71 1 95 10254

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Subject Teaching programmes - Degree - Diploma - Honours Class - Masters Class - Masters Research - Doctorate Course Total Number of students Department for Human Resource Development Teaching programmes conducted at Department for Human Resource Development - Masters course - Degree course - Diploma course - Certificate course Total

Count

1988

2005

Progress

degree diploma class class class course

25 11 20 23

54 22 30 41 24 21

29 11 10 18 24 21 113

79 student 134325

192

705784 571459

department

44

44

person person person person

176 2647 26819

176 2647 26819

108505 108505 138147 138147

Remarks * The decrease in number is due to emergence of Sagaing Institute of Education, Monywa Institute of Economics and Meiktila Institute of Economics and transferring of Yangon Institute of Technology, Computer University, Institute of Agriculture and Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Scince to the respective ministries. ** The Institute of Foreign Languages was upgraded into the University of Foreign Languages.

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Newly emerged universities and colleges

Kengtung Degree College in Shan State (East).

In the time of the Tatmadaw government, roads and bridges, factories, hospitals, schools, universities and colleges that will serve the interests of the nation and its people have been built the length and breadth of the nation. In the Union of Myanmar, uplift of the education of the entire nation has been laid down as national objective and every effort has been made to put the objective

Hpa - an University in Kayin State.

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into reality in order that the nation and the race will be able to Universities and colleges stand tall among nations of the in states and divisions world. In the drive to uplift the Proeducation standard, infrastruc- Sr State and Division 1988 2005 gress tures in the education sector have Kachin 1 4 3 been built throughout the coun- 1 try. In the past there were only 27 2 Kayah 1 1 universities and colleges but now the number has reached 64. 3 Kayin 1 2 1 The objective of building universities and colleges through- 4 Chin 1 1 out the country including border Sagaing 2 6 areas is enabling the youth to 5 pursue higher education within 6 Taninthayi 1 3 2 their arms reach. Bago (East) 1 3 2 Nowadays, Myanmars 7 education is developing signifi- 8 Bago (West) 1 2 1 cantly. There is no limit in pursu- 9 Magway 3 5 2 ing higher education, and learn10 Mandalay 3 10 7 ing opportunities have been Mon 1 2 1 opened up to all youths along 11 with regional and national devel- 12 Rakhine 1 2 1 opment. 13 Yangon 8 12 4 With the aim of turning out 14 Shan (South) 1 3 2 intellectuals and intelligentsia Shan (North) 1 1 who are prerequisite for emer- 15 gence of a modern and developed 16 Shan (East) 1 1 democratic nation, the govern- 17 Ayeyawady 2 6 4 ment with farsightedness is building infrastructures in the educaTotal 27 64 37 tion sector. The table shows increase in the number of vocational education institutes, Arts and Science Universities, Degree Colleges and Colleges in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Number of teachers in the higher education sector


In the Union of Myanmar, educational programmes have been laid down and are being implemented for emergence of an education system that is not below the standard of developed South East Asian countries and turning out brilliant students who can face the challenges of the 21st century.

The number of faculty members in states and divisions


Sr State and Division 1988 2005 353 84 195 151 741 334 376 282 584 1743 386 220 3525 352 137 117 674 10254 Progress

1 Kachin 2 Kayah 3 Kayin

86 1 47 150 46 84 85 240 1115 317 94 2927 115 55 277 5638

267 84 148 151 591 288 292 193 344 628 69 126 598 237 82 117 397 4616

4 Chin 5 Sagaing

6 Taninthayi 7 8 9 Bago (East) Bago (West) Magway

10 Mandalay 11 Mon 12 Rakhine 13 Yangon 14 Shan (South) 15 Shan (North) 16 Shan (East) 17 Ayeyawady Total

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Teachers are being trained to teach with multi -media aids. To realize the objective, teachers are being trained to possess high calibre. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, the number of students has increased and thus teachers are trained to get proper student-teacher ratio. In order to establish an education system that ensures good opportunities, the Tatmadaw government is changing educational organization into new ones and fulfilling requirements in the education sector. In doing so, tasks are being carried out to fulfil the needs in universities, degree colleges and colleges. As a result, the role of teachers in the higher education sector becomes high. They pay their attention to teaching and nurturing their students to possess know-how that can keep pace with that of the international community. Although Myanmars education is linked to the process of globalization, teachers are placing emphasis on promoting Union Spirit and enhancing national values. Teachers of the higher education sector in states and divisions are discharging their duties to develop human resources with high efficiency that can build a peaceful, modern and developed nation. The table shows increase in the number of faculty members who are participating in the national education promotion programmes in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Number of students pursuing higher education in states and divisions

Students get an opportunity of learning higher education conveniently with opening of Panglong University in Shan State (South).

Students learning at a multi-media classroom.

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Intellectuals and intelligentsia are essential in building the Union of Myanmar to be a peaceful, modern and developed nation. Therefore, the State and government has laid down the 30Progress 1988 2005 Sr Division year long- term national education promotion plan (higher education 1 Kachin 1252 17365 16113 sector) to be implemented from 2 Kayah 3051 3051 2001-2002 to 2030-2031. 3 Kayin 116 5639 5523 In accord with the objective of national education promotion 4 Chin 9705 9705 programme, limits in pursuing 5 Sagaing 1458 67672 66214 higher education have been reduced 6 Taninthayi 397 12035 11638 and a teaching system that ensures 7 Bago (East) 808 34509 33701 human resource development has been practised. With the opening 8 Bago (West) 434 26225 25791 up of learning opportunities for 9 Magway 3488 59769 56281 students, they are now 10 Mandalay 20191 139829 119638 enthusiastically taking part in the 11 Mon 7256 23376 16120 programme of learning higher education. 12 Rakhine 930 20115 19185 For the convenience of 13 Yangon 90092 195270 105178 students in their pursuit of higher 14 Shan (South) 2656 18114 15458 education in universities, degree 15 Shan (North) 327 3965 3638 colleges and colleges, courses that will directly benefit the jobs are 16 Shan (East) 2152 2152 being conducted in addition to the 17 Ayeyawady 4920 66993 62073 regular courses and thus students are attending these courses. Total 134325 705784 571459 Thanks to the education promotion programmes, the educational standard of youth who graduated from these programmes are not only on a par with that of the South East Asian countries but with the world-class. Moreover, they have become good sons and daughters of the State imbued with strong Union Spirit. As a result of creating education programmes that benefits both individuals and the State, the number of students learning in universities, degree colleges and colleges throughout the country has increased year after year. The table shows increase in the number of students in states and divisions including border areas in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Number of students pursuing higher education in states and divisions

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Information and Communication Technology classrooms in schools of the higher education sector
Along with the rapid development of science and technology in the 21st century, information and communication technology has been advancing with momentum. In the Union of Myanmar, efforts are being made using the advancing technology for the nation to be on a par with the nations of the world. In the higher education sector of Myanmar, information and communication technology is being applied after establishing educational network. Learning aids programmes are introduced in universities, degree colleges and colleges. Information and communicationtechnology is being applied effectively in teaching, learning, education management and collecting data in the higher education sector and this contribute much towards establishment of the science and technology sector, promoting the education standard and creating educational opportunities. Expecting new technologies and communication technology and national development in the coming 30 years, the government has laid down the 30-year longterm education plan to meet the international standard. Putting these plans into action and applying advanced technology, a constant learning society and new generation youth pursuing higher education will emerge thereby turning out of outstanding intellectuals and intelligentsia. Nowadays, all are witnessing development of technology in the higher education sector that will shape the better future of the nation. The table provides the reader with facts and figures of e-Education Learning Centres, the number of sites in WAN in states and divisions including border areas in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

An e-Education Learning Centre fully installed with modern technology.

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Information and Communication Technology classrooms in schools of the higher education sector
State and Division Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Sagaing Taninthayi Bago (East) Bago (West) Magway Mandalay Mon Rakhine Yangon Shan (South) Shan (North) Shan (East) Ayeyawady Total 2005 e-Education Learning Centre 4 1 2 1 8 3 3 2 5 12 2 2 15 3 1 1 6 71 57 20 2 1 4 2 2 2005 Number of sites in WAN 3 1

Sr

1988

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

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Increasing number of diploma/degree courses of higher education sector Increase in the number of courses in the higher education sector:

Sr

Course

1988

2005

Number increased

1 2 3 4 5 6

Degree Diploma Honours Masters Masters research Doctorate

25 11 20 23

54 22 30 41 24 21

29 11 10 18 24 21

total

79

192

113

The Union of Myanmar has been adopting new teaching projects to utilize the technologies emerging together with the advancing era and create an education environment equipped with ever flourishing and developing knowledge. The higher education sector has seen the evolution of new teaching programmes in the time of the Tatmadaw government. The sector is now conducting masters research degree courses and doctorate courses in addition to the existing degree and diploma courses.

Education Layout

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A convocation in progress.

Even in those degree and diploma courses, new subjects that meet the international standard have been added. Thanks to the integration of new academic fields emerging according to the advancement of time, the nation now has 192 teaching programmes, up from only 79 in 1988. The role of developing and invaluable education programmes, that meet the Southeast Asian standard, has become greater in developing and modernizing the nation. New teaching programmes that help fulfil the regional needs are own inventions of the Myanmar people. The programmes are being implemented with greater momentum in social, economic and cultural fields of the regions of the Union. Education opportunities even cover the task of running courses for professional subjects, produced by the higher education teaching programmes, in combination with the practical industrial field work. The higher education sector of Myanmar is leading towards quality development, opening opportunities to study and know and subjects on a wider scale and creating new academic fields for innovations, knowledge and analyses. The new diploma, honours, masters degree, masters research degree and doctorate courses introduced by the government meet the international standard, and are providing greater help in building a modern and developed nation.

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Increasing number of doctorate courses

Sr

University

Regular Doctorate Course 1954 608

Advanced Doctorate Course 181 122

Total

1 2 3

Yangon University Mandalay University Yangon Institute of Economics

2135 730

47

51

Yangon Institute of Education Total 24 2633 2 309 26 2942

Myanmar scholars are the ones with many experiences in their respective fields and they can keep abreast of the scholars from international community. They are also the intelligent ones with high carlibre. In the past, Myanmar scholars had to attend doctorate courses abroad. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, plans have been made to confer doctorate degrees at home and as a result, doctorate degree holders have emerged. Doctorate courses have been conducted for teachers from universities and degree colleges in the country and, for scholars from outside, regular courses have been conducted in various ways. Nowadays, 2633 persons are attending regular doctorate courses and 309 the advanced doctorate courses. Myanmar education system has constantly turned out scholars with high efficiency and in order to promote their efficiency, programmes for cooperation with international community have been implemented.

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After being a member of ASEAN on 23 July 1997, Myanmar has been taking part in regional educational network. She hosted workshops, meetings and seminars and sent scholars abroad to attend international meetings to exchange experience. Myanmar signed 19 MoUs with 12 countries and 9 MoAs and one charter with 6 countries. Moreover, 26 international meetings and 45 meetings on subjects were held. Thanks to the cooperation with international com-munity, the standard of Myanmar education sector has become high. The table shows increasing number of doctorate courses in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Courses conducted and increasing number of trainees for human resource development
In building the Union of Myanmar to be a peaceful modern and developed nation, human resource development programmes have been implemented throughout the country. Now is the time of knowledge age and thus the government is placing emphasis on human resource development to be able to face the present days challenges. In implementing human resource development programmes, Myanmar was able to implement e-learning programmes starting from 1 January 2001. It can be said that the implementation of e-learning programmes opens the door of future higher education system. Applying network system in the higher education system shows the fact that the standard of Myanmars education system becomes high. These programmes contribute not only to formal education but also to non-formal education and inclusive

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Courses conducted and increasing number of trainees for human resource development

Sr

Courses

1988

2005 Courses 4 13 40 127 184

2005 Trainees 176 2647 26819 108505 138147

1 2 3 4

Masters courses Degree courses Diploma Certificate Total

education. These programmes were implemented under the collaboration between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Information. In the past, there was no human resource development programme, but in the time of the Tatmadaw government, these programmes have come into existence. The tasks to implement the programmes cover opening of e-education learning centres in universities and colleges in states and divisions, conducting courses covering a wide range of subjects with international standard and initiating department for human resource development. Thanks to these endeavours, altogether 138,147 trainees have been attending the courses. Department for Human Resource Development in the higher education sector has been conducting Masters courses, degree courses, diploma courses and certificate courses and these courses benefit intellectual and intelligentsia who will build the country. The table shows the number of courses and trainees for human resource development emerged in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Development of science and technology in the time of Tatmadaw Government

Increasing number of teachers and graduate student from science and technology university, college and institute

Newly emerged science and technology university, college and institute


Progress 4 1 1 26 24 1 57

University, Myanmar is an agro- Sr 1988 2005 College, Institute based nation. To build an industrialized country based on 1 5 agriculture, Myanmar is paying 1 Technology University serious attention to development 2 University of Computer of the science and technology Studies 1 2 sector which is prerequisite for 3 Myanmar Aerospace and building industrialized country. Today's world is seeing Engineering University 1 numerous developments occurring with rapid momentum. To be able to 4 Government keep abreast of developed nations, Technological College 26 Myanmar is trying its utmost for 5 Government Computer development of the science and College 24 technology sector. In the Union of Myanmar, 6 Government Technical science and technology have been Institute 10 11 developing along with the Total 12 69 development of basic and higher education sectors. The Ministry of Science and Technology was established to produce highly Sr Subject 1988 2005 qualified technicians. In the science and technology sector, plans are being 1 Number of teacher 408 5377 made to nurture human resource that 2 Number of graduate 30200 173331 will promote national economic life and raise the living standard of the people. Moreover, modern

Progress 4869 143131

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Government Technological College (Panglong). technologies are applied to enhance the production of the agriculture and industrial sectors. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, five technology universities and 26 technological colleges were opened. A new chapter in the education sector was opened as 2 Universities of Computer Studies and 24 Computer Colleges emerged. Moreover, doctorate degrees for apply engineering and computer studies were conferred. Myanmar Aero-space and Engineering University needed for a modern country was established. One government techno-logical college and two government computer colleges were opened each in the 24 development regions throughout the country. The table shows development of the science and technology sector producing new generation scholars in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Computer University in Loilem, Shan State (South).

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Government Technological College (Ayethayar) in Taunggyi, Shan State (South) produces technicians on whom the State can rely.

Increasing number of teachers in science and technology sector and newly emerged human resource development
In the Union of Myanmar, measures are being taken for development of agriculture as the base and all-round development of other sectors of the economy as well. With the combined efforts of the government, the people and the Tatmadaw, infrastructures in farm business have emerged one after another. As a result, the nation is now enjoying food sufficiency.

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45

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41

After ensuring food sufficiency, efforts are being made to build industrialized nation that will help raise the living standard of the entire people. Human resources needed for building industrialized country are being nurtured not only in the education sector but also in science and technology sector. The 21st century is witnessing rapid development of science and technology which penetrate all sectors.

Increasing strength of teachers in the science and technology sector

Sr

University, College, Institute

1988

2005

Progress

1 2 3 4 5

Technology University University of Computer Studies 26 Government Technological Colleges 24 Government Computer Colleges 11 Technical Institutes

229 40 139

422 248 3357 720 630

193 208 3357 720 491

Total

408

5377

4969

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42

Sustainable Development

Human resource development in the science and technology sector

Sr

Subject

1988

2005

Progress 400 3428 8040 51766 79497 143131

1 2 3 4 5

Doctorate degree holders Masters degree holders Post-graduates Degree holders Under-graduates Total

65 300 12957 16878 30200

400 3493 8340 64723 96375 173331

Human resource development pro-grammes are being implemented to produce experts in the science and technology sector. Infrastructures for the science and technology sector have been founded in the 24 development regions for human resource development. Teachers with high calibre in the science and technology sector are discharging their duties to produce highly qualified technicians. Therefore, it can be witnessed that brilliant technicians have emerged. In the time of the Tatmadaw govern-ment, doctorate courses, masters courses, post-graduate courses, degree courses and under-graduate courses are being conducted to promote the science and technology sector. The table shows increases in the numbers of teachers and newly emerged human resources in the science and technology sector. ******

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Subjects, trainees and graduates in the science and technology sector

Increasing number of subjects, trainees and graduates in the science and technology sector
Doctorate degree
Sr 1 2 3 4 Subject Engineering & Architect Computer Bio-Tech Applied Science From 1988 to 2005 Trainee Graduate 50 98 16 236 460 151 109 104

Masters degree
Sr 1 2 3 4 From 1988 to 2005 Graduate 1678 1296 316 203 Trainee 1635 791 202 -

Subject Engineering & Architect Computer Bio-Tech Applied Science

Post-graduate diploma
Sr 1 2 3 From 1988 to 2005 Graduate 2145 2463 2764 Trainee 1081 745 955

Subject Engineering& Architect Computer Computer (Honours Class)

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44 Post-graduate diploma
Sr 1 2 3 4 5

Sustainable Development

From 1988 to 2005 Subject Engineering & Architect Computer Computer (Honours Class) Bio-Tech Applied Science Graduate 2145 2463 2764 441 527 102 Trainee 1081 745 955 -

Bachelor degree
Sr 1 2 3 4 Subject Engineering & Architect Computer Bio-Tech Aerospace From 1988 to 2005 Graduate 31995 32484 244 Trainee 10278 11640 89 173

Under-graduate diploma
Sr 1 2 3 Subject From 1988 to 2005 Graduate Engineering & Architect Computer Aerospace engineering 82863 13512 Trainee 20385 1796 99

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49

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Myanmar Maritime University produces master mariner and engineers.

In building the Union of Myanmar to develop on the most suitable path for flourishing national interests, the government is nurturing highly qualified intellectuals and intelligentsia who can face the challenges of the future. Development in the science and technology sector is not limited only in the education sector but dominates all sectors. At such a time, efforts are being made for emergence of a modern nation applying prevailing natural resources and high efficiency of citizens and exposing development prospects. In order to promote the national interests, brilliant human resources are being nurtured not only in the education sector but in the science and technology sector. Emphasis is being placed on establishment of universities and colleges enabling students to pursue various subjects on science and technology and conducting various subjects. As a result, various subjects on science and technology, a number of trainees learning these subjects and increasing in the number of technicians can be witnessed in the time of the Tatmadaw government. As all-out efforts are being made to promote the science and technology sector for national development, quality and quantity of trainees pursuing their education in the science and technology fields have become high and more degree holders emerged. The tables show the increase of subjects and number of trainees in the science and technology sector in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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46

Sustainable Development

International cooperation in the science and technology fields Asia-Pacific Symposia on Science and Technology
Papers submitted by foreign countries 17 26 19 52 Papers submitted by Myanmar Professors/ Scientists/ Researchers from foreign countries 15 16 17 150

Date

Participating countries

15-1-2003 8-1-2004 9-3-2005 9-11-2005

12 64 73 26

China,ROK, Japan, China (Taipei), Singapore, Canada, Thailand, India, Australia, Malaysia, Iran, Mongolia, Denmark

Total

114

175

198

International cooperation in the science and technology fields


Sr 1 2 3 4 Subject Countries Scholarship Training Conference Quantity 31 154 609 664

The government is constantly raising the standard of science and technology in order to help promote the economic, social, education and health sectors of the nation to be in conformity with developing and changing situations of the world. Only when science and technology are applied fully will the nation be able to be on a par with international community. In Myanmar, constant learning society has been established in order to apply ever advancing science and technology. Nowadays, Myanmar is actively cooperating with international development agencies

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and other organizations related to technology to promote technological programmes which are in line with changing international situation. Making contact with ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology -ASEAN COST, Myanmar is joining hands with the 8 sub-committees under the committee to enhance research works in the science and technology sector. Moreover, under the science and technology collaboration programmes, Myanmar signed an agreement on bilateral collaboration in technologies with India in 1999. She also signed Memoranda of Understanding on nurturing human resources with China and Pakistan. In carrying out international relation programmes in the time of the Tatmadaw government, scholarships, training and conferences were conducted in collaboration with 31 countries. Under these programmes, 154 scholarships were provided, 609 training conducted and 664 conferences held. Myanmar also attended Asia-Pacific Symposia on Science and Technology and submitted 175 papers. International conferences play a vital role in research and development of the technology sector. It also promotes new creativity in information and communication sector for the future of the nation. As a result, fruitful results have been achieved. The table shows Myanmar activities in international scholarship, trainings, conferences and research paper reading sessions in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Infrastructures built by Myanmar Engineers


Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Dams Dams for villages River water pumping station Power supply Factory Railways 180-feet-above bridge Airport Upgraded airport Basic education school University, college Hospital Upgraded hospital 179 771 293 30 16027 1159 208 17 25 6778 124 189 149 Subject Quantity

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48

Sustainable Development

Awards presented by ASEAN Federation


Sr No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Award
Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Individual/Organization Engineering Individual/Organization Engineering Engineering

Year
2002 2002 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004

Sector
Bridge Irrigation Energy Architecture Environment Information Technology Energy Hydro power

Efforts of intellectuals and intelligentsia among fellow citizens play an important role in the drives for the Union of Myanmar to keep abreast of nations of the world. With this end in view, the government is trying to produce highly qualified intellectuals and intelligentsia. The constant emergence of intellectuals and intelligentsia produced from the respective universities throughout the nation is a proof that there are newly emerged national strength which will serve the interests of the nation. Nowadays, intellectuals and intelligentsia produced by over 150 under-graduate, post-graduate diploma, bachelor degree, masters degree and doctorate courses in the higher education, health and science and technology sectors are actively taking part in nationbuilding tasks. Thanks to the endeavours made by these persons, 179 dams, 208 bridges with the length of 180 feet and above, 17 airports, over 1100 miles of railroad and over 45,000 factories have emerged. Moreover, infrastructures in other sectors have also been built. These are the results achieved in the time of the Tatmadaw government. As a gesture of honouring the endeavours made by Myanmar engineers who have been engaged in the national development tasks, the Conference of ASEAN Federation of Engineering Organizations presented outstanding awards to Myanmar. The Conference of ASEAN Federation also presented awards to Myanmar for building dams and bridges magnificently, architectural triumph, excellence performance in the energy sector, implementing hydro power projects and preserving natural resources. Moreover, ASOCIO summit presented awards and certificates of honour to individuals and organizations who dedicated themselves to development of ICT. The table shows outstanding Myanmar engineers, awards presented by ASEAN Federation and participation of Myanmar intellectuals and intelligentsia in nation-building tasks in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 87654321210987654321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321

Education Layout

Uplift of education standard of the entire nation and turning out of qualified human resources are important factors in building a peaceful, modern and developed nation and so also health and fitness of the entire nation. It is safe to say that health and fitness is the driving force for national development. Therefore, uplift of health, fitness and education standards of the entire nation is enshrined in one of the four social objectives. The government is carrying out health care service to see that the entire national people enjoy health and fitness and longevity. Myanmar National Health Committee was formed to promote the health sector. Without losing sight of health policies laid down by the State, the National Health Committee is playing a leading role in carrying out health duties.

Head of State Senior General Than Shwe inspecting Traditional Medicine Hospital, Mandalay.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN HEALTH SECTOR

54

Development of health in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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50

Sustainable Development

Under the leadership of the National Health Committee, coordination and cooperation between the Ministry of Health and other related ministries and active participation of social organizations, wellwishers and the people, Myanmars health standard has been promoted significantly in the time of the Tatmadaw government. Health care services are being carried out the length and breadth of the nation. New hospitals and dispensaries have emerged, many have been upgraded, medicines and medical equipment provided and more health staff appointed. Moreover, emphasis is being placed on disease control. Preventive and control measures have been taken against diseases. Myanmar has also enhanced its cooperation with international community in the health sector. One of the significant factors is that in the time of the Tatmadaw government, encouragement has been given to development of Myanmar traditional medicine. The table shows upgrading of hospitals, increasing number of health care centres and health staff, emerging health universities, traditional medicine hospitals and elimination of three major diseases in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Progress in the health sector of Myanmar


Sr No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Subject 1988 2005 Progress

Upgrading of hospital Health care centre Health staff Health University Training school Traditional Medicine Hospital, dispensary

631 1844 25430 3 26 91

824 3808 43224 15 43 251

193 1964 17794 12 17 160

Elimination of three major diseases (small pox, polio and leprosy)

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Specialists team led by Professor Dr Norman Hla performing liver transplant at New Yangon General Hospital for the first time in Myanmar.

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Sustainable Development

Emerging health facilities and growing number of health staff

Medical students learning English. In order to promote the health standard of the people, the government is paying attention to disease control, promoting health care services, giving treatment and rehabilitation. The government, enlisting the strength of health staff and using the available resources, is trying its utmost to see that public health care services are carried out effectively. As the saying goes prevention is better than cure, priority has been given to disease control in providing health care services to the public, and giving proper treatments to patients plus rehabilitation. Skilled health staff and infrastructures such as hospitals, clinics and health care centres are imperative in providing treatments to patients. Therefore, infrastructures needed in the health sector have been built, more health staff appointed and medical equipment provided throughout the country including border and rural areas. To meet the demand of growing population, plans are being made to build new hospitals, dispensaries and health care centres. At the same time, health staff are also appointed at the medical facilities. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, the health sector of the country has improved markedly. Health care services are provided to all national people living the length and breadth of the nation. As a result, the entire national people are enjoying better health and

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fitness.

53

The tables show emerging hospitals, clinics and health care centres and growing strength of health staff in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Emerging health facilities


Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 Subject Hospital Traditional Medicine Hospital Rural Health Centre Regional Health Centre Traditional Medicine Clinic Total Remarks 89 2123 237 2611 148 488 64 84 20 2 1337 14 1452 12 115 1988 631 2005 824 Progress 193

348 Maternal and Child Health Care Centres and 80 School Health Centres are also in existence.

Myeik General Hospital in Taninthayi Division.

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Sustainable Development

Growing number of health staff


Sr No Subject 1988 2005 Progres

Doctor

12268

17564

5296

Dentist

857

1365

508

Health Assistant

1238

1767

529

Health Supervisor-1

487

529

42

Health Supervisor-2

674

1339

665

Health staff

1557

2796

1239

Nurses

8349

17864

9515

Midwives

8121

16245

8124

Traditional Medicine

Practitioner

279

760

481

Total

33830

60229

26399

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Emerging medical universities, training schools and courses


In implementing national health plans to uplift the health standard of the entire nation, emphasis is being placed on creating the health system which is in conformity with changing political, economic and social systems. The role of health staff in various medical specialties is important in providing health care services to the public. Therefore, skilled doctors, nurses and health staff are being nurtured with the aim of developing human resources in the health sector. Health staff nurtured in the country have been providing health care services to all national people in accord with the objective of the health plan to raise the health standard of the people, and to provide health care services to all national people. Thanks to the successful implementation of health plans, Myanmars health sector has improved year after year. To provide better health care services to the public on a wide scale Peoples Hospital Upgrading Projects (2001-2006) has been implemented in three phases.

Extended post-graduate medical courses at home


Sr Subject 1988 2005

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6

Dr MedSc Course for personnel doctor PhD Course for personnel doctor MMedSc course for personnel doctor Diploma course for personnel doctor and dentist Diploma course for general practitioners and dentists Diploma course for any graduate

30 7 29 23 2 3

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Sustainable Development

New hospitals have been built and the old ones upgraded and some specialist hospitals have served as teaching hospitals. New medical universities have emerged in the time of the Tatmadaw government. In medical universities, 29 courses for Masters in Medical Science, 23 diploma courses for staff doctors, two diploma courses for outsiders and three diploma courses for graduates are conducted. Moreover, 30 subjects in post-doctorate courses and seven subjects in doctorate courses have been lectured since 1997. The table shows emerging medical universities and training schools and growing number of health experts in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Development of medical institutes and training schools


Sr Subject 1988 2005

1. 2. 3. 4.

Institute of Medicine Institute of Nursing Institute of Pharmacy Institute of Paramedical Sciences

3 -

4 2 2

1 6

2 1 1 2 23

5. 6. 7. 8.

University of Community Health Traditional Medicine University Institute of Dental Medicine Nurses Training School

Remarks:

There are one Traditional Medicine Institute, 16 midwifery training schools and four nurses re lated training schools.

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The main building of University of Traditional Medicine in Mandalay.

Kyaukse General Hospital.

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Sustainable Development

Indicators on health development


SrNo Disease 1988 2005

1.

Malaria - outbreak - mortality - epidemic 24.5 10.4 12 + nil 53.4 *11.11 *** 3.65 2 nil nil ** 0.49 (nil)

2. 3. 4. 5.

Polio Smallpox Leprosy AIDS - HIV blood test - equipment - disease monitoring

nil nil ** 10,000

all townships 31 townships *** 100,000

* 1,000

Constant efforts being made for reducing and elimination of outbreak and spread of major diseases
In an effort to build a peaceful, modern and developed nation, tasks for ensuring health, fitness and education standards of the entire nation are imperative. In the process, the government has laid down the objectives of health plansto enable the entire national people to enjoy longevity and to be free from all kinds of diseases, and is taking steps for prevention of diseases, treatment and upgrading of health standard in harmony. Now is the time when interrelation and communication are swift. At such a time, the government is constantly monitoring major diseases that can break out anytime. Disease prevention is being launched. At the same time, medical treatment is being given to those suffering from diseases.

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Kidney transplant successfully performed by Myanmar surgeons. Effective treatment is being given to six common diseases in Myanmarmalaria, TB, diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes and hypertension with the use of potent medicines coupled with effective therapies. The government has been monitoring epidemic and new endemic diseases. Moreover, it has made arrangements to prevent the spread of those diseases. Nowadays, smallpox, polio and leprosy in Myanmar have been eradicated. The third WHO Ministers Meeting on Elimination of Global Leprosy held in Myanmar in 2003 declared Myanmar a leprosy-free nation. In the meantime, a mass campaign in the fight against AIDS is being launched in the nation. Infectious diseases are common in developing countries with a high rate of infant mortality. Hence, extended vaccination against those diseases are constantly being given to every young children. In this connection, vaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, measles and TB is being given to children across the nation, and nearly cent per cent progress has been made in the project. In the time of the Tatmadaw Government, effective treatment is being given to those with common diseases after laying down health plans, and unprecedented progress has been made in this regard. The table shows progress made in the eradication of common diseases.

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Oral polio vaccine is being given to offspring of national races at border areas.

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The first ever liver transplant successfully performed by Myanmar surgeons led by Professor Dr Norman Hla at the New General Hospital (Yangon) on 25-8-2004.

Health is the most basic requirement for development of a society. Health is wealth, and it also contributes to intellectual development. Hence, the government is placing emphasis on uplift of health, fitness and education standards of the entire nation. In the health sector, a number of highly-qualified medical scientists emerged through the institutes of medicine and the training schools. New hospitals were built and the old ones upgraded in cities of the states and divisions. More doctors, nurses and staff were appointed at those medical centres. Altogether 180 more specialists and 34 physicians were appointed at state and divisional level hospitals for 12 specialist subjects including medical science, surgical operation, obstetric and gynecology, pediatric health, anaesthetic and ophthalmology while 248 more specialists were appointed at district level hospitals for six specialist subjects. Rare and unusual medical treatments are being provided there. Modern lab equipment, advanced surgical equipment including blood and flesh kits and intensive care units were facilitated at hospitals in states and divisions. Like Yangon, international level surgical operations coupled with modern lab equipment were successfully performed in Mandalay. The standard of health care services in upper Myanmar is now equal to that of lower Myanmar. Surgical operations that could be done only at Yangon General Hospital in the past can now be performed at Mandalay General Hospital. Likewise, some surgical operations that could be done only abroad can now be performed locally.

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Achievements in surgical operations


Sr No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Subject conjoined twin pericarditis traumatically amputated arms kidney transplant liver transplant 1988 2 nil nil nil nil 2005 *4 1 4 28 ** 1

The aim of the Myanmar medical science is to enable all to enjoy longevity and save their life. The health sector has been able to improve health standard of Myanmar through its own medical science. The ability of Myanmar medical scientists is on a par with that of international level medical scientists. Myanma medical science has been acknowledged by international community. Achievements in surgical operations done by Myanmar surgeons who have been recognized by international community were put on record in the time of the Tatmadaw Government. The table shows achievements in surgical operations performed by Myanmar surgeons in the time of the Tatmadaw Government.

Surgical operation on siamese twins.

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Indicators on health development


Sr No 1. Subject decline of crude death rate rural areas urban areas increase of life expectancy rural areas men women urban areas men women mortality rate under one mortality rate under five 1988 2005

9.9/1000 8.9/1000

7.11000 6.2/1000

2.

56.2 years 60.4 years 59.0 years 63.2 years 98/1000 130/1000

60.8 years 63.3 years 61.5 years 65.6 years 49.7/1000 66.6/1000

3. 4.

Indicators on health development

The government is implementing the tasks for uplift of health and fitness of the people after laying down the national objectives on health. It is also constantly undertaking the tasks for enhancement of health, prevention of diseases, treatment and rehabilitation in order to raise the health standard of the people. In promotion of the health sector, the government has drawn the plans on improvement of the way of eating and lifestyle and is carrying them out for eradication of malnutrition and prevention of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases. Other economic, social and environmental conditions play an important role in implementation of the health projects. Life expectancy which indicates health development has improved. Mortality rate has also fallen not because health care services improve but because individual lifestyle and social and environmental conditions become better than ever. For instance, there is food sufficiency in Myanmar because of the increased production of agricultural produce. As a result, nutrition is better and

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Educative talks on HIV/AIDS conducted by Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association.

the outbreak of infectious diseases has decreased. The people live in clean houses with good ventilation and they dispose of rubbish properly. The outbreak of disease has thus become less and less. These are the practical developments in the health sector. The health standard of the people has improved and they can live longer. Considerable achievements have been made due to the efforts and cooperation of individuals, every household, social organizations and departments concerned in the respective sectors. It is vividly seen in the table shown.

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A physician team providing treatment to a child from a village.

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Myanmar wins awards presented by World Health Organization


Myanmar is translating health policies and objectives into action and carrying out tasks which will help uplift the health standard of the entire people. Under the guidance and support of the government and the National Health Committee, the Ministry of Health, in cooperation with other related departments, social organizations, wellwishers and international organization, is discharging its duties to uplift the health standard and thanks to the concerted efforts made by health staff, achievements in the health sector can be witnessed one after another. Eradication of polio and elimination of leprosy in the country are the living proof of Myanmar's efforts to uplift health standard. International community has acknowledged Myanmar's efforts and the World Health Organization presented awards to the country.

Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association members giving a helping hand to a patient.

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Prizes awarded by WHO to Myanmar


Sr No 1 Organization WHO Prize Fir st prize for International Technology Development 2 3 4 WHO WHO in South East Asia Region WHO Tobacco and Health prize In commemoration of 50th anniversary health prize World No-Tobacco Day Prize 2004 1994 1998 Year 1991

Health staff joining hands with social organizations giving educative talks on health in rural areas.

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0987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 0987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 0987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 0987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 0987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321


UN agencies taking part in nations health sector
A team of eye specialists visiting rural areas.
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The drive to produce healthy and highly-qualified citizens in the Union of Myanmar involves the goals of ensuring longevity and a disease-free society for every person, while disease prevention, treatment and health standard promotion tasks are being implemented harmoniously. The uplift of health is carried out with the continuous cooperation of departments, social organizations, local and foreign wellwishers and donor organizations and international bodies, and according to the governments policy of extending international coopera-tion in the national health promotion drive, UN and international bodies and local and foreign NGOs are actively taking part in the project.

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UN agencies taking part in the nations health sector


Sr 1 2. 3. Agency WHO UNICEF UNDP Area of participation health projects women and children health development anti-TB, malaria, leprosy and AIDS campaigns reproductive health project drug addicts treatment and rehabilitation

4. 5.

UNFPA UNODC

The Health Ministry has been implementing 50 projects in cooperation with the WHO, while drawing one new work programme every two years. An international body that is lending a helping hand in women and children development project, nutrition project, environmental health project and clean water supply project is the UNICEF. Other bodies joining hands with the ministry are United Nations Development Programme, UN Population Fund, and UN Office on Drugs and Crime. Up to now 13 MoUs have been signed to develop the primary health care services covering provision of training for public health workers, distribution of medicines, water and environmental clean-ing, and vaccination. Myanmars health sector is witnessing progress year by year thanks to the ministrys enhancement of its cooperation with local and foreign NGOs and UN agencies. The table bears witness to the international coope-ration in the health sector at a time the Tatmadaw government is in the process of developing it:

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Defence Services Medical Academy and Defence Services Institute of Nursing and Paramedical Science
Well-qualified human resources are needed for building of a peaceful, modern, developed and discipline-flouring democratic nation. Therefore, the government is developing human resources on health. The Tatmadaw is producing human resources on health in order to enhance health care services for the people. Now Tatmadaw medical experts are taking part in the governments health care work and looking after the health of national races in all parts of the Union. In the time of the Tatmadaw govern-ment Defence Services medical experts are discharging national defence as well as health duties. The Tatmadaw members are to undergo training when there is no combat duty and they are to participate in community welfare services when there is no training session. That is why the Tatmadaw medical experts are taking part in health care services and community welfare services. Defence Services Medical Academy and Defence Services Institute of Nursing and Paramedical Science were opened. Modern medical science is being taught at the academy and institute which produce medical experts. The Tatmadaw medical experts are born of the people. They are taking part in the tasks on control of diseases, uplift of health, treatment and rehabilitation of the patients with noble spirit. The medical experts are trained to become brave and courageous soldiers at the academy. Now they serve the interest of the people. Safeguarding the noble traditions of the Tatmadaw, they are giving treatment to the people in the respective regions. The Tatmadaw government is training and producing medical experts for raising the health standard. The table shows the degrees conferred and subjects taught at the academy and institute.

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Defence Services Medical Academy and Defence Services Institute of Nursing and Paramedical Science and subjects

Sr 1.

Name Defence Services Medical Academy

Subject biology and botany physics and chemistry anatomy and computer science pharmacy and physiology bio-chemistry and microbiology pathology and X-ray pediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology eye, ear, nose and orthopedics cardiac and anaesthesiology

2.

Defence Services Institute of Nursing and Paramedical Science

nursing pharmacy diagnosis radiography physical therapy

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