11th century:
While demonstration of military power led to campaigns and battles within the northern and central plains, from outside of the subcontinent, Mahmud of Ghazni began his raids from the north west.

His ambition was to be proclaimed the champion of Islam and for him, India was the proverbially wealthy

land from across the barren mountains of the Hindu Kush.
The years 1004 - 06 saw repeated attacks on Multan, a

town of strategic importance in the middle Indus plain
with access to Sind.

Muhammad Ghuri entered the Indus plain in search of a potential kingdom rather than indulging in plundering raids in 1182 AD.

Elsewhere in India, local politics remained the primary concern. The Ganges plain did not experience as much disruption as Punjab. Kanuaj was restored and eventually came under the control of the local Gahadavala dynasty. Bihar was ruled by the Karnataka Kshatriya dynasty. A number of officers from various parts of the peninsula had found employment in Eastern India.

The Rajputs fought each other unceasingly in the 11th and 12th centuries. Paramaras concentrated over

Malwa, Chalukyas / Solankis remained in Gujarat,
Chandellas busied against Paramaras and Kalachuris and Chauhans attacked them in 12th century. Guhilas were dominant in Mewar and southern Rajasthan. Kachchhapaghatas ruled over Gwalior and surrounding districts.

1192: Mahmud Ghazni captured Delhi.

Regional variation was visible in the styles of architecture and art. Temples grew in size from small places of worship to impressive, monumental structures, built in almost every region.

The overall architectural requirements and their ground plans evolved from earlier temples. The flat roofed forms had acquired a shikhara or central tower over the main shrine and now there were smaller shikharas over subsidiary shrines as well, sometimes adjoining the main shrine.

The central tower was tall, often tapering slightly in a convex shape. This altered the elevation and provided scope for new styles and decorative features in the Nagara or north Indian style.

Temples of the later period were considerably larger and were the locations for major ceremonies of royal initiation and legitimation, linking the icon, the deity and the king.

Forms associated with Islamic architecture, like the true arch and the dome, were earlier attempted in the north west and probably also in the Arab settlements along the west coast. This is evident from the reference to the mosque at Cambay destroyed by the Paramara king and the Shia'h mosque at Mansura desecrated by Mahmud. The establishing of the Sultanate was marked at Delhi and at Ajmer by converting the existing temple into a mosque, doubtless to proclaim victory but also to appropriate sacred space.

The citadel is perched upon a rocky outspur of the Vindhya ranges at an altitude of 634m. The Kakra Khoh, a deep ravine surrounds this hill to its west, north and east separating it from the main Malwa plateau. Served as an ideal frontier outpost to make incursions into the Deccan or to ward off invasions from the south. While the fort was built in the 6th - 7th century AD, in the 10th century it appears to be a part of the Gurjara-Pratihara empire of Kanauj.

The Mandu plateau is a small spur (about 20 sq kms) of the large Malwa plateau, attached by a very narrow neck which has been moat-ed and fortified to separate it from the main plateau - a perfect natural protection augmented by man-made fortifications

Ruins of an early fortification atop on an isolated hill, locally known as Budhi Mandu. The remains include two gates, western and eastern which are quite inaccessible due to the rocky terrain and dense forest cover.

Two Gates near the Munj Talao, the

Rampol gate and the Bhangi gate are dated to the period of the
Paramaras (1010 – 1053).

1305: kingdom of Malwa passed into the
hands of the Delhi Sultanate.

1. Dilawar Khan's Mosque 2. Champa Baoli 3. Hindla Mahal 4. Jahaz Mahal 5. Kapur Talao 6. Royal Palace
The political ustability continued in the region of Malwa, Mandu was the preferred court over the capital city of Dhar and finally became the capital in 1405 under Alp Khan, Hoshang Shah.

DILLI GATE   Five arched openings crowned by beautiful crenellations Fine blue enamel inlay work

JAHAZ MAHAL      Built by Sultan Ghiyathuddin Khalji – represents the classical phase of Mandu Located on a narrow strip of land between Munj talao and Kapur Talao Built in an appearance of a ship anchored in water Each hall is attached with pavilions at the rear overlooking Munj Talao Patterned cisterns and water channels on the terraces – reduced the momentum of flow of water to allow for luxurious bathing

HINDOLA MAHAL  Built by Sultan Ghiyathuddin Khalji derives its name from the sloping buttressed walls  As an audience hall – shaped lke a T – stem representing the main hall and cross bar added possibly later

CHAMPA BAOLI  is a relic existing in the palace complex with two baolis  a square tank with pumping equipment is set underground.  Subterranean passage connects the base of a well to a labyrinth of vaulted rooms, the tahkhana – further connected to a pavilion on the western bank of the Munj talao

DILAWAR KHAN’S MOSQUE     Earliest Indo-Islamic monument – referring to the reign of the first Muslim king of Malwa Central courtyard, colonnaded galleries, richly ornamented mihrab on the west Distinct influence in the pillars and ceiling of the prayer hall The first phase – when mosques were built from dismantled temples

REWA KUND GROUP  Second most important fortified enclosure on the hill – protecting the palace of Baz Bahadur and Rani Roopmati near the Rewa kund   1554- 1562, Baz Bahadur, gave up warfare ad devoted to music and poetry Legends of romance between the two – the palace of Roopamti was built at the edged of the cliff so that she can gaze at the pristine Narmada and view the King in his Mahal

JAMI MASJID     Begun by Hoshang Shah and completed by Mahmud Khalji – 1454 Stands on a plinth (4.6 m high) leading to grand, domed entrance porch to the east Spacious domed hall with delicate trellis screens Cenral courtyard with colonnaded verandahs covered with domes

HOSHANG SHAH’S TOMB    First in India to be entirely faced in white marble Finial of the dome is crowned with a crescent – a feature suggested to be imported from Mesopotamia or Persia Built on a square marble platform – bearing ornamental border with projecting lobes - a feature adopted from Hindu temples  It is said tat this dome inspired the dome of the Taj Mahal in Agra – an inscription records that four architects (Ustad Hamid and others) in 1659 visited the tomb to pay homage to Hoshang Shah

ASHRAFI MAHAL    Once a beautifully refined complex, but presently in a state of ruins Begun in the early years of Mahmud Khalji (1436 – 39) A madrasa, executed like a mosque with a spacious quadrangle encosed on all foursides by cells for students

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