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PART I 1. Calculate the average mass of one bromine atom. a) b) c) d) e) 2.654 x 10-22 g 6.022 x 1023 g 1.661 x10-24 g 4.

812 x 10-25 g 1.327 x10-22 g f) 9.624 x 10-22 g g) 1.854 x 10-22 g h) 3.854 x 10-22 g i) 5.647 x 10-22 g j) 6.924 x 10-22 g

GENERAL CHEMISTRY 115 SAMPLE FINAL EXAM

2. How many molecules are contained in 5.00 grams of NH3? a) b) c) d) e) 5.42 x 1022 3.00 x 1024 3.40 x 1022 1.77 x 1023 9.45 x 1022 f) g) h) i) j) 1.79 x 1024 3.54 x 1023 4.10 x 1021 3.38 x 1021 7.08 x 1023

3. Calculate the percent composition of K2CO3. a) b) c) d) e) % K = 58.2% % K = 28.2% % K = 56.6% % K = 39.4% % K = 35.1% % C = 17.9% % O = 23.9% % C = 8.8% % O = 35.9% % C = 8.7% % O = 34.7% % C = 12.0% % O = 48.4% % C = 21.6% % O = 43.2%

4. If a 10.0 g ball of iron at 160.0oC is dropped into 50.0 g of water at 20.0oC in an insulated container, what will be the final temperature of the water? The specific heat of iron is 0.444 J/g oC and that of water is 4.18 J/g oC. a) b) c) d) e) 23oC 38oC 48oC 82oC 110oC f) g) h) 46oC i) j) 33oC 62oC 69oC 93oC

5. Assume that a calcium atom is spherical, and its radius is 1.97 x 10-8 cm. What is the volume of a calcium atom expressed in cubic inches? Volume of a sphere: V = (4/3)r3 and = 3.14. 1 in = 2.54 cm a) b) c) d) e) 5.24 x 10-22 in3 1.95 x 10-24 in3 3.25 x 10-8 in3 68.6 in3 8.16 x 10-12 in3 f) 5.24 in3 g) 2.96 x 10-22 in3 h) 5.49 x 10-22 in3 i) 6.24 x 10-22 in3 j) 8.76 x 10-22 in3

6. The molecular formula for a compound is CX4. If 2.819 g of this compound contains 0.102 g of carbon, what is the atomic weight of X? a) b) c) d) 320 160 39.9 79.9 f) g) h) i) 89.4 35.5 97 45.9

e) 195

j) 125

7. Determine the simplest formula for a hydrocarbon if the complete combustion of a sample produces 3.96 g of CO2 and 2.16 g of H2O. a) b) c) d) e) C2H3 C6H16 CH3 CH C3H6 f) g) h) i) j) C2H2 C2H6 C6H14 C3H8 C2H5

8. A dolomite ore contains 40.0% pure MgCO3 CaCO3. No other compounds of magnesium or calcium are present in the ore. What mass of magnesium and what mass calcium are contained in 100.0 grams of this ore? a) b) c) d) e) 18.3 g Mg - 21.7 g Ca 7.91 g Mg - 13.0 g Ca 8.70 g Mg - 31.3 g Ca 5.27 g Mg - 8.69 g Ca 34.5 g Mg - 5.30 g Ca

9. How many grams of oxygen are required to burn 0.10 mole of C3H8? C3H8 + 5O2 --> 3CO2 + 4H2O a) b) c) d) e) 8.0 g 12 g 16 g 32 g 64 g g) h) i) j) f) 10.0 g 14.0 g 18.0 g 28.0 g 42.0 g

10. If 6.6 g of fluorine reacts with 5.6 g chlorine to produce 8.5 g of chlorine trifluoride, what is the limiting reactant and the percent yield of chlorine trifluoride? Cl2 + 3F2 --> 2ClF3 a) b) c) d) e) F2, 45% Cl2, 58% Cl2, 53% F2, 69% F2, 79% f) g) h) i) j) Cl2, 45% F2, 58% F2, 53% Cl2, 69% Cl2, 79%

11. Ethyl butyrate (C6H12O2), "oil of pineapple", can be produced in the laboratory from butyric acid (C4H8O2), a foul-smelling liquid, and ethyl alcohol (C2H6O). First, butyric acid is reacted with PCl5 to produce butyryl chloride (C4H7ClO) which is then reacted with the ethyl alcohol to produce the ethyl butyrate. What mass of ethyl butyrate could be produced from 12.8 g of butyric acid if the first reaction gave a 65.8% yield of butyryl chloride and the second reaction gave a 88.4% yield of ethyl butyrate? The equations below are balanced. C4H8O2 + PCl5 --> C4H7ClO + HCl + POCl3 C4H7ClO + C2H6O --> C6H12O2 + HCl

a) 8.80 g f) 9.25 g b) 9.01 g g) 4.87 g c) 8.47 g h) 7.39 g d) 16.9 g i) 6.80 g e) 9.81 g j) 5.30 g 12. What is the molarity of 175 mL of solution containing 2.18 grams of Na2SO4 10H2O? a) b) c) d) e) 3.77 x 10-3 M 6.44 x 10-1 M 8.78 x 10-3 M 1.18 x 10-3 M 3.87 x 10-2 M f) 3.77 x 10-4 M g) 2.43 x 10-1 M h) 5.67 x 10-3 M i) 2.79 x 10-3 M j) 4.57 x 10-3 M

13. The specific gravity of commercial nitric acid solution is 1.42 (i.e. 1.42 g/cc) and it is 70.0% HNO3 by mass. Calculate its molarity. a) b) c) d) e) 18.0 M 15.8 M 12.8 M 99.4 M 26.2 M f) 12.0 M g) 88.0 M h) 14.2 M i) 8.0 M j) 5.0 M

14. What mass of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is required to react with 100 mL of 2.00 M HCl solution? CaCO3 + 2HCl --> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O a) b) c) d) e) 5.00 g 10.0 g 15.0 g 20.0 g 23.0 g f) g) h) i) j) 25.00 g 35.00 g 52.00 g 28.00 g 12.00 g

PART II 15. Which one of the following salts is soluble in water? a) b) c) d) e) BaSO4 Ag2CO3 FeS CrPO3 Hg2Cl2 f) g) h) i) j) Hg CO3b) PbSO4 Ba3(PO3)2 AgCl NH4F

16. Which one of the following salts is insoluble in water? a) b) c) d) e) Rb2SO4 (NH4) 2S KI Cr(NO3) 3 Ni(CO3)2 f) Li2SO4 g) PbCrO4 h) RbOH i) NaI j) Cs2SO4

17. The oxidizing agent is ______, and it is ______ in the following reaction.

2MnO4- (aq) + 3S2- (aq) + 4H2O(l) --> 2MnO2 (s) + 3S(s) + 8OH- (aq) a) b) c) d) MnO4-, oxidized S2-, oxidized MnO4-, reduced H2O, reduced e) S2-, reduced f) H2O, reduced g) none of the above answers

18. Which one of the following is a weak electrolyte? a) b) c) d) KBr H2SO4 H2CO3 NH4ClO
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e) Ca(OH)2 f) KOH g) none of the above answers Ar isotope. An atom of this isotope contains _____ neutrons.

19. Consider the a) b) c) d) e)

18 22 32 40 none of these

20. Naturally occurring lithium exists as two isotopes, 6Li (mass = 6.0151 amu) and 7Li (mass = 7.0160 amu). The atomic weight of lithium is 6.941 amu). What is the percent abundance of 7Li? a) b) c) d) 4.3 % 7.8 % 95.7 % 92.5 % e) 7.5 % f) 1.8 % g) 89.2 %

Some of the following values may be useful for solving some of the following problems. speed of light = 3.00 x 108 m/s: 1 joule = 1 kg
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.m /s :
2 2

Planck's constant = 6.63 x 10-

J s 21. What is the energy, in J/photon, of blue light having a wavelength of 4.240 x 10-7 m? a) b) c) d) 5.00 x 10-13 m 4.69 x 10-19 m 3.18 x 10-13 m 9.92 x 10-4m e) f) g) h) 3.18 x 10-16 m 3.14 x 1012 m 3.14 x 10-12 m 5.00 x 10-3 m

22. What is the de Broglie wavelength of a proton of mass 1.67 x 10-24 g moving at a velocity of 1.25 x 106 m/s? a) b) c) d) 5.00 x 10-1 m 3.14 x 1012 m 3.18 x 10-16 m 9.92 x 10-4m e) f) g) h) 3.18 x 10-13 m 4.69 x 10-19 m 3.14 x 10-12 m 5.00 x 10-13 m

23. Which one of the following electron configurations is incorrect?

a) b) c) d) e)

F 12Mg 17Cl 6C 19K


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1s22s22p5 [Ne]3s2 [Ne]3s23p5 [He]2s22p4 1s22s22p63s63p64s1

24. What is the electron configuration of oxygen, O2 ? a) b) c) d) e) 1s || || || || || 2s || | || || 2p | || || || || | | || || | | . | . || . |. |.

25. Which element has the highest first ionization energy? a) b) c) d) B Al Ga Cs e) f) g) h) In Tl Na C

26. Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing first ionization energy. Be, Ca, Cs, Mg, K a) b) c) d) Mg > Be > Ca > K > Cs Be > Mg > Ca > K > Cs Be > K > Ca > Cs > Mg Ca > Mg > Be > Cs > K e) f) g) h) Ca > Mg > Be > K > Cs Cs > K > Ca > Be > Mg Be > Ca > Be > K > Cs Be > Ca > Mg > K > Cs

27. Which one of the following pairs contains isoelectronic species? a) b) c) d) e) Na, Na+ S, Se S2-, Se2F2 , Cl2 Na+, O2-

28. Which ion has the largest radius? a) b) c) d) e) Li+ Na+ Be2+ Mg2+ Al3+

29. What is the formula for the binary compound of aluminum and nitrogen? a) b) c) d) e) Al2N2 Al2N AlN2 Al2N3 AlN

30. Which one of the formulas below is incorrect? a) b) c) d) e) SrCl2 Cs2S AlCl3 Al3P2 CaSe

31. Draw the correct Lewis dot formula for H2CO3 ?

32. How many lone pairs of electrons are there on the Xe atom in the XeF4 molecule? a) b) c) d) e) one two three four zero

33. The elements of Group VIIA may react with each other to form covalent compounds. Which of the following single covalent bonds in such compounds is the most polar bond? The electronegativities of the first four Group VIIA elements are: F = 4.0, Cl = 3.0, Br = 2.8, I = 2.5 a) b) c) d) e) F-F F-Cl F-Br F-I Cl-I

34. Which species is incorrectly matched with the hybridization at the central atom? Compound a) b) c) d) e) BF3 SnCl4 AsF5 H2O BeCl2 Hybridization at Central Atom sp2 sp3 sp3d2 sp3 sp

35. Which, if any, of the compounds listed are not sp3 hybridized at the central atom? I. CF4 II. H2 O III. SiF4 IV. CHCl3 V. NH3 a) III and IV b) I, II, and III

c) II, IV, and V d) III and V e) all are sp3 hybridized 36. Which response contains all the characteristics listed that should apply to phosphorus trichloride, PCl3, and no other characteristics? I. trigonal planar II. polar bonds III. sp3 hybridized at P IV. polar molecule V. one unshared pair of electrons on P a) b) c) d) e) I, IV, and V II, III, and IV I, II, and IV II, IV, and V none of the above answers

37. Many simple molecules contain lone pairs of electrons (also referred to as unshared pairs) which occupy hybrid orbitals of the central element in a molecule. If an atom of the central element utilizes sp3 hybrid orbitals in a compound, which one of the following types of repulsions would be greater? a) b) c) d) e) bonding pair-bonding pair bonding pair-lone pair lone pair-bonding pair lone pair-lone pair repulsions between all types of pairs of electrons are the same

38. Which one of the following species could not react as a Bronsted-Lowry base? a) NH4+ b) NH2c) CNd) Fe) CH3COO39. Which cannot be both a Bronsted-Lowry acid and a Bronsted-Lowry base? a) H2O b) HCO3c) H2PO4d) HPO42e) PO4340. What is the molarity of a barium hydroxide solution if 18.62 mL of this Ba(OH)2 solution requires 35.84 mL of 0.2419 M HCl for titration to the equivalence point? a) b) c) d) 0.4656 M 0.2328 M 0.1164 M 0.3492 M e) f) g) h) 0.1164 M 0.1746 M 0.5238 M 0.6984 M

41. Consider the complete neutralization reactions between the following acid-base

pairs in dilute aqueous solutions. In which of these have strong acids listed as reactants? I. CH3COOH + NaOH --> III. H3PO4 + Ca(OH)2 --> V. H2CO3 + Sr(OH)2 --> a) b) c) d) e) I and V II and IV II, III, and IV II, III, and V III, IV, and V II. HNO3 + Mg(OH)2 --> IV. HCl + KOH -->

42. Balance the following net ionic equation. What is the coefficient of S? a) b) c) d) e) H2S + 1 2 3 4 none of these NO3+ H+ ---> S + NO + H2O

43. What volume of 0.100 M (COOH)2 solution would be required to react with 0.164 grams of KMnO4? 5(COOH)2 + a) b) c) d) 31.9 mL 51.8 mL 77.8 mL 104 mL 2MnO4- + e) f) g) h) 28.6 mL 35.4 mL 25.9 mL 90.8 mL 6H+ ---> 10CO2 + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O

44. What is the oxidation number of tin in the HSnO3- ion ? a) b) c) d) e) +1 +2 +3 +4 +5

45. If 5.50 L of argon gas at 273oC is heated at constant pressure to a temperature of 546oC, what would be its new volume? R = 0.0821 L atm/deg mol a) b) c) d) 11.0 L 16.5 L 2.75 L 3.67 L e) 33.0 L f) 10.25 L g) 18.25 L h) 8.25 L

46. A sample of nitrogen occupies a volume of 546 mL at STP. What volume would the nitrogen occupy at 177oC under a pressure of 380. torr? a) b) c) d) 91 mL 273 mL 900. mL 1.09 x 103mL e) 1.80 x 103 mL f) 180 mL g) 1.30 x 103 mL h) 2.60 x 103 mL

47. What is the molecular weight of a gas if 5.00 grams of it occupies 2200. mL at STP? a) b) c) d) 50.9 g/mol 42.6 g/mol 59.6 g/mol 63.4 g/mol e) f) g) h) 69.9 g/mol 67.0 g/mol 53.1 g/mol 68.0 g/mol

49. What is the pressure of 64.0 g of oxygen gas in a 1.50-L container at -37oC? a) b) c) d) 4.12 atm 25.8 atm 51.6 atm 19.6 atm e) f) g) h) 9.2 atm 73.6 atm 54.2 atm 8.2 atm

50. Calculate the density of O2 gas (in g/L) at 1.22 atm and 25oC. a) b) c) d) 1.74 g/L 1.60 g/L 0.871 g/L 19.0 g/L e) f) g) h) 0.698 g/L 1. 43g/L 2.758 g/L 0.888 g/L

51. Which one of the following melts at the lowest temperature at a given pressure? a) b) c) d) e) CH4 LiCl C10H8 CaCl2 H2O

52. Which one of the following is a covalent network solid? a) b) c) d) e) sulfur trioxide nickel ammonium chloride silicon carbide, SiC sucrose, C12H22O11

53. Which response includes all of the following compounds that exhibit hydrogen bonding and no other compounds? CH4, AsH3, CH3NH2, H2Te, HF a) b) c) d) e) AsH3, H2Te CH3NH2, HF CH4, AsH3, H2Te AsH3, CH3NH2 HF, H2Te

54. Which of these aqueous solutions would be expected to have the highest boiling point? a) 0.100 m CaCl2 b) 0.200 m NaOH

c) 0.050 m K2SO4 d) 0.050 m Al2 (SO4)3 e) 0.200 m CH3OH 55. When 27.0 g of an unknown nonelectrolyte is dissolved in 250.0 mL of benzene, the solution boils at 82.5oC. Calculate the molecular weight of the unknown nonelectrolyte. The Kb for benzene = 2.53oC/m. The boiling point of pure benzene is 80.1oC. The density of benzene = 0.876 g/mL. a) b) c) d) 60 g/mol 110 g/mol 120 g/mol 150 g/mol e) f) g) h) 115 g/mol 140 g/mol 130 g/mol 220 g/mol

56. What is the mole fraction of methanol, CH3OH, in an aqueous solution that is 20.0% methanol by mass? a) b) c) d) 0.250 0.544 0.101 0.123 e) f) g) h) 0.350 0.550 0.280 0.308

57. A sketch of the phase diagram (not to scale) of water is given below. Which statement is false? a) Line AD is the sublimation curve - solid and vapor are in equilibrium. b) Point A is the triple point - solid, liquid, and vapor are at equilibrium. c) Line AC is the vapor pressure curve - liquid and gas (vapor) are in equilibrium. d) Line AB is the melting curve - solid and liquid are in equilibrium. e) The slope of line AB is negative showing that as the liquid is cooled, the molecules get closer and closer together as they solidify.