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Genetics of Organisms

Chao Xu
The weeks long fly lab
The fruit fly are organism have short life cycle. The short life cycle allows study for
genetics takes place easily.

1. Obtain a vial of wild type flies, record their type.
2. Obtain few of each sex and record the frequency of each trait.
3. Put the flies into a vial with food and let them complete their life cycle
4. When eggs are laid, take out the flies from the vial.
5. When larva turns into flies, take them out from the vial and record the frequency
of each trait and their sex.

F2 Generation
Phenotype Female Male Total
Red Normal Wing 47 54 101
Red Vestigial wing 12 29 41
Sepia Normal Wing 8 15 23
Sepia Vestigial wing 3 5 8
Total 70 103 173

The hypothesis for this cross is sepia eye vestigial wing both are non-sex linked recessive
Phenotype Observed Expected (o-e) (o-e)^2 (o-e)^2/e
Red Normal 54 49 -5 25 25/49
Wing male
Red Normal 47 49 2 4 4/49
Wing female
Red 29 16 13 169 169/16
wing male
Red 12 16 4 16 16/16
wing female
Sepia 15 16 1 1 1/16
Wing male
Sepia 8 16 8 64 64/16
Wing female
Sepia 5 5 0 0 0/5
wing male
Sepia 3 5 2 4 4/5
wing female
Chi-square 289
And the chi-square shows it’s wrong. The new hypothesis could be better. Which is
vestigial wing and Sepia eye is sex-linked trait
Phenotype Observed Expected (o-e) (o-e)^2 (o-e)^2/e
Red Normal 54 49 -5 25 25/49
Wing male
Red Normal 47 49 2 4 4/49
Wing female
Red 29 22 8 64 64/21
wing male
Red 12 11 1 1 1/11
wing female
Sepia 15 21 6 36 36/21
Wing male
Sepia 8 11 3 9 9/11
Wing female
Sepia 5 6 1 0 1/6
wing male
Sepia 3 3 0 0 0/3
wing female
Chi-square 63
This makes Chi-square lower to 63, it is still to large.

1. Female of the parental generation have to be virgins so there will be nothing born
with the genes outside the assigned males’ gene pool.
2. it’s not necessary to isolate virgin females for F1 because males all have the same
3. The adult flies removed from the vials because those adult flies can mate with
next generation and create a new hybrid.

Statistical analysis section

Phenotpye Genotype o E o-e

Green GG or Gg 72 63 9
Albino gg 12 21 9
Total 84 81
Phenotype O E o-e (o-e)^2 (o-e)^2/e
Green 72 63 9 81 81/63
Albino 12 21 9 81 81/21
Chi-square 5.1428

Practice problem
a. The genotype of F1 is Ww
b. The hypothesis: The Ww result intermediate-length wins, WW result long wings,
ww result short wings
Phenotype O E o-e (o-e)^2 (o-e)^2/e
WW 230 250 20 400 400/250
Ww 510 500 10 100 100/500
ww 260 250 10 100 100/250
Chi-square 2.2

1. Degree of freedom = 2
2. Chi-square = 2.2
3. Probability = 0.05
ii. According to Chi-square, this hypothesis can be accepted, 95% of time this hypothesis
will be true with the data.

The vestigial wing and sepia eye is most likely sex-linked recessive traits. But the Chi-
square value is too large, the hypothesis should be rejected. The data could have flawed
because male population are 30% more than female population. This flaw can be caused
by fail to identify the sex of a fly.
Chao Xu
Transpiration is the lose of water from plant leaf surface. It is caused by low water
potential outside the leafs that draws the water from the leafs.

1. Wrap the 4 plants in plastic bags and weight each one of them
2. Each one of the plant will be assigned in a group. fan, light, room and moist.
3. Wait each one of the plants each day and record data
4. Calculate the surface area of each plant's leaf and record data

Day 1 mass Day 2 mass Day 4 mass % of change Surface area
(g) (g) (g) in mass cm^2
Room 62.8 62.4 60.2 -4.14 3.2
Light 62.6 62.0 58.0 -7.35 9.1
Mist 50.8 51.6 50.9 .2 13.5
Fan 59.7 59.1 55.44 -7.14 2.7

Room loses .0225ml/min/m^2 of water
Light loses .876ml/min/m^2 of water
Mist gain .013ml/min/m^2 of water
Fan loses 2.765ml/min/m^2 of water
Condition Effect Explanation of Effect
Room Nothing It is the control
fan allow evaporation faster
Fan Loses water
by keep recycling the air
Light allows photosynthesis
Light Loses water
it opens stomata
The air water potential is
Mist Gain water larger than the leaf's water

3. Water potential allows the leaves to have tension. water in the soil with higher potential
will move up through the plant and move out into the air because air have lower water
4. Closed stomata will stop losing too much water and let the leaf dry out. The
disadvantage can be stop the gas exchange and photosynthesis productivity
5. The plants reduce water loss by close their stomata by having two guard cells that form
a opening shape only if there is enough water.
6. The leaf surface area is what creates the water loss. Calculate the surface area can
show the ratio between the losses of water per unit surface area.

The change in water potential allows water to transpiration from the plants, the opening
of stomata allows more water to be lost to transpiration because it creates more surface
area. The control plant in room condition changes in its mass could be because the room
condition is not the optimal condition for the plant.