Genetics of Organisms

Chao Xu

Obtain few of each sex and record the frequency of each trait. 3. Phenotype Observed Expected (o-e) (o-e)^2 (o-e)^2/e Red Normal 54 49 -5 25 25/49 Wing male Red Normal 47 49 2 4 4/49 Wing female Red 29 16 13 169 169/16 Vestigial wing male Red 12 16 4 16 16/16 Vestigial wing female Sepia 15 16 1 1 1/16 Normal Wing male Sepia 8 16 8 64 64/16 Normal Wing female Sepia 5 5 0 0 0/5 Vestigial wing male . Result: F2 Generation Phenotype Red Normal Wing Red Vestigial wing Sepia Normal Wing Sepia Vestigial wing Total Female 47 12 8 3 70 Male 54 29 15 5 103 Total 101 41 23 8 173 Discussion: The hypothesis for this cross is sepia eye vestigial wing both are non-sex linked recessive trait. Procedure: 1. Put the flies into a vial with food and let them complete their life cycle 4. 5. take them out from the vial and record the frequency of each trait and their sex.The weeks long fly lab Introduction: The fruit fly are organism have short life cycle. The short life cycle allows study for genetics takes place easily. 2. take out the flies from the vial. When larva turns into flies. Obtain a vial of wild type flies. When eggs are laid. record their type.

it is still to large. The new hypothesis could be better. Statistical analysis section Phenotpye Green Albino Genotype GG or Gg gg Total o 72 12 84 E 63 21 81 o-e 9 9 . Which is vestigial wing and Sepia eye is sex-linked trait Phenotype Observed Expected (o-e) (o-e)^2 (o-e)^2/e Red Normal 54 49 -5 25 25/49 Wing male Red Normal 47 49 2 4 4/49 Wing female Red 29 22 8 64 64/21 Vestigial wing male Red 12 11 1 1 1/11 Vestigial wing female Sepia 15 21 6 36 36/21 Normal Wing male Sepia 8 11 3 9 9/11 Normal Wing female Sepia 5 6 1 0 1/6 Vestigial wing male Sepia 3 3 0 0 0/3 Vestigial wing female Chi-square 63 This makes Chi-square lower to 63. The adult flies removed from the vials because those adult flies can mate with next generation and create a new hybrid. Female of the parental generation have to be virgins so there will be nothing born with the genes outside the assigned males’ gene pool. 2. 1.Sepia Vestigial wing female 3 5 2 4 4/5 Chi-square 289 And the chi-square shows it’s wrong. it’s not necessary to isolate virgin females for F1 because males all have the same genotype 3.

this hypothesis can be accepted. WW result long wings. Chi-square = 2.2 3. Conclusion: The vestigial wing and sepia eye is most likely sex-linked recessive traits. This flaw can be caused by fail to identify the sex of a fly.05 ii. . Degree of freedom = 2 2. the hypothesis should be rejected. Probability = 0. 1.1428 Practice problem a. According to Chi-square. 95% of time this hypothesis will be true with the data. The hypothesis: The Ww result intermediate-length wins. The genotype of F1 is Ww b. ww result short wings Phenotype O E o-e (o-e)^2 (o-e)^2/e WW 230 250 20 400 400/250 Ww 510 500 10 100 100/500 ww 260 250 10 100 100/250 Chi-square 2.2 i. The data could have flawed because male population are 30% more than female population. But the Chisquare value is too large.Phenotype Green Albino O 72 12 E 63 21 o-e 9 9 (o-e)^2 81 81 Chi-square (o-e)^2/e 81/63 81/21 5.

Transpiration Chao Xu .

light. Procedure: 1.Introduction: Transpiration is the lose of water from plant leaf surface. 3. room and moist. It is caused by low water potential outside the leafs that draws the water from the leafs.013ml/min/m^2 of water Fan loses 2.1 Day 4 mass (g) 60.4 62. Wrap the 4 plants in plastic bags and weight each one of them 2.5 2.2 -7.0225ml/min/m^2 of water Light loses .14 Surface area cm^2 3. 6. Closed stomata will stop losing too much water and let the leaf dry out.8 59.8 62. Each one of the plant will be assigned in a group.0 50. fan. The plants reduce water loss by close their stomata by having two guard cells that form a opening shape only if there is enough water.1 13. The disadvantage can be stop the gas exchange and photosynthesis productivity 5. Condition Effect Room Fan Light Mist Nothing Loses water Loses water Gain water Explanation of Effect It is the control fan allow evaporation faster by keep recycling the air Light allows photosynthesis it opens stomata The air water potential is larger than the leaf's water potential 3.9 55.6 59. Room loses .14 -7.0 51. Calculate the surface area of each plant's leaf and record data Data: Condition Room Light Mist Fan Day 1 mass (g) 62.2 58.7 Discussion: 1. water in the soil with higher potential will move up through the plant and move out into the air because air have lower water potential 4. Calculate the surface area can . Water potential allows the leaves to have tension.44 % of change in mass -4.876ml/min/m^2 of water Mist gain .765ml/min/m^2 of water 2.2 9. Wait each one of the plants each day and record data 4.6 50.35 . The leaf surface area is what creates the water loss.7 Day 2 mass (g) 62.

Conclusion: The change in water potential allows water to transpiration from the plants.show the ratio between the losses of water per unit surface area. the opening of stomata allows more water to be lost to transpiration because it creates more surface area. The control plant in room condition changes in its mass could be because the room condition is not the optimal condition for the plant. .