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PART 3 INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING HEAT TRANSFER

Heat Transfer Texbook

**Introduction to Engineering Heat Transfer
**

These notes provide an introduction to engineering heat transfer. Heat transfer processes set limits to the performance of aerospace components and systems and the subject is one of an enormous range of application. The notes are intended to describe the three types of heat transfer and provide basic tools to enable the readers to estimate the magnitude of heat transfer rates in realistic aerospace applications. There are also a number of excellent texts on the subject; some accessible references which expand the discussion in the notes are listen in the bibliography.

HT-1

**Heat Transfer Texbook
**

Table of Tables

Table 2.1: Thermal conductivity at room temperature for some metals and non-metals ............. HT-7 Table 2.2: Utility of plane slab approximation..........................................................................HT-17 Table 9.1: Total emittances for different surfaces [from: A Heat Transfer Textbook, J. Lienhard ]HT-63

HT-2

...........................HT-14 Figure 2.. A Heat Transfer Textbook........................ .............HT-44 Figure 8......................HT-20 Figure 3.............9: Cylindrical shell geometry notation...... ........9: Effect of the Biot Number [hL / kbody] on the temperature distributions in the solid and in the fluid for convective cooling of a body..........................HT-32 Figure 4..........2: One-dimensional heat conduction . not of the fluid...1: Concentric tube heat exchangers........................................HT-54 Figure 9...................................... HT-8 Figure 2......................HT-20 Figure 3......................................... John H...........2: Voltage change in an R-C circuit.................HT-34 Figure 5........4: Temperature distribution through a slab ....................................................................................10: Spherical shell.................................................................1: Turbine blade heat transfer configuration .HT-25 Figure 3...............................................2: Cross-flow heat exchangers.....................3: Velocity profile near a surface......................................................................... Bi.7: Cylinder in a flowing fluid ................... (b) Counterflow......... (a) Parallel flow................................4: Momentum and energy exchange in turbulent flow.....................6: Wall with convective heat transfer ....................... PrenticeHall publishers]..................................................................10: Temperature distribution in a convectively cooled cylinder for different values of Biot number...............HT-10 Figure 2.............................HT-41 Figure 6.............1: Geometry of heat transfer fin ......... [From: Lienhard.......................................................HT-53 Figure 9................ Note that kbody is the thermal conductivity of the body...............HT-13 Figure 2.................... HT-6 Figure 2................3: Temperature boundary conditions for a slab......................................3: The temperature distribution................HT-29 Figure 3....predicted and observed.................HT-35 Figure 5....HT-46 Figure 8............HT-23 Figure 3...................................................................................HT-55 HT-3 .......................2: Element of fin showing heat transfer .....................................................5: Path of a photon between two gray surfaces .....HT-40 Figure 6... (b) Unfinned with one fluid mixed and the other unmixed ...1: Temperature variation in an object cooled by a flowing fluid ......................................................................7: Heat transfer through an insulated wall ...... HT-5 Figure 2........................................... tip temperature............HT-32 Figure 4.........................4: Counterflow heat exchanger.........5: Fluid temperature distribution along the tube with uniform wall temperature ..HT-52 Figure 9................................................................................................2: Temperature distribution for slab with distributed heat sources ...........................HT-12 Figure 2............................................2: Temperature and velocity distributions near a surface.HT-42 Figure 8...........HT-36 Figure 5.....................8: Temperature distribution through an insulated wall ..............HT-54 Figure 9. and heat flux in a straight onedimensional fin with the tip insulated.............HT-17 Figure 3.... (b) elementary slice.....HT-45 Figure 8............ Lienhard] ...........HT-26 Figure 3..........................................................................................................................3: A cavity with a small hole (approximates a black body) ........................................................2: Emissive power of a black body at several temperatures ...........1: Heat transfer along a bar .....HT-31 Figure 3.............5: Heat transfer across a composite slab (series thermal resistance) ........... r2 / r1 = 2 [from: A Heat Transfer Textbook....................................................1: Conduction heat transfer ........................................3: Geometry for heat transfer between two fluids ..........HT-11 Figure 2.............HT-19 Figure 3......... (a) Finned with both fluids unmixed..............................4: A small black body inside a cavity ..........................................................Heat Transfer Texbook Table of Figures Figure 1........................................................................................HT-46 Figure 9................................5: Heat exchanger configurations ........................1: Slab with heat sources (a) overall configuration..................................................6: Heat transfer for a wall with dissimilar materials (Parallel thermal resistance)...HT-18 Figure 3.......... HT-9 Figure 2.........8: Critical radius of insulation ........1: Radiation Surface Properties ..............HT-45 Figure 8.............HT-11 Figure 2........................

....................6--View factor for perpendicular rectangles with a common edge .......... DeWitt.................6: Thermocouple used to measure temperature...................P......P...............5--View factor for coaxial parallel disk [from: Fundamentals of Heat Transfer................14: Fig 13........ 13...15: Fig 13..HT-65 Figure 9...... DeWitt.....9: Radiation between two bodies............... ... F............................................. Incropera and D.... DeWitt....P.....HT-59 Figure 9...........HT-60 Figure 9....7: Effect of radiation heat transfer on measured temperature..P.Dimensional Geometries [from: Fundamentals of Heat Transfer... Incropera and D....... John Wiley and Sons] .......................13: Fig............... John Wiley and Sons] .....................11: Radiation heat transfer for concentric cylinders or spheres ........................................8: Shielding a thermocouple to reduce radiation heat transfer error ................HT-66 HT-4 ...HT-62 Figure 9......................HT-65 Figure 9.. F........10: Radiation between two arbitrary surfaces ...........12: View Factors for Three .........Heat Transfer Texbook Figure 9..........HT-64 Figure 9. John Wiley and Sons] .....HT-59 Figure 9.P.......................... F...P..HT-61 Figure 9........HT-60 Figure 9........ Incropera and D.4--View factor for aligned parallel rectangles [from: Fundamentals of Heat Transfer...........

thermal.1 shows the process pictorially. say) has one surface at a high temperature and one at a lower temperature. Thigh Tlow & Heat “flows” to right ( q ) Solid Figure 1. This type of heat conduction can occur. We must first determine how to relate the heat transfer to other properties (either mechanical. but it can be motivated by considering heat flow along a "bar" between two & heat reservoirs at TA. The outside surface.0 Conduction Heat Transfer We will start by examining conduction heat transfer. The third process is radiation or transmission of energy through space without the necessary presence of matter. In convection heat transfer. TB as shown in Figure 2. A solid (a block of metal.1) 2. Figure 1. Radiation is the only method for heat transfer in space. through a turbine blade in a jet engine. Muddy points How do we quantify the contribution of each mode of heat transfer in a given situation? (MP HT. which has cooling air next to it. or geometrical).0 Heat Transfer Modes Heat transfer processes are classified into three types. is a HT-5 . The fluid can be a gas or a liquid. The level of the wall temperature is critical for a turbine blade. is at a higher temperature than the inside surface.1: Conduction heat transfer The second heat transfer process is convection. The first is conduction. The answer to this is rooted in experiment. Radiation can be important even in situations in which there is an intervening medium.Heat Transfer Texbook 1. which is exposed to gases from the combustor. which is defined as transfer of heat occurring through intervening matter without bulk motion of the matter. It is plausible that the heat transfer rate Q . both have applications in aerospace technology. the heat is moved through bulk transfer of a non-uniform temperature fluid. for example.1. a familiar example is the heat transfer from a glowing piece of metal or from a fire. or heat transfer due to a flowing fluid.

(2. we would have twice the heat transfer. It also seems ∂ TA − TB reasonable that if we had two bars of the same area. Finally. bar properties) (2. what?). as said. f 2 (TA − TB ) = Q = f 2 (0) + ⋅ ∂f 2 ∂(TA − TB ) T A −T B =0 (TA − TB ) + L.Heat Transfer Texbook function of the temperature of the two reservoirs. If TA – TB is zero. The temperature dependence can therefore be expressed as & Q = f2 [ (TA . All of these lead to the generalization (made by Fourier in 1807) that. then the heat transfer should also be zero. as follows: f( ∆T) = f(0) + ∂f ∆T + L ∂( ∆T) 0 (2. This can be expressed as & Q = f1 (TA . bar geometry.4) We know that f2(0) = 0 .TB). is f2 = 0 if TA = TB. (Are there other factors that should be considered? If so. bar geometry. we find that (for small TA – TB). bar properties] (2.TB.4) has the form ( ) HT-6 .3) If we define ∆T = TA – TB and f = f2. we know that Q > 0 if TA > TB or > 0 .1) & It also seems reasonable to postulate that Q should depend on the temperature difference TA . In addition. experience leads us to believe that as L increases Q should get smaller. Using a MacLaurin series expansion. One requirement. TA.1: Heat transfer along a bar An argument for the general form of f2 can be made from physical considerations. The derivative evaluated at TA = TB (thermal equilibrium) is a measurable ⋅ ∂f 2 property of the bar. TB . for the bar. the bar geometry and the bar properties. so that & we can postulate that Q is proportional to the area.2) TA & Q L TB Figure 2. the derivative in equation (2. although the argument is by no means & rigorous.

Heat Transfer Texbook ∂f 2 ∂ TA − TB ( ) T A −T B =0 = kA . Some values for familiar materials are given in Table 1.2 0. defined as (2.15 Al 200 H2 0.1: Thermal conductivity at room temperature for some metals and non-metals Metals k [W/m-K] Non-metals k [W/m-K] H2 0 0. TA .6) & Q & =q .026 Cu 390 Engine oil 0.7) The quantity q is called the heat flux and its units are Watts/m2.5). The thermal conductivity is a function of temperature and the values shown in Table 1 are for room temperature.8 is the one-dimensional form of Fourier's law of heat conduction.04 HT-7 . Its units are W / m-K. = − kA B = − kA Q = kA A dx L L A more useful quantity to work with is the heat transfer per unit area. A is the cross-sectional area and L is the length of the bar.5 Steel 50 Wood Cork 0. others can be found in the references. The expression in (2.8) Equation 2. In the limit for any temperature difference ∆T across a length ∆x as both L.6) can & be written in terms of heat flux as & q = −k dT .18 Fe 70 Brick 0. Table 2. L (2. A (2.TB → 0.4 -0 . Thermal conductivity is a well-tabulated property for a large number of materials. k is a proportionality factor that is a function of the material and the temperature.6 Ag 420 Air 0.5) In equation (2. dx (2. we can say (T − TB ) (T − TA ) dT & . The proportionality constant k is called the thermal conductivity.

2: One-dimensional heat conduction For one-dimensional heat conduction (temperature depending on one variable only). The first law in control volume form (steady flow energy & equation) with no shaft work and no mass flow reduces to the statement that ΣQ for all surfaces = 0 (no heat transfer on top or bottom of figure 2. we can devise a basic description of the process.9) and (2.2).9) The heat transfer rate on the right is ˙ dQ ˙ ˙ dx + L.12a) or HT-8 . ⎝ dx ⎠ x (2. From equation (2. the heat transfer rate in at the left (at x) is dT ˙ Q( x) = −k⎛ A ⎞ .10) ˙ ⎛˙ dQ ⎞ ˙ Q( x) − ⎜Q( x) + ( x)dx + L⎟ = 0 .8).10) (2.11) (2.1 Steady-State One-Dimensional Conduction Insulated (no heat transfer) & Q(x ) & Q(x + dx ) dx x Figure 2. ⎝ ⎠ dx Taking the limit as dx approaches zero we obtain ˙ dQ( x) = 0. Q( x + dx) = Q( x) + dx x Using the conditions on the overall heat flow and the expressions in (2.Heat Transfer Texbook 2. dx (2.

this reduces to d ⎛ dT ⎞ ⎜A ⎟ =0 dx ⎝ dx ⎠ (2.e.13a) or (2.e. A = constant.15) HT-9 . We now apply this to some examples.12b) If k is constant (i.3: Temperature boundary conditions for a slab For this configuration. dx ⎝ dx ⎠ (2. +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ A dx ⎠ dx dx 2 (2.13) thus became d 2T =0. if the properties of the bar are independent of temperature).1: Heat transfer through a plane slab T = T1 T = T2 Slab x=0 x=L x Figure 2. Equation (2. Example 2.Heat Transfer Texbook d ⎛ dT ⎞ ⎜ kA ⎟ = 0 . i. the area is not a function of x.13b) describe the temperature field for quasi-one-dimensional steady state (no time dependence) heat transfer.13b) Equations (2.13a) or (using the chain rule) d T 2 ⎛ 1 dA ⎞ dT = 0. dx 2 Equation (2.14) can be integrated immediately to yield dT =a dx (2.14) (2.

The condition T (0) = T1 implies that b = T1. For a second order equation.14).3.4 for a situation in which T1 > T2.16) Equation (2. T T1 T2 x Figure 2.2) Why is the thermal conductivity of light gases such as helium (monoatomic) or hydrogen (diatomic) much higher than heavier gases such as argon (monoatomic) or nitrogen (diatomic)? (MP HT. One such set of boundary conditions can be the specification of the temperatures at both sides of the slab as shown in Figure 2.17) This linear variation in temperature is shown in Figure 2. This is given by & & q = −k (T − T ) dT = − k 2 1 = constant .4: Temperature distribution through a slab The heat flux q is also of interest. ⎝ L ⎠ () (2. dx L (2. or T −T a= 2 1 . we need two boundary conditions to determine a and b. (2. T (L) = T2. L With these expressions for a and b the temperature distribution can be written as ⎛T −T ⎞ T x = T1 + ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ x . say T (0) = T1.18) Muddy points How specific do we need to be about when the one-dimensional assumption is valid? Is it enough to say that dA/dx is small? (MP HT. The condition T2 = T (L) implies that T2 = aL + T1.16) is an expression for the temperature field where a and b are constants of integration. such as (2.Heat Transfer Texbook and T = ax + b .3) HT-10 .

and as k decreases. The resistances are in series and sum to R = R1 + R2. is voltage difference. If TL is the temperature at the left. as A decreases. Q= L R R1 + R2 (2. the heat flux is constant with x. From this perspective the slab is a pure resistance to heat transfer and we can define & T − T2 Q= 1 R (2. T1 . the heat transfer resistances are in parallel.2 Thermal Resistance Circuits There is an electrical analogy with conduction heat transfer that can be exploited in problem & solving. the heat transfer rate is given by & T − TR = TL − TR . HT-11 . In this case.5: Heat transfer across a composite slab (series thermal resistance) Another example is a wall with a dissimilar material such as a bolt in an insulating layer. the heat transfer paths and the thermal resistance circuit.5. the thermal resistance. and the analog of the temperature difference.19) where R = L/kA. The analog of Q is current. The concept of a thermal resistance circuit allows ready analysis of problems such as a composite slab (composite planar heat transfer surface).6 shows the physical configuration.T2. The thermal resistance R increases as L increases.Heat Transfer Texbook 2. In the composite slab shown in Figure 2. and TR is the temperature at the right.20) x TL 1 2 & Q TR R1 R2 Figure 2. Figure 2.

the total heat flux Q is made up of the heat flux in the two parallel paths: & & & Q = Q + Q with the total resistance given by: 1 2 R1 & Q R2 1 1 1 = + .22) Some representative values for the brick and insulation thermal conductivity are: HT-12 . a brick wall with insulation on both sides. Brick 0. R R1 R2 (2.1 m R1 T1 = 150 °C T2 T4 = 10 °C T3 T1 T2 T3 T4 R2 R3 Insulation 0.03 m Figure 2. for example. (2.21) More complex configurations can also be examined.6: Heat transfer for a wall with dissimilar materials (Parallel thermal resistance) & For this situation.Heat Transfer Texbook k1 model k2 k1 Figure 2.7: Heat transfer through an insulated wall The overall thermal resistance is given by R = R1 + R2 + R3 = L1 L L + 2 + 3 k1 A1 k 2 A2 k 3 A3 .

07 W/m-K Using these values. The same procedure gives T3 = 70 °C.1 m = = 0.8.Heat Transfer Texbook kbrick = k2 = 0.8: Temperature distribution through an insulated wall The temperature is continuous in the wall and the intermediate temperatures can be found & from applying the resistance equation across each slab. to find T2: & q= T1 − T2 = 142 W/m 2 R1 A This yields T1 – T2 = 60 K or T2 = 90 °C. the larger drop is across the insulating layer even though the brick layer is much thicker.7 W/m-K kinsulation = k1 = k3 = 0.98 m K/W 1 2 3 4 1. since Q is constant across the slab.42 m 2 K/W k1 0.14 m 2 K/W . and noting that A1 = A2 = A3 = A.4) Why is temperature continuous in the composite wall problem? Why is it continuous at the interface between two materials? (MP HT.07 W/m K AR2 = L2 0. As sketched in Figure 2. k 2 0. we obtain: AR1 = AR3 = L1 0. Muddy points What do you mean by continuous? (MP HT.5) HT-13 .03 m = = 0. For example.7 W/m K This is a series circuit so & q= & T − T4 Q 140 K = constant throughout = 1 = = 142 W/m 2 2 A RA 0.0 T − T4 T1 − T4 0 x Figure 2.

6) Why is ∆T the same for the two elements in a parallel thermal circuit? Doesn't the relative area of the bolt to the wood matter? (MP HT. since A = 2π r.25) The heat transfer rate per unit length is given by Q = − k ⋅ 2π r ⋅ dT .24) & dQ =0 dr (2. ⎜r dr ⎝ dr ⎠ & & The steady-flow energy equation (no flow. The configuration is shown in Figure 2.7) 2. dr HT-14 . An important case is a cylindrical shell.9.3 Steady Quasi-One-Dimensional Heat Flow in Non-Planar Geometry The quasi one-dimensional equation that has been developed can also be applied to non-planar geometries.Heat Transfer Texbook Why is the temperature gradient dT/dx not continuous? (MP HT.9: Cylindrical shell geometry notation For a steady axisymmetric configuration. d ⎛ dT ⎞ ⎟ = 0. control volume r1 r1 r2 r2 Figure 2. a geometry often encountered in situations where fluids are pumped and heat is transferred. no work) tells us that Qin = Qout or (2. the temperature depends only on a single coordinate (r) and Equation (2.23) or.12b) can be written as k d ⎛ dT ⎞ ⎟ =0 ⎜A r dr ⎝ dr ⎠ () (2.

Integrating this equation once gives r dT =a. Applying T = T2 at r = r2 yields r T2 = a ln 2 + T1 .Heat Transfer Texbook Equation (2.26) where a is a constant of integration.28) Integrating (2. Applying T = T1 at r = r1 gives T1 = b. ln(r2 / r1 ) The temperature distribution is thus T = (T2 − T1 ) ln(r / r1 ) + T1 . Equation (2. If convenient.30) into non-dimensional and normalized form so that we can deal with numbers of order unity (this also helps in checking whether results are consistent).30) can be put in nondimensional form as HT-15 . ln(r2 / r1 ) (2. having an answer that goes to zero at one limit is also useful from the perspective of ensuring the answer makes sense.26) can be written as dT = a dr r (2. divide through by the inner radius. dr (2. r1 dT = a d (r / r1 ) (r / r1 ) (2. To do this. These will be taken to be known temperatures T1 and T2 at r1 and r2 respectively. it is generally useful to put expressions such as (2. It is useful to cast this equation in terms of a dimensionless normalized spatial variable so we can deal with quantities of order unity. Equation (2.28) yields ⎛r⎞ T = a ln ⎜ ⎟ + b .27) are exact differentials. ⎝ r1 ⎠ (2.24) is a second order differential equation for T. r1 or a= T2 − T1 .29) To find the constants of integration a and b.30) As said.27) where both sides of equation (2. boundary conditions are needed.

= 1− x + x2 +K) 1+ x The logarithms in Equation (2. Q . try it numerically. (2. and r2 – r1 = L we obtain T = T1 + (T2 − T1 ) x L (2.31) (T − T1 ) 1 = 2π k (T1 − T2 ) dT & Q = − kA = − 2π r1k 2 ln(r2 / r1 ) dr ln(r2 / r1 ) r1 per unit length. is given by (2. T2 − T1 ln(r2 / r1 ) & The heat transfer rate.Heat Transfer Texbook T − T1 ln(r / r1 ) = . or use the binomial theorem on the series below and integrate term by 1 term. Using these expressions in equation (2. From the series expansion for ln (1 + x) r1 we recall that x x ln 1+ x ≈ x + +K 2 3 ( ) 2 3 (2.36) HT-16 . consider the case when 2 1 << 1 .34) in the limit of (r2 – r1) << r1.33) (Look it up.35) With the substitution of r – r1 = x. The thermal resistance R is given by R= ln(r2 / r1 ) 2πk (2. Q= 1 R The cylindrical geometry can be viewed as a limiting case of the planar slab problem.32) & T − T2 .31) can thus be written as ⎛ r − r1 ⎞ r − r1 and ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ≅ r1 ⎠ r1 ⎝ ln r2 r2 − r1 ≅ r1 r1 (2.30) gives T = (T2 − T1 ) (r − r1 ) + T (r2 − r1 ) 1 . To r −r make the connection.

5. T1 r1 r2 T2 Figure 2. ⎜r dr ⎝ dr ⎠ Integrating equation (2.10: Spherical shell The area is now A(r ) = 4πr 2 .10.17). and for 20% error.2. ln ( + x ) 1 To see when this is appropriate.87 .4 .5 .81 For < 10% error.Heat Transfer Texbook which is the same as equation (2.95 . dr (2.3 . the thickness to inner radius should be less than 0.37) (2. The plane slab is thus the limiting case of the cylinder if (r r1) / r << 1. the ratio of thickness to inner radius should be less than 0.2 .37) once yields dT = a/ r2.38) Integrating again gives HT-17 . A second example is the spherical shell with specified temperatures T (r1) = T1 and T (r2) = T2. consider the expansion . Table 2. which is the ratio of heat flux for a x cylinder and a plane slab.1 . so the equation for the temperature field is d ⎛ 2 dT ⎞ ⎟ = 0.91 .2: Utility of plane slab approximation x ln ( + x ) 1 x . where the heat transfer can be regarded as taking place in (approximately) a planar slab.84 . as sketched in Figure 2.

normalizing the spatial variable T= a′ +b (r / r1 ) (2. a′ = T1 − T2 1 − r1 / r2 T − T2 b = T1 − 1 .41) HT-18 . we specify the temperatures at r = r1 and r = r2. 1 − r1 / r2 (2.39) where a′ and b are constants of integration. Applying the second boundary condition gives T (r2 ) = T2 = a′ +b (r2 / r1 ) Solving for a′ and b.Heat Transfer Texbook T =− a +b r or.40) In non-dimensional form the temperature distribution is thus: T1 − T 1 − (r1 / r ) = T1 − T2 1 − (r1 / r2 ) (2. As before. Use of the first boundary condition gives T (r1 ) = T1 = a′ + b .

The conditions near a surface are illustrated schematically in Figure 3. all meant to ensure that the metal is kept at a temperature much lower than that of the combustor exit flow in which the turbine blade operates. the turbine wall temperature is not known and must be found as part of the solution to the problem.1. which shows a cross-sectional view of a turbine blade. we need to analyze convective heat transfer. A view of the problem is given in Figure 3.0 Convective Heat Transfer The second type of heat transfer to be examined is convection. There are three different types of cooling indicated. where a key problem is determining the boundary conditions at a surface exposed to a flowing fluid. HT-19 . An example is the wall temperature in a turbine blade because turbine temperatures are critical as far as creep (and thus blade) life. Figure 3.Heat Transfer Texbook 3. y y c∞ Ve locity distribution.2: Temperature and velocity distributions near a surface. c = 0 at surface δ′ T T∞ Tw c (velocity) Figure 3.2. which means we need to examine some features of the fluid motion near a surface. In this case.1: Turbine blade heat transfer configuration To find the turbine wall temperature.

is correct. The general concept. Muddy points How do we know that δ' is not a fluid property? (MP HT. pressure gradient and Mach number. Generally δ′ is not known and needs to be found and it is customary to calculate the heat transfer using [kfluid / δ′].2 is often called Newton’s Law of Cooling. HT-20 . It depends on velocity (Reynolds number). and the heat flux by q = − k dy dy expression that was used for a solid. In a turbulent boundary layer.1) It cannot be emphasized enough that this is a very crude picture. the dominant mechanisms of shear stress and heat transfer change in nature as one moves away from the wall. there is a thin layer in which heat is transferred basically by conduction. This quantity has the symbol h and is known as the convective heat transfer coefficient. in that close to the wall.2) Equation 3.8) 3. The latter is the same & µ = τ (where µ is the dynamic viscosity). T is roughly uniform (this defines δ′).1 The Reynolds Analogy We describe the physical mechanism for the heat transfer coefficient in a turbulent boundary layer because most aerospace vehicle applications have turbulent boundary layers. however. The treatment closely follows that in Eckert and Drake (1959). The units of h are W/m2K.3. τ. The shear stress. at a plane is given by dc dT . The heat flux can thus be expressed as Q k Tw − T∞ q= = A d′ ⋅ ⋅ ( ) (3. The convective heat transfer coefficient is defined by Q q = = h Tw − T∞ A ⋅ ⋅ ( ) (3. The boundary layer is a region in which the velocity is lower than the free stream as shown in Figures 3. For many situations of practical interest. Outside of this region is high mixing. there is a thin "film" of slowly moving fluid through which most of the temperature difference occurs. and molecular conduction and shear are important. structure of the wall surface. The difficulty is that the thickness of the layer is not a fluid property.Heat Transfer Texbook In a region of thickness δ′. the fluid motion is smooth and laminar. Outside this layer. Very near the wall.2 and 3. the quantity h is still known mainly through experiments.

4: Momentum and energy exchanges in turbulent flow.3: Velocity profile near a surface As one moves away from the wall (but still in the boundary layer). given by qt = m′c p (T ′ − T ) that results. there is a turbulent downwards heat flow. Fluid moving up also has momentum m′ c and fluid moving down has momentum m′ c′. m′ cp T′ 2 a 1 2 a 1 m′ cp T Figure 3. The net flux of momentum down per unit area and time is therefore m′ (c′ . The fluid particles move in random directions and the transfer of momentum and energy is mainly through interchange of fluid particles.c). If T > ˙ ˙ T′. given by t t = m' (c′ − c) Based on these considerations. the same amount crosses aa from the other side. Fluid moving down transports m′ cp T′ downwards.4.4. In steady flow. a fluid mass m′ penetrates the plane aa per unit time and unit area. qt .Heat Transfer Texbook plane Figure 3. Fluid moving up transports heat m′ cp T. With reference to Figure 3. shown schematically in Figure 3. because of the turbulent velocity field. This net flux of momentum per unit area and time is a force per unit area or stress. the flow is turbulent.3) HT-21 . the relation between heat flux and shear stress at plane aa is (3.

For gases. after the man who first presented the idea of the boundary layer and was one of the pioneers of modern fluid mechanics. τ HT-22 .5) since the locations of planes 1-1 and 2-2 are arbitrary. To get this. The assumption being made is that the mechanisms of heat and momentum transfer are similar. expressed slightly µ The same relationship is applicable in laminar or turbulent flow if differently.7) ˙ q and cp are assumed constant. approximately 3% from 300-2000 K. The quantity µcp/k is known as the Prandtl number (Pr).4) ˙ qt = τ t c p dT dc (3.6) can be integrated from the wall to the freestream (conditions "at ∞"): ∞ ∫ where w 1 dT = cp ∞ q ∫ ⎛τ ⎞dc ⎝ ⎠ ˙ w (3. We want a relation between the values at the wall (at which T = Tw and c = 0) and those in the free stream. Equation (3. we integrate the expression for dT from the wall to the free stream dT = ˙ 1 q dc cp τ (3. and α is the thermal diffusivity.6) where the relation between heat transfer and shear stress has been taken as the same for both the laminar and the turbulent portions of the boundary layer. For the laminar region.Heat Transfer Texbook T′− T⎞ ˙ qt = τ t c p⎛ ⎝ c′ − c ⎠ or (again approximately) (3. the heat flux towards the wall is ˙ q=τ k dT µ dc k = c p or. The Prandtl number varies little over a wide range of temperatures.71 at room temperature. cp k = µ/ρ υ = =1 k / ρc p α where υ is the kinematic viscosity. Prandtl numbers are in fact close to unity and for air Pr = 0.

Heat Transfer Texbook Carrying out the integration yields ˙ q c T∞ − Tw = w ∞ τw c p (3. 2 (3. we can write an expression for the heat transfer coefficient. The relation between skin friction (shear stress) at the wall and heat transfer is thus ˙ qw τ = w 2. based on knowing the skin friction. q w is the heat flux to the wall and τw is the shear stress at the wall. or drag. or q w . In equation (3. The skin 2 1/2ρ∞c∞ friction coefficient has been tabulated (or computed) for a large number of situations.8) & where c∞ is the velocity and cp is the specific heat.9) is known as the skin friction coefficient and is denoted by Cf . HT-23 .10) & Equation (3. ρ∞c p (T∞ − Tw )c∞ ρ∞c∞ The quantity τw (3. The direct relationship between the Stanton Number and the skin friction coefficient is St = Cf 2 The relation between the heat transfer and the skin friction coefficient τ wc p (Tw − T∞ ) ˙ qw ≈ c∞ is known as the Reynolds analogy between shear stress and heat transfer. If we define a non-dimensional quantity ˙ qw h(T∞ − Tw ) h = St. h as h ≈ ρ∞c pc∞ Cf .10) provides a useful estimate of h. = = ρ∞c p (T∞ − Tw )c∞ ρ∞c p (T∞ − Tw )c∞ ρ∞c pc∞ known as the Stanton Number.8). The Reynolds analogy is extremely useful in obtaining a first approximation for heat transfer in situations in which the shear stress is "known".

i.12) The power. so that ˙ Q c p (TB − Tw ) = P c 2 (3.5: Heat exchanger configurations HT-24 . The total heat transfer. heat exchanger heat exchanger ⋅ m diffuser high loss lower loss Figure 3. an approximate relation for the heat transfer is T −T ˙ qw ≈ τ wc p B w . For fully developed flow in a tube. Dc .11) The fluid resistance (drag) is all due to shear forces and is given by τw Aw = D. with the objective of transferring heat between them. the power scales as c2 or as 1/A2. we need to examine the flow resistance of a tube. For given mass flow & rate and overall heat transfer rate. where Aw is the tube & & “wetted” area (perimeter x length). Thus.Heat Transfer Texbook An example of the use of the Reynolds analogy is in analysis of a heat exchanger. we need to decrease c . ˙˙ 1 Qm 2 P∝ 2 ρ c p (TB − Tw ) A2 (3. P.13) The mass flow rate is given by m = ρc A where A is the cross sectional area. the one on the right will have a lower loss. so that T − TW & Q = Dc p B c (3. c (3. it is more appropriate to use an average velocity c and a bulk temperature TB . To begin.13) and (3. to drive the flow through a resistance is given by the product of the drag and the velocity.5. is q w A w. Two possible heat exchanger configurations are sketched in Figure 3. One type of heat exchanger has an array of tubes with one fluid flowing inside and another fluid flowing outside.e.14) show that to decrease the power dissipated. which can be accomplished by increasing the cross-sectional area. Q .14) Equations (3.

As discussed. The relation is expressed by St = Cf 2 (3. Figure 3.Heat Transfer Texbook To recap. a description of the convective heat transfer can be given explicitly as ˙ Q ˙ = q = h(Tw − T∞ ) A (3. HT-25 . Muddy points What is the "analogy" that we are discussing? Is it that the equations are similar? (MP HT.15b) or ˙ qw τ ≈ w2 ρ∞c∞c p (T∞ − Tw ) ρ∞c∞ (3.10) 3.16) This could represent a model of a turbine blade with internal cooling.15c) The Reynolds analogy can be used to give information about scaling of various effects as well as initial estimates for heat transfer. there is an approximate relation between skin friction (momentum flux to the wall) and heat transfer called the Reynolds analogy that provides a useful way to estimate heat transfer rates in situations in which the skin friction is known.15a) or heat flux to wall momentum flux to wall = convected heat flux convected momentum flux (3. It is emphasized that it is a useful tool based on a hypothesis about the mechanism of heat transfer and shear stress and not a physical law.2 Combined Conduction and Convection We can now analyze problems in which both conduction and convection occur.6 shows the configuration.9) In what situations does the Reynolds analogy "not work"? (MP HT. starting with a wall cooled by flowing fluid on each side.

R HT-26 .Heat Transfer Texbook δ 1′ ′ δ2 T2 Tw2 Tw1 T T1 L Figure 3. A L & The quantity Q /A is the same in all of these expressions.17) ˙ (T − T ) Q= 2 1 . as before. we have ˙ Q k = (Tw2 − Tw1) . A which is the heat transfer per unit area to the fluid. Putting them all together to write the known overall temperature drop yields a relation between heat transfer and overall temperature drop. such that ˙ Q⎡ 1 L 1 ⎤ + + . The heat transfer in fluid (2) is similarly given by ˙ Q = h2 (T2 − Tw2 ) . ⎢ ⎥ A ⎣ h1 k h2 ⎦ (3. A Across the wall.6: Wall with convective heat transfer The heat transfer in fluid 1 is given by ˙ Q = h1(Tw1 − T1) . R. T2 – T1 : T2 − T1 = (T2 − Tw2 ) + (Tw2 − Tw1) + (Tw1 − T1) = We can define a thermal resistance.

the wall temperatures can be expressed in terms of heat transfer coefficients and wall properties as Tw2 = T2 − T2 − T1 h2 Lh2 + +1 h1 k (3. We wish to find T w 2 because this is the highest metal temperature. T∞ c∞ rr1 1 r2 Figure 3. In terms of Figure 3.7. From (3. k should be large (but we may not have much flexibility in choice of material) and L should be small. cooling is a critical consideration. The geometry is shown in Figure 3.7: Cylinder in a flowing fluid HT-27 . T2 is the combustor exit (turbine inlet) temperature and T1 is the temperature at the compressor exit.6. h1 A Ak h2 A (3.18) is the thermal resistance for a solid wall with convection heat transfer on each side. the wall temperature can be written as Tw2 = T2 - ˙ Q T −T 1 = T2 − 2 1 Ah2 R Ah2 (3.20) provides some basic design guidelines. to flow cooling air out as in Figure 3.1 to shield the surface). The goal is to have a low value of T w 2 . For a turbine blade in a gas turbine engine. One way to achieve the first of these is to have h2 low (for example. This means h1/h2 should be large.17).Heat Transfer Texbook where R is given by R= 1 L 1 + + .20) Equation (3.19) Using the expression for the thermal resistance.18) Equation (3. A second example of combined conduction and convection is given by a cylinder exposed to a flowing fluid.

At the interface between the cylinder and the fluid. a. Thus.Heat Transfer Texbook For the cylinder the heat flux at the outer surface is given by ˙ q= ˙ Q = h(Tw − T∞ ) at r = r2 A The boundary condition at the inner surface could either be a heat flux condition or a temperature specification. (Question: Why is this? How would you argue the point?) ˙ q = −k r a dT ⎡⎛ ⎤ ⎞ = −k = h ⎜ aln 2 + T1 ⎟ − T∞ ⎢⎝ ⎥ ⎠ r1 r2 dr ⎣ ⎦ surface heat flux to fluid (3. T = T1 at r = r1 . is a= − h T1 − T∞ ( k r + h ln 2 r2 r1 ) = − (T1 − T∞ ) k r + ln 2 hr2 r1 . r = r2. we use the latter to simplify the algebra.22) HT-28 . and the expression for the temperature is.21) heat flux just inside cylinder Plugging the form of the temperature distribution in the cylinder into Equation (3. The solution for a cylindrical region was given in Section 2. ⎝ r2 r1 ⎠ The constant of integration.3 as T ( r ) = a ln r +b r1 Use of the boundary condition T (r1) = T1 yields b = T1. This is a model for the heat transfer in a pipe of radius r1 surrounded by insulation of thickness r2 . T1 − T∞ k + ln r2 /r1 hr2 ( ) ( ) (3.21) yields r⎞ ⎛k −a⎜ + hln 2 ⎟ = h(T1 − T∞ ) . the temperature and the heat flow are continuous.r1. in normalized non-dimensional form ln r/r1 T1 − T = .

23) d ⎛ k r⎞ + ln 2 ⎟ = 0 ⎜ dr2 ⎝ hr2 r1 ⎠ (Question: How do we know this is a maximum?) & From Equation (3. A problem of interest is choosing the thickness of insulation to minimize the heat loss for a fixed temperature difference T1 . tending to increase the heat transfer. the value of r2 for maximum Q is thus (3.24) (r2)maximum heat transfer = k/h. tending to drop the heat transfer because the temperature gradient decreases. which shows a schematic of the thermal resistance and the heat transfer. To understand the behavior of the heat transfer we examine the denominator in Equation (3. two effects take place. is given by ˙ 2π (T1 − T∞ )k Q= k + ln(r2 /r1) hr2 The units in Equation (3. Q .23) are W / m-s.T∞ is the driving temperature distribution for the pipe). (3. the area of the outside surface of the insulation increases. consider Figure 3.23) as r2 varies. Secondly.T ∞ between the inside of the pipe and the flowing fluid far away from the pipe. To understand why this occurs.Heat Transfer Texbook ˙ The heat flow per unit length.25) If r2 is less than this. As r2 increases from a value less than r2 = k/h. HT-29 . First. The thickness of insulation that gives maximum heat transfer is given by (3. There are ˙ thus two competing effects which combine to give a maximum Q at r2 = k/h.24). The second of these is (loosely) associated with the k/hr2 term.8. (T1 . we can add insulation and increase heat loss. the first with the ln(r2/r1) term. the thickness of the insulation increases.

where L is a relevant length for the particular problem of interest. These parameters give information as to the relevant flow regimes of a given solution. The Mach number and the Reynolds number are two you have already seen.14) In the expression 3.22).A It seems that we have simplified convection a lot. Casting equations in dimensionless form helps show the generality of application to a broad class of situations (rather than just one set of dimensional parameters). The results for heat transfer from the cylinder are already in dimensionless form but we can carry the idea even further. is k k called the Biot number denoted by Bi.11) h.12) What does the "K" in the contact resistance formula stand for? (MP HT.8: Critical radius of insulation Muddy points 1 . what is "r"? (MP HT. In terms of this parameter.T1 = T T1 k/hr2 + ln r2 /r1 The parameter ( ) ( ) (3. and results presentation whenever possible. hr2 or hL HT-30 .Heat Transfer Texbook r ln r2 1 R k hr2 ⋅ Q k h r2 Figure 3.13) In the equation for the temperature in a cylinder (3. It is generally good practice to use non-dimensional numbers. For the cylinder: ln r/r1 T . really difficult? (MP HT. Is finding the heat transfer coefficient. h.26) .3 Dimensionless Numbers and Analysis of Results Phenomena in fluid flow and heat transfer depend on dimensionless parameters. what is A? (MP HT. forms of equations.

0. Figure 3. There is thus only a small ∆T outside (i. the limiting case is T − T1 = Bi ln r/r1 T∞ − T1 ( ) In this regime there is approximately uniform temperature in the cylinder.27) The size of the Biot number gives a key to the regimes in which different features are dominant. T1 .T∞ . The size of the Biot number thus indicates the regimes where the different effects become important. from r1 to r2) is small compared to the external temperature difference. HT-31 .9 shows the general effect of Biot number on temperature distribution. The temperature difference in the body (i.10 is a plot of the temperature distribution in the cylinder for values of Bi = 0.0 and 10. 1.T1 = T∞ − T1 1 + ln r2 /r1 Bi ( ) ( ) (3. For Bi >> 1 the convection heat transfer process offers little resistance to heat transfer.e. Figure 3. This is much like the situation with an external temperature specified. For Bi << 1 the conduction heat transfer process offers little resistance to heat transfer.Heat Transfer Texbook ln r/r1 T .1. In this situation. T (r2) close to T∞) compared to the ∆T through the solid with a limiting behavior of T − T1 lnr/r1 = T∞ − T lnr2 /r1 as Bi goes to infinity.e.

9: Effect of the Biot Number [hL / kbody] on the temperature distributions in the solid and in the fluid for convective cooling of a body. John H. Lienhard. Prentice-Hall Publishers. 1980] HT-32 . [adapted from: A Heat Transfer Textbook.Heat Transfer Texbook Figure 3. not of the fluid. Note that kbody is the thermal conductivity of the body.

Heat Transfer Texbook

Figure 3.10: Temperature distribution in a convectively cooled cylinder for different values of Biot number, Bi; r2 / r1 = 2 [from: A Heat Transfer Textbook, John H. Lienhard]

4.0

Temperature Distributions in the Presence of Heat Sources

There are a number of situations in which there are sources of heat in the domain of interest. Examples are: 1) Electrical heaters where electrical energy is converted resistively into heat 2) Nuclear power supplies 3) Propellants where chemical energy is the source These situations can be analyzed by looking at a model problem of a slab with heat sources α (W/m3) distributed throughout. We take the outside walls to be at temperature Tw. and we will determine the maximum internal temperature. Slice at x, x+dx Tw heat sources W α 3 m Tw & q & q+ & dq dx dx

x (a)

x

x + dx (b)

Figure 4.1: Slab with heat sources (a) overall configuration, (b) elementary slice With reference to Figure 4.1(b), a steady-state energy balance yields an equation for the heat flux, q . & HT-33

**Heat Transfer Texbook
**

⋅ ⎞ ⎛⋅ dq ⎟ ⎜ q+ q + adx − dx = 0 dx ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⋅

⋅

(4.1)

or

dq = α. dx

(4.2)

There is a change in heat flux with x due to the presence of the heat sources. The equation for the temperature is

d 2T +α / k = 0 dx 2

Equation (4.3) can be integrated once,

(4.3)

α dT =− x+a dx k

and again to give

T =−

(4.4)

α 2 x + ax + b 2k

(4.5)

where a and b are constants of integration. The boundary conditions imposed are T (0 ) = T (L ) = Tw . αL Substituting these into Equation (4.5) gives b = Tw and a = . The temperature distribution is thus 2k

T =−

αx 2 α + Lx + TW . 2k 2k

(4.6)

Writing (4.6) in a normalized, non-dimensional fashion gives a form that exhibits in a more useful manner the way in which the different parameters enter the problem:

T − TW

2 1⎛ x x ⎞ = ⎜ − 2⎟ 2 2⎝L L ⎠ αL /k

(4.7)

This distribution is sketched in Figure 4.2. It is symmetric about the mid-plane at x = the energy due to the sources exiting the slab on each side.

L , with half 2

HT-34

**Heat Transfer Texbook
**

⎛ T − TW ⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ aL /k ⎠

0.125

X

0 0.5 1.0

L

Figure 4.2:Temperature distribution for slab with distributed heat sources

The heat flux at the side of the slab, x = 0, can be found by differentiating the temperature distribution and evaluating at x = 0 :

k dT dx = k

x =0

L 1 = 2K L

2

L/2 .

This is half of the total heat generated within the slab. The magnitude of the heat flux is the same at x = L, although the direction is opposite. A related problem would be one in which there were heat flux (rather than temperature) boundary conditions at x = 0 and x = L, so that Tw is not known. We again determine the maximum temperature. At x = 0 and L, the heat flux and temperature are continuous so k dT =hT dx

(

T

) at x = 0,L.

x + ka)

(4.8)

Referring to the temperature distribution of Equation (4.6) gives for the two terms in Equation (4.8),

k

x dT = k - +a =( k dx

(4.9) (4.10)

hT

(

T

)

=h

x + x+b T k

2

Evaluating (4.10) at x = 0 and L allows determination of the two constants a and b. This is left as an exercise for the reader.

Muddy points For an electric heated strip embedded between two layers, what would the temperature distribution be if the two side temperatures were not equal? (MP HT.15)

HT-35

The approach taken will be quasi-one-dimensional. for example. c ∞ Figure 5. the characteristic dimension in the transverse direction is A / P (For a circular fin. with the high thermal conductivity allowing increased heat being conducted from the wall through the fin. The heat transfer per unit area within the fin in the transverse direction is (again in the same approximate terms) HT-36 . The fin is exposed to a flowing fluid.0 Heat Transfer From a Fin Fins are used in a large number of applications to increase the heat transfer from surfaces. the fin material has a high thermal conductivity. The physical content of this approximation can be seen from the following. A model configuration is shown in Figure 5. The fluid has velocity c∞ and temperature T∞. A / P = r / 2). and it needs some explanation.Heat Transfer Texbook 5. The fin is of length L. which is a realistic k approximation in practice.1.T∞ ) per unit area . The regime of interest will be taken h(A / P ) to be that for which the Biot number is much less than unity. which we can call hL.1: Geometry of heat transfer fin We assume (using the Reynolds analogy or other approach) that the heat transfer coefficient for the fin is known and has the value h. T0 (wall) Fin y x x=L x=0 (wall) T∞ . The other parameters of the problem are indicated. The end of the fin can have a different heat transfer coefficient. which cools or heats it. Bi = << 1 . Typically. The design of cooling fins is encountered in many situations and we thus examine heat transfer in a fin as a way of defining some criteria for design. Heat transfer per unit area out of the fin to the fluid is roughly of magnitude ~ h(Tw . With a fin cross-section equal to A and a perimeter P. in that the temperature in the fin will be assumed to be a function of x only. This may seem a drastic simplification.

If h << 1 . for a fin of constant area: ˙ dq ˙ ˙ qA = Ph(T − T∞ )dx + ⎛qA + dxA⎞ . T = T(x). To do this. There is also heat transfer around the perimeter on the top. of the fin as shown in Figure 5. These two quantities must be of the same A/ P T −T A/ P magnitude. and use a quasi-one-dimensional approach. ∞ ( ) & Qin x x+dx & Qout Figure 5. but here.2 can be written in terms of the heat flux using Q = qA . Under these conditions. To emphasize the point. an appropriate model is to say that the temperature within the fin is a function of x only. and thus little variation in temperature inside the fin in the transverse direction. Ak ( ) (5. From a quasi-one-dimensional point of view. the temperature within the fin would be uniform and equal to the wall temperature.Heat Transfer Texbook (T1 − Tw ) . where T1 is an internal temperature. In other words.2) In terms of the temperature distribution.3) HT-37 . consider the limiting case of zero heat transfer to the fluid i. dx (5. then 1 w << 1 . an insulated fin. T(x): d T dx 2 2 − Ph T − T∞ = 0 .2. ⎝ ⎠ dx From Equation (5. k If there is little variation in temperature across the fin. there is a much larger Tw − T∞ k capability for heat transfer per unit area across the fin than there is between the fin and the fluid. in each elemental slice of thickness dx there is essentially a heat sink of magnitude Pdxh T − T . this is a situation similar to that with internal heat sources. and sides of the fin. for a cooling fin. bottom.e. where Pdx is the area for heat transfer to the fluid. consider an element.2:Element of fin showing heat transfer & & The heat balance for the element in Figure 5. There is heat flow & dQ & & & of magnitude Qin at the left-hand side and heat flow out of magnitude Qout = Qin + dx at the dx right hand side.1) A ˙ dq + Ph(T − T∞ ) = 0 ..1) we obtain (5. if Bi << 1. dx.

In the present case. after all is said and done. (Does this sound plausible? Why or why not?) (T − T∞ )x = 0 = T0 − T∞ . ~ ~ T . We will assume that the heat transfer from this end is negligible1.T∞ ). The first of these is that the temperature at the end of the fin that joins the wall is equal to the wall temperature. It is a second order equation and needs two boundary conditions. and we can change variables to put Equation (5. = = dx dx dξ L dξ 1 Equation (5. The boundary condition at x = L is d T − T∞ dx ( ) x=L = 0. so we resort to the mild fiction of no heat transfer at the fin end.4) dx (T − T∞ ) − hP (T − T∞ ) = 0 . In this we define T0 − T∞ where ξ also ranges over zero to one.3) can therefore be written as d 2 2 (5. where the values of ∆ T range from zero to one and ξ = x / L .7) The last step is to work in terms of non-dimensional variables to obtain a more compact description. (5.T∞ as ∆ T . (T − T∞ ) = dx dx Equation (5.8). The relation between derivatives that is needed to cast the equation in terms of ξ is d dξ d 1 d .5) describes the temperature variation along the fin.5) Equation (5. HT-38 . We need to assess.3) in terms of this quantity using the substitution d dT . − ⎝ kA ⎠ dξ 2 There is one non-dimensional parameter in Equation (5. whether this is appropriate or not.8) Note: We don’t need to make this assumption.6) The second boundary condition is at the other end of the fin. developing the analytic solution is useful in presenting the structure of the solution as well as the numbers. and if we were looking at the problem in detail we would solve it numerically and not worry about whether an analytic solution existed.5) can be written in this dimensionless form as d 2 ∆ T ⎛ hP 2 ⎞ ~ L ∆ T = 0.Heat Transfer Texbook The quantity of interest is the temperature difference (T . which we will call m and define by 1 ~ (5. (5. Ak (5.

The boundary condition at ξ = 0 is ∆ T(0) = a + b = 1 . hP ⎞ L kA ⎟ ⎠ (5.13) This is the solution to Equation (5. (Try it and see). kA (5. (5.14) HT-39 .9) The equation for the temperature distribution we have obtained is d ∆T dξ 2 2 ~ 2 2 ~ − m L ∆T = 0.Heat Transfer Texbook m2 L 2= hP L 2 .11) (5.10) This second order equation has the solution ~ mLξ − mLξ ∆ T = ae + be . dξ ~ (5.8) for a fin with no heat transfer at the tip. In terms of the actual heat transfer parameters it is written as ⎛ cosh ⎜ ⎛ 1 − ⎝⎝ T − T∞ = T0 − T∞ ⎛ cosh ⎜ ⎝ x ⎞ hP ⎞ L L ⎠ kA ⎟ ⎠ .12b) ~ Solving the two equations given by the boundary conditions for a and b gives an expression for ∆ T x −x ⎛ e +e ⎞ in terms of the hyperbolic cosine or cosh: ⎜ cosh x = 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∆T = ~ cosh mL 1 − ξ cosh mL ( ) (5.12a) d∆ T −m m (L) = mLae − mLbe = 0 . The boundary condition at ξ = 1 is that the temperature gradient is zero or ~ (5.

x = 0: ⋅ Q = − kA d T − T∞ dx ( ) x =0 (5. which is taken from the book by Lienhard. Second.Heat Transfer Texbook The amount of heat removed from wall due to the fin.3. one does not need fins which have a length such that m is much greater than 3.16) ⋅ Q kAhP T0 − T∞ ( ) = tanh mL (5.15) or ⋅ ~ QL dD T =− dξ kA T0 − T∞ ( ) ξ =0 = mLsinh mL = mL tanh mL cosh mL (5. HT-40 .16a) The solution is plotted in Figure 5. so for very short fins the simple expression above would not be a good estimate. We will see below how large the error is. Several features of the solution should be noted. which is the quantity of interest. the assumption about no heat transfer at the end begins to be inappropriate as m gets smaller than 3. First. can be found by differentiating the temperature and evaluating the derivative at the wall.

Q 1 cosh mL The temperature excess at the tip is less than 1. A Heat Transfer Textbook.T∞ ) mL = 5 (a long "over designed" fin) mL = 2 mL = 3 Dimensionless axial position ξ = x / L Figure 5.17) Why did the Stegosaurus have cooling fins? Could the stegosaurus have "heating fins"? (MP HT. beyond L = 5 / m hPkA ( T0 − T∞ ) tanh mL Dimensionless temperature at tip (T . tip temperature.T∞ ) mL .1 (a very stumpy fin) Dimensionless temperature (T .16) What types of devices use heat transfer fins? (MP HT.T∞ ) / (T0 . PrenticeHall publishers] Muddy points Why did you change the variable and write the derivative d 2 (T .T∞ ) / (T0 . and heat flux in a straight onedimensional fin with the tip insulated.3:The temperature distribution.T∞ ) d2T as in the equation dx 2 dx 2 for heat transfer in the fin? (MP HT.Heat Transfer Texbook Heat flow cannot be noticeably improved by lengthening the fin beyond L = 3 / m Dimensionless heat flow into the fin.18) HT-41 . [Adapted from: Lienhard.4%.

2) If the Biot number is small the ratio of temperature differences described in Equation (6.1:Temperature variation in an object cooled by a flowing fluid If the heat transfer within the body and from the body to the fluid are of the same magnitude. The ratio of the temperature difference is T1 − Tw hL ≈ Tw − T∞ k (6. The disks that hold the blades are large and take a long time to come to temperature.0 Transient Heat Transfer (Convective Cooling or Heating) All the heat transfer problems we have examined have been steady state.2) is also T1 − Tw << 1. how more complex heat transfer objects will behave. at least in a quantitative fashion.1. sometimes enough to cause serious difficulties with aerodynamic performance. The result is that the case expands away from the blade tips. We want to view the object as a "lump" described by a single parameter. c∞ T∞ Tw T1 object Figure 6. We can thus say T1 − Tw << Tw − T∞ and neglect the temperature non-uniformity Tw − T∞ within the object. we examine a lumped parameter analysis of an object cooled by a stream. ( ( ) ) ( ) HT-42 . while the casing is thin and in the path of high velocity compressor flow and thus comes to temperature rapidly. as shown in Figure 6. To introduce the topic as well as to increase familiarity with modeling of heat transfer problems. To address this.1) where L is a relevant length scale. but there are often circumstances in which the transient response to heat transfer is critical. say half the thickness of the object. h Tw − T∞ ≈ ( ) k T −T L 1 w ( ) (6. consider the temperature difference T1 . An example is the heating up of gas turbine compressors as they are brought up to speed during take-off. This will allow us to see what the relevant non-dimensional parameters are and.Tw between two locations in the object.Heat Transfer Texbook 6. We need to determine when this type of analysis would be appropriate.

Ti − T∞ (6. as shown schematically below. T = T(t).3) where ρ is the density of the object and V is its volume. dt (6. is equal to some known value. Explicitly. This form of equation ρVc .5) At time t = 0. so the expression for the time Qout = − ρVc dt evolution of the temperature is Ah T − T∞ = −ρVc ( ) dT . ⎝ Ti − T∞ ⎠ d ⎛ T − T∞ ⎞ hA ⎛ T − T∞ ⎞ ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ =0 ⎜ dt ⎝ Ti − T∞ ⎠ ρVc ⎝ Ti − T∞ ⎠ (6. The first law applied to the object is (using the fact that for solids cp = cv = c) Q in = ρVc ⋅ dT dt (6.τ. dT & . ⎛ T − T∞ ⎞ Equation (6. The rate of heat transfer to the fluid is Ah (T . ⎜ + = 0⎟ which has the solution x = ae − t / τ . This is the same form of equation and the same behavior you have seen for the R-C circuit. Using this.4) The initial temperature.Heat Transfer Texbook The approximation made is to view the object as having a spatially uniform temperature that is a function of time only. high density. T(0). Equation (6. which we can call Ti . large volume. or high specific heat all tend to increase the time constant. a number of physical processes which have (or can be modeled as having) this type of exponentially decaying behavior.4) can be written in terms of a non-dimensional temperature difference ⎜ ⎟. In terms of heat transferred to the fluid. in fact. this non-dimensional quantity is equal to one. There dt RC are. For the present problem the form is ⎠ ⎝ dt τ T − T∞ − hAt/pVc = ae .5) is an equation you have ⎞ ⎛ dx x seen before. is in accord with our "intuition". implies that the solution has a heat transfer "time constant" given by τ = hA The time constant.6) The constant a can be seen to be equal to unity to satisfy the initial condition. HT-43 .T∞). The time dependence of the voltage in dE E the R-C circuit when the switch is opened suddenly is given by the equation + = 0 . while high heat transfer coefficient and large area will tend to decrease the time constant.

V. In carrying out such modeling.c.e. does a high density "slow down" heat transfer? (MP HT. it is critical to have a clear idea of just what the assumptions really mean. Modeling can span an enormous range from the level of our assumption of uniform temperature within the solid object to a complex model for the small scale turbulent eddies in the flow past a compressor blade. to define some plausible behavior for attributes of the system that will not be computed.0 Some Considerations in Modeling Complex Physical Processes In Sections 5 and 6. At some level of detail. what is c? (MP HT.Heat Transfer Texbook E0 C R Figure 6.19) dt In the lumped parameter transient heat transfer problem.2: Voltage change in an R-C circuit Muddy points • dT (6. These are all part of the general approach to modeling of physical systems. The main idea is that for engineering systems. 7. k T − T ≈ h TW − T∞ L c w we could assume ( ) ( ) (Tbody interior − Tw ) << 1 (Tw − T∞ ) HT-44 . one generally needs to model.3). especially for fluid flow problems. a number of assumptions were made about the processes that we were attempting to describe. and we thus look at the statements we have made in this context. i. one almost always cannot compute the process exactly. One assertion made was that because hL k << 1 and on the basis of a heat balance. as well as the fidelity that we ascribe to the descriptions of actual physical phenomena.20) In equation Q in = ρ.

we said that Tbody is approximately uniform and Tw ≈ Tbody interior .0 Heat Exchangers The general function of a heat exchanger is to transfer heat from one fluid to another. T − T∞ cosh mL 1 − ξ + Biaxial / m sinh mL 1 − ξ = T0 − T∞ cosh mL + Biaxal / mL sinh mL and ⋅ ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ) (7. the fluid is said to be unmixed because the fins prevent motion in a direction (y) that is transverse to the main-flow direction (x).1) Q kAhP T0 − T∞ ( ) = (Biaxial /mL) + tanh mL Bi 1 + axial tanh mL mL (7.1b. in the transverse direction is possible. There are thus three heat transfer operations that need to be described: 1) Convective heat transfer from fluid to the inner wall of the tube 2) Conductive heat transfer through the tube wall 3) Convective heat transfer from the outer tube wall to the outside fluid Heat exchangers are typically classified according to flow arrangement and type of construction. In the parallel-flow arrangement of Figure 8. Since the tube flow is unmixed.1a. The two configurations differ according to whether the fluid moving over the tubes is unmixed or mixed. The simplest heat exchanger is one for which the hot and cold fluids move in the same or opposite directions in a concentric tube (or double-pipe) construction. and temperature variations are primarily in the main-flow direction.2. flow in the same direction. effect. In this case the fluid temperature varies with x and y. The basic component of a heat exchanger can be viewed as a tube with one fluid running through it and another fluid flowing by on the outside.1). the fluids may be in cross flow (perpendicular to each other). the hot and cold fluids enter at the same end.2) 8. the fluids enter at opposite ends. was that the heat transfer at the far end can be neglected. where k k you can see that Equation (7. HT-45 . A third assumption.Heat Transfer Texbook Based on this. fluid motion. as shown by the finned and unfinned tubular heat exchangers of Figure 8.2b. The solution including this hL L hL L is an axial Biot number is given as Equation (7. for the unfinned tube bundle of Figure 8. Alternatively. and leave at the same end. flow in opposite directions.2a. and leave at opposite ends.1) reduces to the previous result (5. In Figure 8. made in the fin problem. If the quantity is small. Another aspect is hA that setting << 1 erases any geometrical detail of the fin cross section. In contrast. In the counterflow arrangement of Figure 8.13). The only place where P Pk and A enter the problem is in a non-dimensional combination. hence mixing.

we look at the problem of heat transfer from a fluid inside a tube to another fluid outside.Heat Transfer Texbook both fluids are unmixed in the finned exchanger. HT-46 .2: Cross-flow heat exchangers. (a) (b) Figure 8. (b) Counterflow x y Cross flow T = f(x. while one fluid is mixed and the other unmixed in the unfinned exchanger.1: Concentric tubes heat exchangers. (a) Parallel flow. (b) Unfinned with one fluid mixed and the other unmixed To develop the methodology for heat exchanger analysis and design.y) Cross flow T = f(x) Tube flow (a) (b) Tube flow Figure 8. (a) Finned with both fluids unmixed.

2 and found that the heat transfer rate per unit length is given by & Q= 2πk (T A − TB ) r k k + ln 2 + r1 h1 r1 r2 h2 (8. is r r r 1 1 = 2 + 2 ln 2 + .1) It is useful to define an overall heat transfer coefficient h0 per unit length as & Q = 2πr2 h0 (TA − TB ). (8. We wish to know the temperature distribution along the tube and the amount of heat transferred.2) the overall heat transfer coefficient. h0 r1h1 k r1 h2 (8. A schematic of a counterflow heat exchanger is shown in Figure 8.3: Geometry for heat transfer between two fluids We examined this problem before in Section 3. h0 .3) We will make use of this in what follows.2) From (8. HT-47 .1) and (8.4.Heat Transfer Texbook r1 TA T1 T2 r2 TB Figure 8.

The heat given to the fluid (the change in enthalpy) is given by ⋅ ρumc p ⋅ πD dT = m c p dT 4 2 HT-48 .Heat Transfer Texbook Ta2 Tb2 Tb1 Ta1 Figure 8. in the case where fluid comes in at x = 0 with temperature T1 and leaves at x = L with temperature T2 . For heating (T0 > T). the heat flow from the pipe wall in a length dx is q πDdx = hπD(T0 − T)dx where D is the pipe diameter. The expected distribution for heating and cooling are sketched in Figure 8. T(x).5: Fluid temperature distribution along the tube with uniform wall temperature The objective is to find the mean temperature of the fluid at x.4: Counterflow heat exchanger To address this we start by considering the general case of axial variation of temperature in a tube with wall at uniform temperature T0 and a fluid flowing inside the tube.5. T1 x=0 dx T1 x=L T2 ∆ T2 cooling heating T2 ∆ T1 T0 Figure 8.

4hx = ρumc p D i.4) Carrying out the integration.e.5) (8.7) where β= 4h πhD = ⋅ ρumc p D m cp .8) This is temperature distribution along the pipe. The exit temperature at x = L is − T0 − T2 & mc =e p T0 − T1 πhDL (8. cp is the specific heat of the ⋅ fluid and m is the mass flow rate of the fluid.Heat Transfer Texbook where ρ is the density of the fluid. T (8.9). um is the mean velocity of the fluid.6) can be written as T0 − T = e −β x T0 − T1 T T1 ∫ T d T0 − T dT =− = − ln T0 − T T0 − T T0 − T T1 ∫ ( ) ( ) T1 . we find T T1 ∫ dT 4h = dx . ⋅ ⋅ ( ) HT-49 . (8.9) The total heat transfer to the wall all along the pipe is Q = m c p T1 − T2 . ρumc p D T0 − T x ∫ 0 (8. From Equation (8. Setting the last two expressions equal and integrating from the start of the pipe. ⎛T −T ⎞ 4hx .6) (8. ln ⎜ 0 ⎟=− ρumc p D ⎝ T0 − T1 ⎠ Equation (8.

10) or Q = hπDL∆TLM where ∆TLM is the logarithmic mean temperature difference. dTb = − q dA m b c pb ⋅ ⋅ (8. T0 − T2 ⎛ ∆T1 ⎞ ln ln⎜ ⎟ T0 − T1 ⎝ ∆T2 ⎠ (8. an overall heat balance between the two counterflowing streams is Q = m a c pa Ta1 − Ta2 = m b c pb Tb2 − Tb1 . The local heat balance is: ⋅ − m a c pa dTa = − mb c pb dTb = q dA = q πDdx Solving (8. defined as ∆TLM = T2 − T1 ∆T − ∆T2 = 1 . we find: ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ (8.13) for dTa and dTb. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ( ) ⋅ ( ) (8. The heat taken up by stream b is − m b c pb dTb .14) HT-50 .11) The concept of a logarithmic mean temperature difference is useful in the analysis of heat exchangers.12) From a local heat balance. With reference to Figure 8. (There is a negative sign since Ta decreases). (There is a negative sign because Tb decreases as x increases).4. We can define a logarithmic mean temperature difference for a counterflow heat exchanger as follows. ⎛ T0 − T1 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ T0 − T2 ⎠ The total rate of heat transfer is therefore Q= ⋅ hπDL T1 − T2 ln ⋅ T1 − T0 T2 − T0 ( ). (8.Heat Transfer Texbook m cp = ⋅ hπDL .13) dTa = − q dA m a c pa ⋅ ⋅ . the heat given up by stream a in length dx is − m a c pa dTa .

Tb1 = Q / Wb .Heat Transfer Texbook ⎛ ⎞ ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟ q dA = −⎛ 1 − 1 ⎞ q πDdx d Ta − Tb = d∆T = − ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠ m a c pa m b c pb ⎠ ⎝ ( ) (8. Also. Wb ⎠ (8.18) 1 (Ta1 − Tb2 ) − (Ta2 − Tb1 ) = Q⎛ W ⎜ ⎝ ⋅ − a 1⎞ ⎟. ⎟ = − h0 πDL⎜ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠ ⎝ Ta1 − Tb2 ⎠ Equation (8.Ta2 = Q / Wa Thus ⋅ Tb2 .16) (8.16) allows us to express ⎜ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠ HT-51 . q = h0 ∆T where h0 is the overall heat transfer coefficient.19) Solving for the total heat transfer: ⋅ Ta1 − Tb2 − Ta2 − Tb1 Q= ⎛ 1 1⎞ − ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠ ( ) ( ) (8.15) & & where W = mc p .16) can also be written as: Ta 2 − Tb1 = e −α Ta1 − Tb 2 (8.20) ⎛ 1 1⎞ − ⎟ in terms of other parameters as Rearranging (8.17) where ⎛ 1 1⎞ α = h0 πDL⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠ We know that ⋅ Ta1 . ∆T ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠ Integrating from x = 0 to x = L gives ⎛ 1 ⎛ T − Tb1 ⎞ 1⎞ ln ⎜ a2 − ⎟. We can then say: ⎛ 1 d∆T 1⎞ = − h0 πD⎜ − ⎟ dx . (8.

Ta1 = Tb1 .Ta1 + (Ta1 . Tb 2 = Tb1 + Wa (Ta1 − Ta 2 ) Wb Thus Ta2 . Tb1.21) into (8.23) 8.18).Heat Transfer Texbook ⎛ T − Tb2 ⎞ ln ⎜ a2 ⎟ ⎛ 1 ⎝ Ta1 − Tb2 ⎠ 1⎞ − ⎟=− . and we need to find the outlet temperatures.Tb2 ) e-α Rearranging (8.Tb1 ) e-α - (Ta1 − Ta2 )⎛ 1 − Wa e −α ⎞ = (Ta1 − Tb1 )(1 − e −α ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ W b Wa −α Ta1 − Ta2 e Wb ( ) or (Ta1 − Ta 2 )= η (Ta1 − Tb1 ) where η is the efficiency of a counterflow heat exchanger: (8. ⎜ h0 πDL ⎝ Wa Wb ⎠ Substituting (8.Ta1 + (Ta1 .20) we obtain a final expression for the total heat transfer for a counterflow heat exchanger: ⋅ Ta1 − Tb2 − Ta2 − Tb1 Q = h0 πDL ⎛T −T ⎞ ln ⎜ a1 b2 ⎟ ⎝ Ta2 − Tb1 ⎠ (8.Tb1 = (Ta1 . From (8.22) or Q = h0 πDL∆TLM ⋅ (8.1 Efficiency of a Counterflow Heat Exchanger Suppose we know the two inlet temperatures Ta1.Ta1 = Tb1 .17) Ta2 .Tb2) e-α Ta2 .24) HT-52 .21) ( ) ( ) (8.

25) we can find outlet temperatures Ta2 and Tb2: ⋅ ⋅ Tb2 − Tb1 = m a c pa ⋅ m b c pb We examine three examples.25) From (8. η = 1 ⋅ ⋅ HT-53 . surface area . πDLh0 ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ m a c pa m b c pb ⎠ ⎝ T −T Maximum value of ratio a1 a 2 = 1 Ta1 − Tb1 ⋅ ⋅ T − Tb1 m a c pa = ⋅ Maximum value of ratio b2 Ta1 − Tb1 m b c pb ii) ⋅ m b c pb < m a c pa ⋅ ⋅ α is negative .Heat Transfer Texbook η= 1− e 1− e = ⋅ W −α 1− a e m a c pa − α e 1− ⋅ Wb c pb mb −α −α (8. η → m b c pb m a c pa ⋅ ⋅ as [ ] → ∞ ( b < Wa ) W ⋅ T − Ta2 m b c pb = ⋅ Maximum value of a1 Ta1 − Tb1 m a c pa Tb 2 − Tb1 Maximum value of =1 Ta1 − Tb 2 iii) m a c pa = m b c pb d (Ta − Tb ) = 0 temperature difference remains uniform.24) and (8. i) (Ta1 − Ta2 ) = m a c pa ⋅ η Ta1 − Tb2 m b c pb ( ) m b c pb > m a c pa ∆T can approach zero at cold end ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟ η → 1 as h0 .

For specular reflections. Diffuse reflections are independent of the incident radiation angle. α Incident radiation Radiation transmitted. The behavior of a surface with radiation incident upon it can be described by the following quantities: α = absorptance . 9.67 x 10-8 W m K 2 4 (9. Radiation absorbed.2) HT-54 .1: Radiation Surface Properties From energy considerations the three coefficients must sum to unity α+ρ+τ=1 (9. 2) The energy radiated per unit area is Eb = σT4 where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. with random phase and frequency. they may either be absorbed.Heat Transfer Texbook 9.1) Reflective energy may be either diffuse or specular (mirror-like). ρ Figure 9.0 Radiation Heat Transfer (Heat transfer by thermal radiation) All bodies radiate energy in the form of photons moving in a random direction.1 Ideal Radiators An ideal thermal radiator is called a "black body". σ = 5. τ Radiation reflected. the reflection angle equals the angle of incidence.fraction of incident radiation reflected τ = transmittance – fraction of incident radiation transmitted Figure 9. reflected or transmitted.1 shows these processes graphically. It has several properties: 1) It has α = 1. When radiated photons reach another surface. and absorbs all radiation incident on it.fraction of incident radiation absorbed ρ = reflectance .

HT-55 . f. The energy of a black body. the wavelength for maximum energy emission shifts to shorter values. the energy radiated per unit area for a range of wavelengths of width ∆λ . J. Monochromatic emissive power. The frequency of the radiation.Heat Transfer Texbook The units of Eb are therefore W m 2 . eλ kW/m -micron Figure 9. dλ ∆λ The behavior of eλ is given in Figure 9. E b . We can dE ∆Eb define eλ = b ≈ . The quantity λT at the condition where eλ is a maximum is given by (λT )eλmax = 0.2898 cm K [adapted from: A Heat Transfer Textbook by Lienhard.2. As T increases. is distributed over a range of wavelengths of radiation.2898 cm K.predicted and observed (λT )eλ max = 0.2: Emissive power of a black body at several temperatures .] The distribution of eλ varies with temperature. is given by f = c/λ so high energy means short wavelengths and high frequency.

uniform everywhere).3: A cavity with a small hole (approximates a black body) A physical realization of a black body is a cavity with a small hole. ε . H = EB. 9.4: A small black body inside a cavity The radiant energy absorbed by the black body per second and per m2 is αΒH. Temperature T Cavity Black body Figure 9. The radiant energy emitted by the black body is EB. defined by HT-56 . the radiant energy falling on any surface inside the cavity. The inside of the cavity has radiation which is homogeneous and isotropic (the same in any direction.Heat Transfer Texbook Figure 9. Suppose we put a small black body inside the cavity as seen in Figure 9. Very few entering photons (light rays) will get out. Since αB = 1 for a black body. The irradiance within a cavity whose walls are at temperature T is therefore equal to the radiant emittance of a black body at the same temperature and irradiance is a function of temperature only. where H is the irradiance. There are many reflections and absorptions. The measurement of this is the emittance. The cavity and the black body are both at the same temperature.2 Kirchhoff's Law and "Real Bodies" Real bodies radiate less effectively than black bodies.4.

Thus E =α =ε Eb (9.α): Surface 1 emits Surface 2 absorbs E1 E1 α 2 HT-57 . is known as Kirchhoff's Law.3) Equation (9.Heat Transfer Texbook Emittance: ← radiation from real body at T ε= E E b ← radiation from black body at T Values of emittance vary greatly for different materials. It implies that good radiators are good absorbers. ελ are properties of the surface.3). Also. the relation α = ε . We suppose that the surfaces are thick enough so that.3 Radiation Heat Transfer Between Planar Surfaces α 2 E1 ρ2 E1 E1 α1ρ2 E1 ρ1ρ2 E1 ρ1ρ2α2 E1 Surface 2 ρ1ρ 2 2 E1 ρ1 ρ2 E1 ρ1ρ2 α 2 E1 2 2 2 Surface 1 Figure 9. α + ρ = 1 (no radiation transmitted so transmittance = 0). but it is true if αλ = α . They are near unity for rough surfaces such as ceramics or oxidized metals.02 for polished metals or silvered reflectors. 9. αλ = ελ .ελ = ε. so the absorptance and emittance are not functions of λ . Suppose we have a small non-black body in the cavity. The power emitted is equal to E.. It was derived for the case when Tbody = Tsurroundings (cavity) and is not strictly true for all circumstances when the temperature of the body and the cavity are different. An energy balance gives E = Ebε = α H =α Eb. The power absorbed per unit area is equal to αH.1. and roughly 0. The level of the emittance can be related to the absorptance using the following arguments. since αλ . This situation describes a "gray body". Consider a photon emitted from Surface 1 (remembering that the reflectance ρ = 1 .5: Path of a photon between two gray surfaces Consider the two infinite gray surfaces shown in Figure 9. taken from the book by Lienhard. A table of emittances for different substances is given at the end of this section as Table 9.5.

1− β Putting this all together we find that ⎛ E2 1 − α 1 α 2 ⎞ E α 2 1 E2 − ⎜ ⎟ = 1−β 1−β ⎠ ⎝ is absorbed by 1... 1 α ( ) However 1 −1 = ( − β ) = 1 + β + β 2 + .Heat Transfer Texbook Surface 2 reflects Surface 1 absorbs Surface 1 reflects Surface 2 absorbs Surface 2 reflects Surface 1 absorbs E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 1 α E1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 ) 1 1 E1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 ) 2 1 1 α E1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 )( − α 2 ) 1 1 1 E1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 )( − α 2 ) 1 1 1 1 α The same can be said for a photon emitted from Surface 2: Surface 2 emits Surface 1 absorbs Surface 1 reflects Surface 2 absorbs Surface 2 reflects etc…… E2 E 2α1 E 2 ( − α1 ) 1 E 2 ( − α1 ) 2 1 α E2 ( − α 1 )( − α 2 ) 1 1 We can add up all the energy E 1 absorbed in 1 and all the energy E 2 absorbed in 2. it is helpful to define β = ( − α1 )( − α 2 ) ... 1− β ( ) HT-58 . The net heat flux from 1 to 2 is E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 1 α . 1 1− β We thus observe that the radiation absorbed by surface 1 can be written as 1 α Likewise E2 ( − α1 ) 2 is the radiation generated at 2 and absorbed there as well. The energy E 1 absorbed in 1 is E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 + E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 ( − α 2 )( − α1 )+ K 1 α 1 α 1 1 This is equal to E1 ( − α 2 ) 1 1 + β + β 2 + . . In doing the 1 1 bookkeeping..

= 1 1 + −1 ε1 ε2 q net 1 to 2 (9. ε 1 = α1 for any gray surface (Kirchhoff's Law). α2 = 1. E1 = σT 4 α1 ε 1σT 4 = σT 4 α1 Therefore. and E2 = σT4. we would have q = 0. planar. α1 α 2 If body 2 is black. as the final expression for heat transfer between gray. so from Equation (9. ⋅ q net 1 to 2 ε σT ε − ε2σT2 ε1 = 1 1 2 ε1 + ε2 − ε1ε2 4 4 or.4) & If T1 = T2 . surfaces: ⋅ 4 4 σ⎛ T1 − T2 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ . Using Kirchhoff's Law we find. α1 + α 2 − α1α 2 (9. again.Heat Transfer Texbook ⋅ q net 1 to 2 = E1 − E1 1 − α 2 α1 1− β ( ) − E2α1 E1 − E1 1 − α1 − α 2 + α1α2 − E1α1 + E1α1α2 − E2α1 = 1− β 1 − 1 − α1 − α 2 + α1α2 ( ( ) ) or ⋅ q net 1 to 2 = E1α 2 − E2α1 .5) HT-59 .4) E1 E 2 = = f (T) .

HT-60 . what thickness would be needed? 0. Consider a black thermocouple in a chamber with black walls.Heat Transfer Texbook Example 1: Use of a thermos bottle to reduce heat transfer Silvered Walls Inside of thermos (hot fluid) Outside of thermos (Cold) 1 2 ε1 = ε2 = 0.02 q1 to 2 For the same ∆T.9 2 = 1 1 99 m + −1 0.9 q good insulator. if we had cork insulation with k = 0.04 80 k∆T k∆T so a thickness L = ⋅ = = 0.47 m would be needed. q= ⋅ ( )( ) Example 2: Temperature measurement error due to radiation heat transfer Thermocouples (see Figure 9.6) are commonly used to measure temperature. The thermos is indeed a L 6.04.02 for silvered walls T1 = 100 °C = 373 K T2 = 20 °C = 293 K ⋅ 4 4 σ⎛ T1 − T2 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 1100 − 420 W = = 6. There can be errors due to heat transfer by radiation.02 0.

although it would be included for accurate measurements. m K What temperature does the thermocouple read? We use a heat (energy) balance on the control surface shown in Figure 9.6: Thermocouple used to measure temperature Suppose the air is at 20 °C. the walls are at 100 °C.) Heat in (radiation) Heat out (convection) Ttc Control volume Tair Twall Figure 9. Figure 9. and the convective heat transfer coefficient is W h = 15 2 .Heat Transfer Texbook T1 metal 1 metal 2 Measured Voltage T2 Note: The measured voltage is related to the difference between T1 and T2 (the latter is a known temperature).7. The heat balance states that heat convected away is equal to heat radiated into the thermocouple in steady state. (Conduction heat transfer along the thermocouple wires is neglected here.7: Effect of radiation heat transfer on measured temperature. HT-61 .

67 x 10 ⎛ 373 − Ttc ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) from which we find Ttc = 51 °C = 324 K. HT-62 . for any two objects in space. Radiation shield < 100 ϒC 100 ϒC Figure 9.23) 9. and to other places as well.8: Shielding a thermocouple to reduce radiation heat transfer error Muddy points Which bodies does the radiation heat transfer occur between in the thermocouple?(MP HT.9.Heat Transfer Texbook The heat balance is 4 4 hA Ttc − Tair = σA⎛ Twall − Ttc ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (9.21) Still muddy about thermocouples.4 Radiation Heat Transfer Between Black Surfaces of Arbitrary Geometry In general.6) where A is the area of the thermocouple. (MP HT.22) Why does increasing the local flow velocity decrease the temperature error for the thermocouple? (MP HT. a given object 1 radiates to object 2. We could reduce this error by shielding the thermocouple as shown in Figure 9. Substituting the numerical values gives 4 -8 4 15 Ttc − 293 = 5. The thermocouple thus sees a higher temperature than the air. as shown in Figure 9.8.

Eb1 A1 F1-2 .Eb2 A2 F2-1 = Q1− 2 . The energy leaving body 2 and being absorbed at body 1 is Eb2 A2 F2-1. If so. so the energy leaving body 1 is Eb1 A1. The net energy interchange from body 1 to body 2 is ⋅ Eb1 A1 F1-2 .8) HT-63 . For the situation in Figure 9. Suppose both surfaces are at the same temperature so there is no net heat exchange. This is given by the radiation shape factor or view factor. we know that Eb is the emissive power of a black body.9: Radiation between two bodies We want a general expression for energy interchange between two surfaces at different temperatures.Eb2 A2 F2-1 = 0. Fi .Heat Transfer Texbook elsewhere Qnet T2 Figure 9. T1 Body 1 Figure 9. but also Eb1 = Eb2.10: Radiation between two arbitrary surfaces For body 1. The energy leaving body 1 and arriving (and being absorbed) at body 2 is Eb1 A1 F1-2.10 F1-2 = fraction of energy leaving 1 which reaches 2 F2 -1 = fraction of energy leaving 2 which reaches 1 F1-2 . Thus A1 F1-2 = A2 F2-1. (9. F2 -1 are functions of geometry only A 2 . T2 radiation Body 2 A 1 .7) (9.j.

e.12 through 9. taken from the book by Incropera and DeWitt. Shape factors are given in textbooks and reports (they are tabulated somewhat like Laplace transforms). We know that F1-2 = 1.15. Q 2 −1 = A2 F2 −1 Eb2 − Eb1 = A1F1− 2 Eb2 − Eb1 = A Eb2 − Eb1 1 ⋅ ( View factors for other configurations can be found analytically or numerically. HT-64 .11: Radiation heat transfer for concentric cylinders or spheres The net heat transfer from surface 1 to surface 2 is Q1− 2 = A1F1− 2 Eb1 − Eb2 . The net heat exchange between the two surfaces is Q1− 2 = A1F1− 2 Eb1 − Eb2 ⋅ ( ) [or A2F2−1(Eb1 − Eb2 )] Example: Concentric cylinders or concentric spheres T2 T1 Figure 9. that all of the energy emitted by 1 gets to 2.7) is the shape factor reciprocity relation. and examples of the analytical forms and numerical values of shape factors for some basic engineering configurations are given in Figures 9. i.Heat Transfer Texbook Equation (9. Thus ⋅ ( ) Q1− 2 = A1 Eb1 − Eb2 ⋅ ( ) ) ( ) ( ) This can be used to find the net heat transfer from 2 to 1.

polished Stainless.56 200 .11 . polished Sheet steel.0.2 .93 90 40 40 90 .95 0.0. to dull Black oxidized Gold: pure.94 .0.94 0.93 0.0.76 0. strong rough oxide Cast iron.90 0. polished Steel. planed 0.0.0.61 .96 0.1:Total emittances for different surfaces [Adapted from: A Heat Transfer Textbook.16 0.0.1 0.07 .66 0.540 260 .95 0.9 40 40 40 40 90 0.93 .75 1040 .39 200 .0.29 Nonmetals Temperature ( o C) 40 0.07 .82 0.97 .66 0.05 .59 0.8 0.0.0.260 40 40 40 .98 0.1000 40 10 .04 .35 0.540 40 0 40 .0.02 0.035 260 40 .94 40 980 9980 1090 980 1090 0.91 0.58 0.04 0.0.11 0.09 0.0.0.01 .590 40 .17 0.0.0.1430 40 40 0. rusted Wrought iron.9 0.0.92 .53 0.32 0.0.0.0.Heat Transfer Texbook Surface Aluminum Polished.97 0.0. after repeated heating Lead Polished Oxidized Mercury: pure.200 40 .07 .06 0. Lienhard] . rolled Sheet steel. rough lime Quartz Rubber Snow Water.260 40 40 0.22 0.08 0.74 0.1370 200 40 . Rough Silica Fireclay Ordinary refractory Magnesite refractory White refractory Carbon Filament Lampsoot Concrete.7 Ice Limestone Marble Mica Paints Black gloss White paint Lacquer Various oil paints Red lead Paper White Other colors Roofing Plaster.600 0.12 .85 0. polished plate Oxidized at 590oC Drawn wire and strips Silver Tin Tungsten Filament Filament 540 .95 0.94 0.9 0.96 .260 40 40 20 .90 0. smooth Wrought iron.57 .93 .04 .14 .97 Table 9.0.96 0.260 40 .900 0.5 .0.0.83 0.05 .590 260 .8 .46 .1090 2760 0.0.95 .94 0.20 40 40 20 0.260 40 .94 0.0.480 40 .63 0.05 40 .8 .38 0.92 0. clean Platinum Pure.0.66 0.0.8 . oxidized Iron.12 150 .95 .8 .0. thickness Wood Oak.0.1mm 40 40 40 40 .15 0.02 .260 0. J.89 .75 0.1 .9 0.540 0.33 Metals Temperature ( o C) Surface Asbestos Brick Red.260 100 .19 0.86 .85 0. polished Iron and Steel Mild steel. dull oxidized Stainless.03 0.1 0.360 40 230 .0.98 0.600 90 90 .89 .0. 98% pure Commercial sheet Heavily oxidized Brass Highly polished Dull plate Oxidized Copper Highly polished electrolytic Slightly polished.92 .0. rough Glass Smooth Quartz glass (2mm) Pyrex Gypsum 40 260 .0.

15: Fig 13.12: View Factors for Three .P. Incropera and D.14: Fig 13. John Wiley and Sons] HT-66 .5--View factor for coaxial parallel disk Figure 9. F.P. DeWitt.6--View factor for perpendicular rectangles with a common edge [from: Fundamentals of Heat Transfer.Dimensional Geometries Figure 9.4--View factor for aligned parallel rectangles Figure 9.13: Fig.Heat Transfer Texbook Figure 9. 13.

1987. P. Irwin. Hemisphere Pub. Corp. 1990. Lienhard... M. HT-67 . M. A Heat Transfer Textbook.Heat Transfer Texbook Heat Transfer References Eckert.. and Drake. 1992. Incropera. and Dewitt. F. McGraw Hill Book Company. R. Prentice-Hall. E.. P. E. J.. Wiley. D. G. G. R. Eckert.. Mills. R. 1959. R. A. and Drake. Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer. F. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. Heat Transfer. 1987. Heat and Mass Transfer. H.

HT. Benjamin/Cummings Publishers. Physical Chemistry. The kinetic energy per molecule at a given temperature is the same and so the lower the molecular weight the higher the average molecular velocity. This is an important issue.Heat Transfer Texbook Muddiest points on heat transfer HT. This is a challenge that comes up a great deal. HT.1 How do we quantify the contribution of each mode of heat transfer in a given situation? Developing the insight necessary to address the important parts of a complex situation (such as turbine heat transfer) and downplay (neglect or treat approximately) the other aspects is part of having a solid working knowledge of the fundamentals. 1986. is a reasonable criterion. A reference for this is Castellan. the temperature as a function of x has the same value at x = a. To say this in a more physical manner.3 Why is the thermal conductivity of light gases such as helium (monoatomic) or hydrogen (diatomic) much higher than heavier gases such as argon (monoatomic) or nitrogen (diatomic)? To answer this. For example if there were a vacuum between the two surfaces in the thermos bottle. Sometimes one can rule out one or two modes on the basis of the problem statement. it will have no “jumps” or discontinuous (step) changes in value. because otherwise every problem will seem very complex. the collision cross section and the average molecular velocity. whether we approach location a from the left or from the right. we need some basics of the kinetic theory of gases. One way to sort out what is important is to make order of magnitude estimates (similar to what we did to answer when the one-dimensional heat transfer approximation was appropriate) to see whether all three modes have to be considered. . HT. For now.2 How specific do we need to be about when the one-dimensional assumption is valid? Is it enough to say that dA/dx is small? The answer really is “be specific enough to enable one to have faith in the analysis or at least some idea of how good the answer is”. say. but often the situation is more subtle. if we say that A is an area defined per unit depth normal to the blackboard then saying dA/dx is small. Two factor contribute. For the gases mentioned above the dominant factor appears to be the velocity. In terms of what the function looks like. which is a statement involving a non-dimensional parameter. A way to state it is that the function at a given location has the same value as we approach the location independent of the direction we approach from.4 What do you mean by continuous? The meaning is similar to the definition you have seen in the math subjects. we would not have to consider convection.

7 Why is ∆T the same for the two elements in a parallel thermal circuit? Doesn't the relative area of the bolt to the wood matter? In terms of the bolt through the wood wall. As sketched below. and if ⎝ dx ⎠ the thermal conductivity.Heat Transfer Texbook HT. there was a different temperature on the two sides of an interface between two materials. Material A Material B Control volume qin qout Interface HT. is related to the temperature gradient by dT r q = − k∇T . guaranteeing that the temperature is continuous in each material. or. From the first law. i. leading to a very large (infinite in the limit) heat flux which would immediately erase the temperature difference.5 Why is temperature continuous in the composite wall problem? Why is it continuous at the interface between two materials? We can argue this point by supposing T were not continuous. for a thin control volume that encloses the interface the net heat flow into the control volume is zero. is not the same in the two materials.e. If we now add bolts to . the contribution from the heat flux at the upper and lower ends of the control volume is negligible so the heat flux in one side must be the same as the flux out of the other. The relative areas of the bolt and the wood indeed do matter. It has a certain heat resistance. This argument could also be applied to any location inside a solid of uniform composition. across an interface the heat flux is continuous. however. then dT/dx is not continuous.6 Why is the temperature gradient dT/dx not continuous? As derived in class. If so. Suppose we consider a square meter area of wood without bolts. with the interface truly a sharp plane. The heat flux. for one-dimension. k. HT. the approximation made is that the bolt and the wood are both exposed to the same conditions at the two sides of the wall. q x = − k ⎛ ⎞ .. there would be a finite temperature difference across an infinitesimal distance. If the heat flux is continuous.

HT. the concepts are deeper than that. It is not a law of nature. and it is found that for the same state variables. surface condition. The analogy is drawn between the heat transfer process (transfer of heat represented by heat flux) and the momentum transfer process (transfer of momentum represented by shear stress) HT.Heat Transfer Texbook the wall. but it is not strictly µc p applicable if there are pressure gradients. if the value of the resistance is affected by the surface condition (smooth. However. and the effective area will be n times the area for one bolt. The thermal ⎞ ⎛ resistance of the wood will be increased by a factor of ⎜ Awithout / Awith ⎟ .) how can the resistance be just a property of the fluid? HT. . which is larger ⎝ bolts n bolts ⎠ than unity.10 In what situations does the Reynolds analogy "not work"? The Reynolds Analogy is just that. the amount by which the heat transfer is increased depends on the fractional area with low thermal resistance compared to the fractional area with high thermal resistance.8 How do we know that δ' is not a fluid property? ⎛ δ ′⎞ The term ⎜ ⎟ represents the resistance to heat transfer for a unit area. bumpy. it can have a range of values of several orders of magnitude depending on the parameters I described (Reynolds number. but rather a plausible hypothesis that allows useful estimation of the heat transfer coefficients in many situations in which little or no explicit heat transfer information exists. In summary. The resistance to ⎝k⎠ heat transfer per unit area (1/heat transfer coefficient) can be computed for cases of laminar flow.9 What is the "analogy" that we are discussing? Is it that the equations are similar? While the equations are similar. the conceptual framework provided by the analogy has been found useful enough that the analogy has been extended (in a more complex form. as briefly discussed in class) for application to these situations. etc. or measured experimentally where we cannot compute it. or if the Prandtl number ( Pr = ) is not k unity. the resistance of each bolt is Rbolt = Lbolt . In the form we have derived it. they will be kbolt Abolt in parallel. If there are n bolts. surface shape…). the Reynolds Analogy is appropriate for use in air. corrugated. Put another way.

in other words the location of the point at which we want to know the temperature.A A is the area normal to the heat flow.13 What does the "K" in the contact resistance formula stand for? & ∆Tdriving .22). Even with present computational power. HT. but to answer the question in a few sentences. The units of Q are & The definition of the resistance comes out of Q = Rthermal Watts/meter2. the heat flux from the two sides of the electrical heater would be different. really difficult? We have indeed “simplified convection a lot”. For a turbine blade. If this example is not clear. or degree centigrade. what is A? h.11 In the expression 1 . the latter is key to predictions of heat transfer.15 For an electric heated strip embedded between two layers. HT. because it necessitates determining the fluid dynamics. but the sum of the two heat fluxes would still be equal to the heat generated per unit area and unit time. HT.Heat Transfer Texbook HT. for example. In fact heat could be coming into one side of the heater if one of the temperatures were high enough. (Sketch this out and prove it to yourself. Is finding the heat transfer coefficient. finding the heat transfer coefficient is a difficult problem. HT. it would be the outer surface area of the blade. . We will look at heat transfer by convection in more depth in a few lectures. The K is thus the symbol for Kelvin. it is still beyond the state of the art. please come and see me. what would the temperature distribution be if the two side temperatures were not equal? If the two temperatures on the outer surfaces of the composite layer were T1 and T2 .) The temperature distribution would be linear from the heater temperature to the two surface temperatures. calculating the flow around aerospace devices with the accuracy needed to be confident about heat transfer coefficients is not by any means a “standard” calculation. For some circumstances.14 In the equation for the temperature in a cylinder (3.12 It seems that we have simplified convection a lot. so the units of Rthermal are [degrees x meters2/Watts]. We will concentrate on describing (i) the basic mechanisms of convective heat transfer and (ii) ways of estimating the heat transfer coefficient from known fluid dynamic information. what is "r"? The variable r denotes the radial coordinate. h.

HT. The journal article referenced in that text is: Farlow.0 of the notes.17 What types of devices use heat transfer fins? A number of types of heat exchangers use fins. 192.. I found it convenient to put it the equation in the form of Eq.16 Why did you change the variable and write the derivative as in dx 2 dx 2 the equation for heat transfer in the fin? The heat balance and derivation of the equation for temperature (5.T∞ ) d2T HT. However. Examples of the use of fins you may have seen are cooling fins on motorcycle engine heads.E. • dT (6. since: (1) the reference temperature is T∞ .c. Science. V. does a high density "slow down" heat transfer? It doesn’t. and one could solve (5.. vol.3). The high density slows down the rate at which the object changes temperature. and (3) the derivative of T − T∞ is the same as the derivative of T . unlike a gas. 1123-1125 and cover.18 Why did the Stegosaurus have cooling fins? Could the stegosaurus have "heating fins"? My knowledge of this issue extends only to reading about it in the text by Lienhard (see reference in notes). . 1976. HT.5) − (T − T∞ ) = 0 . J.Heat Transfer Texbook d 2 (T . and Rosner. (5. Thompson. or cooling fins on air conditioners. C.. (2) making the substitution results in a simpler form of the equation to be solved.3) as is d 2T Ph (or in the form T = T∞ ). We don’t have to differentiate between the two specific heats for a solid because the volume changes are very small. This is d 2T Ph (5. 2 − Ak dx and what is of interest is the difference T − T∞ . HT. D.3) is given in Section 5.20 In the lumped parameter transient heat transfer problem.3) (T − T∞ ) = 0 2 − Ak dx It is not necessary to change variables. cooling fins on electric power transformers.5).V. pp. no. O. d 2 (T − T∞ ) Ph (5. high density means more “heat capacity”. 2 Ak dx HT. “Plates of the Dinosaur Stegosaurus: Forced Convection Heat Loss Fins?. what is c? dt c is the specific heat for a unit mass.19 In equation Q in = ρ. 4244.

If we neglect conduction from the wire junction (in other words assume the thermocouple wires are thin and long).22 Still muddy about thermocouples. We have seen. for example in a turbine. that the heat transfer may be estimated using the Reynolds analogy (Section 3. As on page 59 of the notes. the possible error in this thinking is the subject of muddy point 1. I didn’t mean to strew confusion about these.1). HT. . For fixed skin friction coefficient the higher the velocity the higher the heat transfer coefficient. The boundaries may not be at the same temperature of the flowing fluid. The assumption is that the temperature of the junction is the temperature that is of interest. the heat balance is between convection heat transfer and radiation heat & transfer. For a fixed Qconvection if the heat transfer increases the temperature difference between the thermocouple and the fluid decreases. HT. and they radiate to the thermocouple. it is found that a voltage difference will be created. If the boundaries are not at the same temperature as the fluid. The discussion was about different possible sources of this type of error.21 Which bodies does the radiation heat transfer occur between in the thermocouple? The radiation heat transfer was between the walls (or more generally the boundaries of the duct) and the thermocouple.23 Why does increasing the local flow velocity decrease the temperature error for the thermocouple? & T The heat transferred by convection is Qconvection = h( thermocouple − T fluid ). however. If we know the temperature of one junction (say by use of an ice bath) and we know the relation between voltage and temperature difference (these have been measured in detail) we can find the temperature of the other junction from measurement of the voltage. if we take a pair of dissimilar wires (say copper and constantan (an alloy of tin and several other metals) or platinum and rhodium) which are joined at both ends and subject the two junctions to a temperature difference. there can be an error in the temperature that the thermocouple reads.Heat Transfer Texbook HT.

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