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SOCIAL FORESTRY Definition Although, there are lots of definitions of Social Forestry, this sounds to encompass almost all

the aspects that are fundamentally pertinent. Social Forestry is the Forestry outside the Conventional Forestry that aims at providing continuous flow of goods and services for the benefit of the rural people by managing forests of their choice. While the Conventional Forestry seemingly targets on a single, usually timber, the Social Forestry has manifold targets: timber, fuelwood, fodder, wild vegetables, fruits, water etc., to cover almost all the needs of the people. Guiding Principles: It should ensure to cater to the needs of the rural people People's participation in planning and managing forest resources is a prerequisite It should contribute to socio-economic, as well as ecological development of the people through employment, economic growth and better quality of life It should target the unprivileged falling under rural population, landless poor, marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. Components of Social Forestry

Farm Forestry or Private Forestry Community Forestry or Extension Forestry Agroforestry Recreational Forestry


The requirements of forest management plans need to be radically simplified for small-scale producers to comply.
Scherr S. J., White A & Kaimowitz D (2002) Making Markets Work For Forest Communities Forest Trends/Center for International Forestry Research

If management plans for community forests really are required because of important external benefits, they should be kept simple
FAO (2001) Forests and poverty alleviation meeting report, FAO, Rome

Why do we need Community Forest Management Plans? <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->For legal reasons (according to the Forest and Nature Conservation Rules (2000) <!--[endif]--> <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->For sustainable community forest management <!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]--> <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->For sustainable local institutions (CFMGs) The Guiding Principles of CF Plan: <!--[if !vml]--> Useful It should meet the real needs and address the problems of the community Simple The style should be simple and easy to understand and use Participatory It should involve the CFMGs in all stages of prparation and should be owned by the CFMGs Realistic It should be practical and possible to be implemented Flexible It can be modified based on the experience 9 Stages of CF Management Planning Process: 1. Initiation of CF Process

Formation of Community Forest Management Group (CFMG) All households with a traditional claim to forest produce join the CFMG Selection of Initial Management Committee by members of CFMG Selection of suitable forest area by the CFMG, assisted by DzFO and DoF

2. Application

Submission of application by CFMG Application submitted by CFMG to Dzongda through DzFO Copy of application forwarded to DFO for information and joint inspection

3. Review of Application

Dzongda reviews application and passes it on for joint inspection by DzFO and DFO Inspection by DzFO and Range Officer DzFO and Range Officer jointly inspect area and qualifications of group

4. Acceptance of Application

DzFO and Range Officer recommend the proposal (application) to the Dzongda and DFO DFO advises the Dzongda of his acceptance of the proposal (application) The Dzongda directs the DzFO and requests the DFO to jointly delineate the area, and the DzFO to advises the CFMG to prepare a management plan

5. Preparation of the CF Management Pland By laws

CFMG works with DzFO & DFO to determine recognisable boundaries and prepare a map of the forest area CFMG prepares management plan with assistance of DzFO CFMG prepares and adopts By-laws, with assistance of DzFO (final CFMG and Management Committee formed) DzFO shall provide such assistance as may be necessary to the CFMG in developing and adopting its constitution and By laws

6. Submission and Review of CF management Plan and By laws

Submission of management plan & By-laws by DzFO to DoF DoF reviews management plan and By-laws in practice this the SFD of DoF After approval of the management plan and By-laws by DoF, it will be submitted to a forum of Dzongda, DzFO, DFO, Gup and CFMG Committee

7. Approval of CF

The Dzongda and DFO approve and issue the Community Forest Certificate DzFO passes it to CFMG

8. Implementation

Upon issuance of the Certificate all forest produce is property of CFMG and administrative responsibilities and powers are given to CFMG CFMG responsible for control and management of the CF in accordance with the management plan and with support from DzFO & DFO including forestry activities, harvesting, and sale of forest produce

9. Monitoring, Evaluation and Review

DFO & DzFO conduct regular monitoring and evaluation of each CF Annual review, planning and reporting by CFMG DzFO prepares a status report (inputs, outputs, issues and impacts) and evaluation of CFs after completion of each Ten Year Plan. Copy to DFO & Department of Forest Services. Develop a new Ten Year Plan

Steps of CF Management Plan Preparation 1. Preparation of CF Map

A large scale map of not less than 1:1000 Use GPS to mark the boundary

2. Record of community rights, responsibilities and traditional management systems

CFMG spell out what rights they had before nationalisation and takeover of forests by the DoF They also spell out what traditional management systems there used to be and who were responsible for managing Completed sheet showing the rights, responsibilities and traditional use of their CF.

3. Participatory Forest Use Mapping

CFMG draw their map and indicate what resources are available and where they are available. They indicate even to some extent the condition of resources in the map

4. Blocking

For the easy and appropriate management, CF area is normally divided into smaller units called blocks The division is usually done based on forest conditions such as age, species composition and topographic settings

This division leads to easier planning and implementing of management objectives and activities

5. Forest Product Prioritisation Matrix

CFMG usually have their preferred species of trees for different forest products: Timber, fodder, fuelwood etc. CFMG complete a matrix showing preferred species for various forest products and their availability in CF area

6. Forest Product Demand Assessment

CFMG work in groups to show the quanity of requirement of different products: drashing, cham, sim, dangchung, fodder, firewood etc., for each household in a year This demand assessment can then be extrapolated till 10 years and set the harvesting limit

7. Participatory Forest Resource Assessment This consists of two assessments: i) Preliminary Assessment and ii) Quantitative Assessment Preliminary Assessment mainly deals with assessing of overall forest condtion rather subjectively. Estimation of basal area with the use of wedge prism determines the need for quantitative assessment. If the basal rea falls below the standard benchmark, there is no need for quantitative resource assassment, presuming no harvesting or utilization can be done. The following information are gathered during this assessment: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Main habitat type Forest condition Open spaces and gaps Grazing and fodder Catchment condition Biotic pressures Management options

Quantitative Assessment is carried out if the basal area of the given block is either equal to or greater than the benchmark, during which diameters at breast height (DBH) are sampled within 25m X 10 m and regeneration counted within 10m X 10m. 8. Information Analysis and Presentation

This is done to summarise the information from the preliminary and quantitative resource assessments, and to set annual harvesting limit. It will also make CFMG aware whether their demand can be met from their CF and make them set appropriate management options. 9. Forest Management Matrix Forest managment matrix is used to identify problems and opportunities, based on which management objectives, strategies and activities are identified in each block. The CFMG agree on procedures and responsibilities of implementing forest activities. 10. Monitoring It is the tool to evaluate and audit on implementation of management plan of CF. The CFMG set some measurable indicators to assess whether the implementation of CF management has complied with their objectives or not. 11. Environmental Assessment Based on the managment options and activities, the CFMG identify possible impacts on the environment and society. The former mainly includes soil, plant, water, wildlife tec., while the latter includes traditions, cultures, religion, economy etc. The activities that are highly likely to bring negative impacts are to be addressed through some simple and measurable solutions. 12. By Laws A by-law is not an agreement but a law binding on all persons to whom it applies whether they care to be bound by it or not. The by-law has the same effect within its limits and with respect to the persons upon whom it lawfully operates as an Act of Parliament has upon the subjects at large (" The following are the areas necessary for framing a by-law upon: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Benefit sharing procedures TORs for committee Committee formation Financial arrangements Offences and penalties Roles and responsibilities of CFMG members Fees Membership arrangements Resource sharing (equity) Record keeping Meetings Conflict resolution