Accelerated Motion: Analyzing Velocity-Time Graphs Printer Friendly Version Refer to the following information for the

next six questions. Match the description provided about the behavior of a cart along a linear track to its best graphical representation. Remember that:
    

velocities are positive when the graph is in I quadrant I velocities are negative when the graph is in quadrant IV velocity-time graphs sloping towards the x-axis represent losing speed velocity-time graphs sloping away from the x-axis represent gaining speed the slope of a velocity-time graph represents its acceleration

moving in a negative direction and losing speed A B C D no match

moving in a positive direction and gaining speed at a slow rate A B C D no match

traveling at a steady rate in a positive direction A B C D no match

at rest for an extended time A B C D no match

moving in a positive direction but losing speed A B C D no match

moving in a positive direction and gaining speed at a rapid rate A B C D no match

Refer to the following information for the next two questions. Given below is a velocity-time graph displaying the behavior of a race cart along a linear track.

answer these questions regarding how far the cart traveled. and its displacement.During which time interval(s) did it travel in a positive direction? 0-10 min 10-15 min 15-30 min 30-40 min 40-55 min During which time interval(s) did it travel in a negative direction? 0-10 min 10-15 min 15-30 min 30-40 min 40-55 min Refer to the following information for the next eight questions. its average speeds during each interval. Using the same velocity-graph as in section two above. Remember that:       velocity is determined by the height of the graph (the y-axis coordinate) acceleration is determined by the slope of the graph displacement is found by calculating the area bounded by the velocity-graph and the x-axis distance traveled would be the absolute value of each sectional area since it is a scalar quantity that does not depend on the direction of travel average speed during a time interval is defined as the total distance it traveled divided by the total time taken average velocity during a time interval is defined as the net displacement divided by the total time taken .

How far did the cart travel in the first 10 minutes? What was its average acceleration during this time interval? Briefly describe its behavior between 10 and 15 minutes? What was its average acceleration between 10 and 15 minutes? How far did it travel between 15 and 30 minutes? What was its average acceleration during this time interval? How far did it travel between 30 and 40 minutes? What was its average acceleration during this time interval? How far did it travel between 40 and 55 minutes? What was its average acceleration during this time interval? What was the total distance it traveled? What was its final displacement? What was the cart's average speed for the entire 55 minutes? its average velocity? .

the free encyclopedia Ionizing radiation hazard symbol 2007 ISO radioactivity danger logo. which are atoms or molecules containing unpaired electrons. These tend to be especially chemically reactive. In the case of organic compounds or certain other small molecules.Related Documents Ionizing radiation From Wikipedia. and they account for most of . this ionization produces free radicals. designed in part for long-term radioactive waste depositories which might survive into a far future time in which all knowledge of the meaning of present common radiation danger symbols and signs has been lost Ionizing (or ionising) radiation is radiation composed of particles that individually can liberate an electron from an atom or molecule.

to include all of (X-rays and gamma rays). which will not ionize if it does not cause high temperatures). the photon. Examples of other ionizing particles are alpha particles. but the effect is generally indistinguishable from the effects of simple heating. The latter types of radiation cause ionization from the kinetic energy of their individual particles. In such cases. If non-ionizing radiation does not heat a bulk substance up to ionization temperature. In contrast. which inevitably exceed 10 eV.the unusually high biological damage per unit of energy of ionizing radiation. each particle or particlewave does not carry enough individual energy to be ionizing (an example is a high-powered radio or microwave beam. free neutrons are normally considered to effectively be ionizing radiation. even at room temperatures and below. and gamma rays—is ionizing. Such heating does not produce free radicals until higher temperatures (for example. and these (or their products) liberate enough energy to cause ionization. at any energy (see neutron radiation). and multiple absorption of photons (a rare process) does not occur.g. X-rays.[1] The latter types of low-energy non-ionizing radiation may damage molecules. beta particles. Free neutrons are able to cause many nuclear reactions in a variety of substances no matter their energy. and radio waves. This energy is less than ionizing. Conversely. due to its composition of high-energy photons. if the individual particles carry enough energy (e. For this reason. infrared. even very low-intensity radiation will ionize at low temperatures and powers. and usually exceed thousands of eV. flame temperatures or "browning" temperatures. and production of such free radicals is the reason these and other ionizing radiations produce quite different types of chemical effects from (low-temperature) heating. The degree and nature of such ionization depends on the energy of the individual particles (including photons). not on the particle number (associated with the radiation intensity/power or amount of total energy delivered). Free radicals easily damage DNA. no matter what their intensity. such as visible light. damage done by ionizing radiation produces free radicals. the DNA molecule may be damaged by radiation with enough energy to excite certain molecular bonds to form thymine dimers. The ability of an electromagnetic wave (photons) to ionize an atom or molecule depends on its frequency. and cosmic rays. such as reactive oxygen species. There may be confusion in the literature between ionizing radiation and broader molecularlydamaging radiation. particles or photons with energies above about 10 electron volts (eV) are considered ionizing. Radiation on the short-wavelength end of the electromagnetic spectrum—high-frequency ultraviolet. because in many substances they give rise to high-energy nuclear reactions. a low-power X-ray beam). Lower-energy radiation. and ionizing radiation may also directly damage DNA by ionizing or breaking DNA molecules. This particle-energy occurs in electromagnetic waves in the extreme ultraviolet and beyond. microwaves. In general. Although DNA is always susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation. to somewhat lower energies. which determines the energy of its associated particle. and above) are attained. an intense flood of particles or particle-waves will not cause ionization. are not ionizing.. The ultraviolet spectrum begins at about 3. which overlaps ionizing radiation and extends beyond. Free radical production is also a primary basis for the particular danger to biological systems of relatively small amounts of ionizing radiation that are far smaller than needed to produce significant heating.1 eV (400 nm) at almost exactly the same energy level which can cause sunburn to unprotected . or even millions of eV of energy.

1. In some cases it may lead to secondary emission of visible light upon interaction with matter.4 Radon o 6.2 Spaceflight .4 Hormesis 8 Monitoring and controlling exposure o 8. construction. Ionizing radiation is ubiquitous in the environment. the ultraviolet electromagnetic spectrum is damaging to biological tissues as a result of electronic excitation in molecules which falls short of ionization. as a result of photoreactions in collagen and (in the UV-B range) also in DNA (for example.1. Common artificial sources are artificially produced radioisotopes. it acts in many ways biologically like that derived from ionzing radiation. pyrimidine dimers). cancer. including the ability to cause cancer in relatively small doses in skin. but presents a health hazard if used improperly. Exposure to ionizing radiation causes damage to living tissue. Contents [hide]         1 Definition 2 Types 3 General biological effects by type and dose 4 Units 5 Uses o 5.1.3 Radiation levels  7.2 Industrial measurement o 5. and can result in mutation. It has many practical uses in medicine. radiation sickness. Because such damage is similar to ionizing radiation inasmuch as it is larger than is predictable from thermal considerations alone. Internal radiation sources  6. Ionizing radiation is invisible and not directly detectable by human senses.1 Nuclear power o 5.2 External terrestrial sources  6.1 Limiting exposure o 8. such as in Cherenkov radiation and radioluminescence. biological and sterilization applications 6 Sources o 6.3.2 Chronic o 7.3 Applications using ionization of gases by radiation o 5. research.1.4 Medical. and other areas.1 Ionizing radiation level examples o 7.1 Acute o 7. and comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials and cosmic rays.1 Natural background radiation  6. so instruments such as Geiger counters are usually required to detect its presence. X-ray tubes and particle accelerators.2 Artificial sources 7 Biological effects o 7.1 Cosmic radiation  6.[2] and death.

and X-ray radiation.[3] Roughly. pyrimidine dimers).1 eV (400 nm) at almost exactly the same energy level which can cause sunburn to unprotected skin. Thus. but only extremeultraviolet radiation can be considered ionizing under all definitions. Thus.[7] At 38 nanometers wavelength for electromagnetic radiation. X-ray radiation is always ionizing. the DNA molecule may also be damaged by radiation with enough energy to excite certain molecular bonds to form thymine dimers. which overlaps ionizing radiation and extends beyond. and the ionization energy of hydrogen. Although DNA is always susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation.3 Air travel 9 See also 10 References 11 External links [edit] Definition US Federal Communications Commission material defines ionizing radiation as that with a photon energy of greater than 10 eV (equivalent to a far ultraviolet wavelength of 124 nanometers). as a result of photoreactions in collagen and (in the UV-B range) also damage in DNA (for example.   o 8. As noted. This energy may be less than ionizing. this corresponds to both the first ionization energy of oxygen. which occurs at about 125 eV. the colloquial name for the ICRU's mean energy expended in a gas per ion pair formed. [edit] Types . A good example is ultraviolet spectrum energy which begins at about 3. the biological effect of ionizing radiation on cells somewhat resembles that of a broader spectrum of molecularly-damaging radiation. the lower ultraviolet electromagnetic spectrum is damaging to biological tissues as a result of electronic excitation in molecules which falls short of ionization. but near to it. both about 14 eV [4] In some Environmental Protection Agency references. 33 eV is close to the energy at the conventional 10 nm wavelength transition between extreme ultraviolet. to somewhat lower energies. the ionization of a typical water molecule at an energy of 33 eV is referenced [5] as the appropriate biological threshold for ionizing radiation: this value represents the so-called Wvalue.[6] which combines ionization energy plus the energy lost to other processes such as excitation. but produce similar non-thermal effects.

but all UV may cause molecular damage in a somewhat similar way. In order for a particle to be ionizing. Muons contribute to background radiation due to . Photons interact electromagnetically with charged particles. which slow and/or capture them. muons. Charged particles such as electrons. Beta (β) radiation.Alpha (α) radiation consists of a fast moving helium-4 (4 He) nucleus and is stopped by a sheet of paper. As noted above. protons. alpha particles. positrons. nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. and thus all UV (like ionizing radiation) is more biologically harmful than expected from its heating effect and simple energy deposition. and heavy atomic nuclei from accelerators or cosmic rays also interact electromagnetically with electrons of an atom or molecule. and all may cause ionization. consisting of energetic photons. and by particle accelerators and naturally occurring cosmic rays. The energy at which this begins to happen with photons (light) lies in the high-frequency end of the ultraviolet (UV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma (γ) radiation. it must both have a high enough energy and interact with the atoms of a target. most UV is not ionizing. is halted by an aluminium plate. Muons and many types of mesons (in particular charged pions) are also ionizing. consisting of electrons. so photons of sufficiently high energy also are ionizing. is eventually absorbed as it penetrates a dense material. like hydrogen. Neutron (n) radiation consists of free neutrons that are blocked using light elements. Various types of ionizing radiation may be produced by radioactive decay.

which are then subject to heavy security. depending on the situation. secondary neutrons may produce nuclear chain reactions. Neutrons. The little circles show where ionization processes occur. are quickly decelerated by surrounding matter." which translates to "braking radiation". Types of radiation . fast neutrons will interact with the protons in hydrogen (in the manner of a billiard ball hitting another. but rather interact with matter in one of three ways: the photoelectric effect. However. having zero electrical charge. are charged. and interact with the electrons in matter. An ionization event normally produces a positive atomic ion and an electron. both can ionize in turn. These protons are ionizing because they are of high energy.gamma rays are represented by wavy lines. do not interact electromagnetically with electrons. and so they cannot directly cause ionization by this mechanism. which produce ionizing radiation when they decay. Unlike alpha or beta particles (see particle radiation). on the other hand. but by themelves are thought to be of little hazard-importance. due to their relatively low dose.cosmic rays. head on. The intensity of bremsstrahlung increases with the increase in energy of the electrons and the atomic number of the absorbing medium. depending on the nucleus and the neutron's velocity. Neutron interactions in this manner often produce radioactive nuclei. Bremsstrahlung is of concern when shielding beta emitters. Pions (another very short-lived sometimes-charged particle) may be produced in large amounts in the largest particle accelerators. The energy lost to deceleration is emitted in the form of Xrays called "bremsstrahlung. and this mechanism produces proton radiation (fast protons). or secondary electrons (δelectrons). like those emitted by 32P. the Compton effect. and pair production. By way of example. sometimes causing a larger amount of ionization. the figure shows Compton effect: two Compton . gamma rays do not ionize all along their path. Pions are not a theoretical biological hazard except near such operating accelerator machines. High-energy beta particles may produce bremsstrahlung as they pass through matter. In fissile materials. A neutron can also interact with other atomic nuclei. charged particles and neutrons by straight lines. Energetic Beta-particles. sending it away with all of the first ball's energy of motion). these reactions happen with fast neutrons and slow neutrons.

The negatively-charged electrons and positively charged ions created by ionizing radiation may cause damage in living tissue. respectively. like cosmic rays.γ)-reaction that leads to the emission of a neutron capture photon. and include burns and also cancer. through mutations. the gamma ray transfers energy to an electron. The effect of the very low doses encountered in normal circumstances (from both natural and artificial sources. Ionizing radiation is always far more dangerous per energy unit of direct exposure than non-ionizing radidation. they can be taken into the body. although non-ionizing except at its very highest frequencies. summarized in [8]) indicated that the overall cancer risk associated with background sources of radiation was relatively low. the neutron collides with a proton of the target material. can be biologically hazardous in all of its forms. due to its ability to electronically excite molecules and cause biological damage by breaking or re-arranging chemical bonds (for example. and it continues on its path in a different direction and with reduced energy. radioactive iodine . Neutrons can be extremely dangerous because of their ability to penetrate through most materials. Alpha and beta particles can often be stopped by a piece of paper or a sheet of aluminium. in DNA). beta particles (which are quickly moving electrons or positrons). Radioactive materials usually release alpha particles (which are the nuclei of helium). [edit] General biological effects by type and dose See the Biological effects section below for detail. This hypothesis is called radiation hormesis. the neutron is captured by a nucleus in an (n. Gamma rays are less ionizing than either alpha or beta particles.S. in the form of radiation poisoning. If the dose is sufficient. National Research Council (the BEIR VII report. In the same figure. The damage they produce is similar to that caused by X-rays. Lower doses may cause cancer or other long-term problems. but protection against gammas requires thicker shielding. by stimulating the immune system and self-repair mechanisms of cells. They cause most damage when they are emitted inside the human body.scatterings that happen sequentially. Some even propose that low-level doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial. although the degree of danger for some types of radiation remains a subject of debate. Ultraviolet radiation. and then becomes a fast recoil proton that ionizes in turn. Humans and animals are also exposed to ionizing radiation internally: As radioactive isotopes are present in the environment. Non-ionizing radiation up to the energy of visible light is thought to be essentially harmless below the levels that cause heating. the effect may be seen almost immediately. See criticality accident for a number of cases of accidental radiation poisoning and their outcomes. Neutron radiation also causes mutations through interactions with the hydrogen atoms (including hydrocarbons) in the body. gamma rays. A 2005 report released by the U. or neutrons. At the end of its path. medical X-rays and nuclear power plants) is a subject of current debate. Such photons always have enough energy to qualify as ionizing radiation. In every scattering event. For example.

  The gray (Gy). 10−6 Sv. which is different for each type of radiation (see above table).58×10−4 C/kg However. with units J/kg. The roentgen (R) is an older traditional unit that is almost out of use. 1 Roentgen = 2. and depends on the value used for the average background radiation dose. Using the 2000 UNSCEAR value (below). The rad (radioactivity absorbed dose). Because the rem is a relatively large unit. 1 sievert = 100 rem. . the amount of damage done to matter (especially living tissue) by ionizing radiation is more closely related to the amount of energy deposited rather than the charge. This unit is not standardized. For example. the equivalent dose was defined to give an approximate measure of the biological effect of radiation. Some radioactive elements also bioaccumulate. 10−3 rem. which represents the amount of radiation required to deposit 1 joule of energy in 1 kilogram of any kind of matter. 1 Gy of alpha radiation causes about 20 times as much damage as 1 Gy of X-rays. Equal doses of different types or energies of radiation cause different amounts of damage to living tissue. A unit sometimes used for low level doses of radiation is the BRET (Background Radiation Equivalent Time). it measures something treated as normal iodine by the body and used by the thyroid. J/kg. typical equivalent dose is measured in millirem (mrem). or RBE (relative biological effectiveness of the radiation). The rem (Roentgen equivalent man) is the traditional unit of equivalent dose. its accumulation there can lead to thyroid cancer. one BRET unit is equal to about 6. which represented the amount of radiation required to liberate 1 esu of charge of each polarity in 1 cubic centimeter of dry air. It is calculated by multiplying the absorbed dose by a weighting factor WR. Therefore. The ionizing effects of radiation are measured by units of exposure:   The coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) is the SI unit of ionizing radiation exposure.    The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose. Human biology resists germline mutation by either correcting the changes in the DNA or inducing apoptosis in the mutated cell. This is the number of days of an average person's background radiation exposure the dose is equivalent to. which is 0. This is called the absorbed dose. and measures the amount of radiation required to create 1 coulomb of charge of each polarity in 1 kilogram of matter. [edit] Units The units used to measure ionizing radiation are rather complex. This weighting factor is also called the Q (quality factor).01 J deposited per kg. is the corresponding traditional unit. It is the dose of a given type of radiation in Gy that has the same biological effect on a human as 1 Gy of x-rays or gamma radiation. Although it has the same units as the gray. is the SI unit of absorbed dose.6 μSv. 100 rad = 1 Gy. or in microsievert (μSv). 1 mrem = 10 μSv.

indicating the presence or absence of material in the horizontal radiation path. The safe disposal of this waste in a way that protects future generations from radiation exposure is currently imperfect and remains a highly controversial issue. During normal conditions.[12] [edit] Uses Ionizing radiation has many uses. but this practice was halted when it was discovered that ionizing radiation is dangerous. the film is developed and it shows internal defects of the material if there are any. [edit] Industrial measurement Main article: Industrial radiography Since some ionizing radiation (principly gamma) can penetrate matter. depending on the thickness and the density of the material to be measured. they produce highly radioactive nuclear waste. For example. although ionizing radiation has many applications. which will emit ionizing radiation for thousands of years for some of the fission byproducts. Beta or gamma sources are used. but the average in the US is around 3. overuse can be hazardous to human health. assistants in shoe shops used X-rays to check a child's shoe size.[9] and in a small area in India is as high as 30mSv (3000 mrem). they are used for a variety of measuring methods. X-rays and gamma rays are used to make images of the inside of solid products.[10][11] The lethal full-body dose of radiation for a human is around 4–5 Sv (400–500 rem). which requires long term containment and storage for thousands of years before it is considered safe. including killing cancerous cells and power generation. Radiation emissions from high level nuclear waste decrease extremely slowly. However. at one time.For comparison. The piece to be radiographed is placed between the source and a photographic film in a cassette. radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants are generally lower than coal-burning plants. After a certain exposure time. as a means of nondestructive testing and inspection.6 μSv (660 mrem). Gauges Gauges use the exponential absorption law of gamma rays  Level indicators: Source and detector are placed at opposite sides of a container.6 mSv (360 mrem). The method is used for containers of liquids or of grainy substances . In addition. the average 'background' dose of natural radiation received by a person per year is assumed by BRET to be 6.[13] [edit] Nuclear power Nuclear reactors produce large quantities of ionizing radiation as a byproduct of fission during operation.[14] though several high profile nuclear accidents have released dangerous levels of radioactivity.

synthetic textiles. rubber. where male insects are sterilized by radiation and released. This is useful for continuous production. When smoke enters the open chamber. This reduces the current in the open chamber. Smoke detector: Two ionisation chambers are placed next to each other. radiation is used for sterilization of tools and equipment. mostly like the inactive element. the other is open to ambient air. so they have no offspring.. Radioactive tracers for industry: Since radioactive isotopes behave. etc. plastics. This is the largest artificial source of radiation exposure for humans. Examples: o Adding a gamma tracer to a gas or liquid in a closed system makes it possible to find a hole in a tube. etc. Another use in insect control is the sterile insect technique. Thickness gauges: if the material is of constant density. In biology and agriculture. [edit] Applications using ionization of gases by radiation    To avoid the build-up of static electricity in production of paper. radiation is used to induce mutations to produce new or improved species. to reduce the population. like of paper. a report for the American Council on Science and Health entitled "Irradiated Foods" states: "The types of radiation sources approved for the treatment of foods have specific energy levels well below that which would cause any element in food to become . One is closed and serves for comparison. o Adding a tracer to the surface of the component of a motor makes it possible to measure wear by measuring the activity of the lubricating oil. and widely used in biological research. Tracer methods (mentioned above) are used in nuclear medicine to diagnose diseases. An emerging use in food production is the sterilization of food using food irradiation. the signal measured by the radiation detector depends on the thickness of the material. chemically. [edit] Medical. it has a gridded electrode.[citation needed] Also. a ribbon-shaped source of the alpha emitter 241Am can be placed close to the material at the end of the production line. the current is disrupted as the smoke particles attach to the charged ions and restore them to a neutral electrical state. In industrial and food applications. Radiation is also used to treat diseases in radiation therapy. Detractors of food irradiation have concerns about the health hazards of induced radioactivity. biological and sterilization applications The largest use of ionizing radiation in medicine is in medical radiography to make images of the inside of the human body using x-rays. the alarm is triggered. Both contain a small source of 241Am that gives rise to a small constant current. the behavior of a certain chemical substance can be followed by tracing the radioactivity. The source ionizes the air to remove electric charges on the material. An advantage is that the object may be sealed in plastic before sterilization. When the current drops below a certain threshold.

alpha particles." [15] [edit] Sources Natural and artificial radiation sources are similar in their effects on matter. external terrestrial sources. The cosmic-radiation dose rate on airplanes is so high that. radiation in the human body and radon. altitude.000 mrem (10 mSv) per year. accumulate in poorly ventilated houses. and all living things on it. electrons. inhabitants of Ramsar show no significant cytogenetic differences compared to people in normal background areas. The energy of this radiation can far exceed that which humans can create even in the largest particle accelerators (see ultra-high-energy cosmic ray). a city in northern Iran. airline flight crew workers receive more dose on average than any other worker.5 mSv per year) in some areas and over 100 mSv/a in others. in some areas. muons. because of its high density. An important source of natural radiation is radon gas. solar radiation. including those in nuclear power plants. [edit] External terrestrial sources . The average exposure for Americans is about 360 mrem (3. Food undergoing irradiation does not become any more radioactive than luggage passing through an airport X-ray scanner or teeth that have been X-rayed. including x-rays.5 mSv/a (1.[16] This has led to the suggestion that high but steady levels of radiation are easier for humans to sustain than sudden radiation bursts. protons. pions. being as low as 1. and neutrons. This radiation interacts in the atmosphere to create secondary radiation that rains down. [edit] Natural background radiation Natural background radiation comes from five primary sources: cosmic radiation. However. according to the United Nations UNSCEAR 2000 Report (see links at bottom). This cosmic radiation consists of positively-charged ions from protons to iron nuclei. and solar cycle. which seeps continuously from bedrock but can. Despite having lived for many generations in these high-background areas. [edit] Cosmic radiation See also: Cosmic ray The Earth.6 mSv) per year. The remaining 19 percent results from exposure to human-made radiation sources such as medical X-rays. the average background dose can be over 1. are constantly bombarded by radiation from outside our solar system. most of which is deposited in people having had CT scans. 81 percent of which comes from natural sources of radiation.radioactive. The dose from cosmic radiation is largely from muons. People in some parts of Ramsar. with a dose rate that varies in different parts of the world and based largely on the geomagnetic field. receive an annual absorbed dose from background radiation that is up to 260 mSv/a. The background rate for radiation varies considerably with location. neutrons. and electrons.

even if in small quantities. Uranium is found in soil throughout the world in varying concentrations. The major radionuclides of concern for terrestrial radiation are isotopes of potassium. Some radionuclides. Among non-smokers. Most of the dose received from these sources is from gamma-ray emitters in building materials. Both are a part of the natural uranium decay chain. The radiation exposure of these individuals is carefully monitored with the use of pocket-pen-sized instruments called dosimeters. it can accumulate in homes. Accumulation is dependent upon home location as well as building methods. Radon is the number one cause of lung cancer and.Most materials on Earth contain some radioactive atoms. overall. have such a long half-life that they can be used to date the remains of long-dead organisms (such as wood that is thousands of years old).000 mrem (50 mSv) per year.[17] [edit] Artificial sources Above the background level of radiation exposure. plants. and water. [edit] Internal radiation sources All Earthly materials that are the building-blocks of life contain a radioactive component. the U. These internal radiation sources contribute to an individual's total radiation dose from natural background radiation. Occupationally exposed individuals are exposed according to the sources with which they work. Each of these sources has been decreasing in activity since the birth of the Earth. or rocks and soil when outside. As humans. Examples of industries where occupational exposure is a concern include:       Airline crew (the most exposed population) Industrial radiography Medical radiology and nuclear medicine[18][19] Uranium mining Nuclear power plant and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant workers Research laboratories (government. while others take the form of radioactive contamination and irradiate the body from within. university and private) Some human-made radiation sources affect the body through direct radiation.S. and thorium. an inventory of radioisotopes builds up within the organism (see banana equivalent dose). Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires that its licensees limit human-made radiation exposure for individual members of the public to 100 mrem (1 mSv) per year. the second leading cause. Since radon is a gas. and limit occupational radiation exposure to adults working with radioactive material to 5. Other radionuclides. . like carbon-14. emit a high-energy gamma ray that can be measured by sensitive electronic radiation measurement systems. [edit] Radon Radon-222 is a gas produced by the decay of radium-226. air. uranium. and animals consume food. like potassium-40.

Ir-192. and Cs-137. or apoptosis. televisions. airport X-ray systems. doses would exceed 300 Gy per hour. electron tubes.[20][21][22] . etc. As a reference. such as tobacco (polonium-210).[citation needed] Opponents use a cancer per dose model to assert that such activities cause several hundred cases of cancer per year. luminous watches and dials (tritium). which includes the entire sequence from mining and milling of uranium to the disposal of the spent fuel.[citation needed] In a nuclear war." Low-level ionizing radiation may induce irreparable DNA damage (leading to replicational and transcriptional errors needed for neoplasia or may trigger viral interactions) leading to pre-mature aging and cancer. The effects of such exposure have not been reliably measured due to the extremely low doses involved. Of lesser magnitude. members of the public are exposed to radiation from the nuclear fuel cycle. and radiation therapy are by far the most significant source of human-made radiation exposure to the general public. and lantern mantles (thorium). building materials. These cells may go through the process of programmed cell death. such as diagnostic X-rays. Some of the major radionuclides used are I-131. thus eliminating the potential genetic damage from the larger tissue. including: 1. The public also is exposed to radiation from consumer products. Biological effects of radiation on living cells may result in a variety of outcomes. the biological effects are so small they may not be detected in epidemiological studies. Immediately downwind of targets.000 times the average annual background rate) is fatal to half of a normal population. Estimates of exposure are low enough that proponents of nuclear power liken them to the mutagenic power of wearing trousers for two extra minutes per year (because heat causes mutation). an application of the controversial Linear no-threshold model (LNT). Tc-99. gamma rays from fallout of nuclear weapons would probably cause the largest number of casualties. 4. 4. combustible fuels (gas. These are rarely released into the environment. This mutation may contribute to the formation of a cancer. caesium-137. americium-241. Cells experience DNA damage and are unable to repair the damage. 3. as well as the coal power cycle due to the release and emission of radioactive contaminants that were trapped in the coal. coal. and iodine-131. Co-60. road construction materials.5 Gy (around 15. ophthalmic glass[citation needed]. For low levels of radiation.Medical procedures. nuclear medicine. Cells experience DNA damage and are able to detect and repair the damage. 2. without medical treatment. A typical dose for radiation therapy might be 7 Gy spread daily (on weekdays) over two months[citation needed]. [edit] Biological effects The biological effects of radiation are thought of in terms of their effects on living cells. Cells experience a nonlethal DNA mutation that is passed on to subsequent cell divisions.). The body repairs many types of radiation and chemical damage. fluorescent lamp starters. Cells experience "irreparable DNA damage. Some of the radionuclides of concern include cobalt-60. smoke detectors (americium).

United States Department of Health and Human Services literature also suggests a possible association between ionizing radiation exposure and prostate. but a normal level is difficult to determine due to variations. such as smoking. The natural background radiation is chronic exposure. and pancreatic cancer. esophagus. [edit] Chronic Exposure to ionizing radiation over an extended period of time is called chronic exposure. and recipients of selected diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures. a small radiation dose reduces the impact of a subsequent. These include: 1. Geographic location and occupation often affect chronic exposure. larger radiation dose. and diet.[24] thyroid. Furthermore. The effects of acute events are more easily studied than those of chronic exposure. breast. National Cancer Institute literature indicates that chemical and physical hazards and lifestyle factors. bladder. The term chronic (Greek cronos = time ) refers to the duration. and stomach cancers. not the magnitude or seriousness. multiple myeloma. such as Japanese atomic bomb survivors.[23] [edit] Acute Acute radiation exposure is an exposure to ionizing radiation that occurs during a short period of time. The period of time between radiation exposure and the detection of cancer is known as the latent period. lung. pharyngeal and laryngeal. Cancers associated with high-dose exposure include leukemia. colon.Other observations at the tissue level are more complicated. Those cancers that may develop as a result of radiation exposure are indistinguishable from those that occur naturally or as a result of exposure to other carcinogens. [edit] Radiation levels The associations between ionizing radiation exposure and the development of cancer are based mostly on populations exposed to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. In some cases. . liver. ovarian. and the boundary at which it becomes significant is difficult to identify. nasal cavity/sinuses. alcohol consumption. There are routine brief exposures. This has been termed an 'adaptive response' and is related to hypothetical mechanisms of hormesis. significantly contribute to many of these same diseases. Extreme examples include     Instantaneous flashes from nuclear explosions Exposures of minutes to hours during handling of highly radioactive sources Laboratory and manufacturing accidents Intentional and accidental high medical doses.

below about 1. These were fatal in some cases. above normal background. Approximately 134 plant workers and fire fighters engaged at the Chernobyl power plant received high radiation doses (70. in 2005 . Studies of occupational workers exposed to chronic low levels of radiation. There is a clear link (see the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. One of the most recent and extensive studies of workers was published by Cardis. Longer-term effects of the Chernobyl disaster have also been studied. about 1% of a population would develop cancer in their lifetime as a result of ionizing radiation from background levels of natural and man-made sources. Other health effects of the Chernobyl accident are subject to current debate. of thyroid cancers reported in contaminated areas. public health data regarding lower levels of exposure. To assess the health impacts of lower radiation doses.400 mSv) and suffered from acute radiation sickness.[25] The linear dose-response model suggests that any increase in dose. which attack nearby cells.000 mrem (10 mSv). 28 died from their radiation injuries. .Although radiation may cause cancer at high doses and high dose rates. et al. Under this model. are consistent with estimates of risk based on atomic bomb survivors and suggest that these workers do face a small increase in the probability of developing leukemia and other cancers.000 to 1. results in an incremental increase in risk.800. Cancer results.340. although uncertain. have provided mixed evidence regarding cancer and transgenerational effects. this may exceed the body's capacity to repair the damage and may also cause mutations in cells currently undergoing replication. are harder to interpret. Ionizing radiation damages tissue by causing ionization. several models that predict differing levels of risk have emerged. which disrupts molecules directly and also produces highly reactive free radicals. researchers rely on models of the process by which radiation causes cancer. approximately 1. mostly in children.000 mrem or 700 to 13. The net effect is that biological molecules suffer local disruption. no matter how small. and emergency workers responding to the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. summarized in [8]). Of these. The linear no-threshold model (LNT) hypothesis is accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the EPA and its validity has been reaffirmed by a National Academy of Sciences Committee (see the BEIR VII report. Two widely studied instances of large-scale exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation are: atomic bomb survivors in 1945. Volume 2: Effects) between the Chernobyl accident and the unusually large number.

with an example of the type of exposure that may cause such a dose. 50–100 rem. chronic radiation levels and standards are still often given in millirems.[31] On March 24. France and some other countries told their nationals to consider leaving Tokyo. 50. 500–1000 mSv.[26] In March 2011. as technicians tried to pump in seawater to keep the uranium fuel rods cool. causing meltdowns that eventually led to explosions. and bled radioactive gas from the reactors in order to make room for the seawater.000 mSv/h (millisievert per hour). 1/1000 of a rem (1 mrem = 0. 2011.01 mSv). The exact units of measurement vary. Table A.[30] New Scientist has reported that emissions of radioactive iodine and cesium from the crippled Fukushima I nuclear plant have approached levels evident after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. but light radiation sickness begins at about 50– 100 rad (0.[27] which is a level that can cause fatal radiation poisoning from less than one hour of exposure.Three of the reactors at Fukushima I overheated. an earthquake and tsunami caused damage that led to explosions and partial meltdowns at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. Radiation levels at the stricken Fukushima I power plant have varied spiking up to 10. in response to fears of spreading nuclear contamination. the UK.000–100. Later.2 presents a scale of dose levels. or the special significance of such a dose.[32] [edit] Ionizing radiation level examples See: Orders of magnitude (radiation) Recognized effects of acute radiation exposure are described in the article on radiation poisoning. which released large amounts of radioactive material into the air.[29] Concerns about the possibility of a large scale radiation leak resulted in 20 km exclusion zone being set up around the power plant and people within the 20–30 km zone being advised to stay indoors. .5–1 gray (Gy).[28] Significant release in emissions of radioactive particles took place following hydrogen explosions at three reactors.000 mrem). Japanese officials announced that "radioactive iodine-131 exceeding safety limits for infants had been detected at 18 water-purification plants in Tokyo and five other prefectures". Although the SI unit of radiation dose equivalent is the sievert.

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