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In British India, broadcasting began in June 1923 with programmes by the Radio Club of Bombay and other radio

clubs. According to an agreement of 1926, the private Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) was authorized to operate two radio stations; the Bombay station began on 23 July 1927, and the Calcutta station followed on 26 August 1927. On 1 March 1930, however, the company went into liquidation. The government took over the broadcasting facilities, beginning the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) on 1 April 1930 (on an experimental basis for two years, and permanently in May 1932). On 8 June 1936 the ISBS was renamed All India Radio. On 1 October 1939 the External Service began with a broadcast in Pushtu; it was intended to counter radio propaganda from Germany directed to Afghanistan, Iran and the Arab nations. When India became independent in 1947 the AIR network had only six stations (in Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow, and Tiruchi); the total number of radio sets at that time was about 275,000. On 3 October 1957 the Vividh Bharati Service was launched, to compete with Radio Ceylon. Television broadcasting began in Delhi in 1959 as part of AIR, but was split off from the radio network as Doordarshan on 1 April 1976.[2] FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Madras, and was expanded during the 1990s.[3] The word "Akashvani" was coined by M. V. Gopalaswamy after setting up the nations first private radio station in his residence, Vittal Vihar (about 200 yards from AIRs current location in Mysore) in 1936.[4] Akashvani means "celestial announcement"; the word, of Sanskrit origin, is often found in Hindu mythology. When the gods wished to say something, an akashvani occurred. Literally, akash means "sky" and vani means "sound" or "message".[5] Thus, Akashwani seemed to be fit for use by a radio broadcaster and was later adopted by All India Radio after independence.

[edit] Domestic services


AIR has many services in a number of languages, each serving different regions across India.

[edit] Vividh Bharati


Vividh Bharati is one of the best-known services of AIR. Its name roughly translates as "MultiIndian Service", and it is also known as the Commercial Broadcasting Service (CBS). It is the most commercially-accessible of the AIR networks and is popular in Mumbai and other large cities. Vividh Bharati offers a wide range of programmes including news, film music and comedy programs. It operates on different mediumwave-band frequencies for each city. Some programs broadcast on Vividh Bharati are:

Hawa-mahal: Radio plays based on novels and plays Santogen ki mehfil: Comedy

Other services include:


Primary Channel (regional, 116 stations)[6] Local Service (86 stations)

National Channel[7] (nighttime; launched 18 May 1988; main frequency 1566 kHz from Nagpur [8] Home News Service (also via newsonair.com) External Services in 27 languages Yuv-vani, the Voice of Youth (launched 21 July 1969 on 1017 kHz) FM Channels (AIR FM Rainbow 12 stations, AIR FM Gold 4 stations, FM Classical Music/Amrutha Varshini/ 1 station)

Television in India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about television in India. For a more general coverage of media in India see Indian media. This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. Discussion about the problems with the sole source used may be found on the talk page. (December 2011)

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Theater

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Television is one of the major mass media of India. It is a huge industry which has thousands of programmes across Indian states ranging from national language to regional ones. The small screen has produced numerous celebrities of their own kind some even attaining national fame. TV soaps are extremely popular with housewives as well as working women. Approximately half of all Indian households own a television.[1] As of 2010, the country has a collection of free and subscription services over a variety of distribution media, through which there are over 515 channels and 150 are pay channels.[2] According to Pioneer Investcorp, the Indian cable industry is worth 270 billion (US$5.4 billion) and is the third largest in the world after China and the US. The number of TV homes in India grew from 120 million in 2007 to 148 million in 2011. Cable reaches 94 million homes with 88 million analog connections and 6 million digital ones, while DTH has commanded 41 million subscribers.[3]

Contents
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1 History 2 Television channels and networks o 2.1 Cable television o 2.2 Conditional Access System o 2.3 Satellite television o 2.4 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 3 Audience Metrics o 3.1 DART o 3.2 TAM & INTAM o 3.3 aMap o 3.4 Broadcast Audience Research Council 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

[edit] History
Terrestrial television in India started with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15 September 1959 with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. The regular daily transmission started in 1965 as a part of All India Radio. The television service was extended to Bombay (now

Mumbai) and Amritsar in 1972. Up until 1975, only seven Indian cities had a television service and Doordarshan remained the sole provider of television in India. Television services were separated from radio in 1976. National telecasts were introduced in 1982. In the same year, colour TV was introduced in the Indian market. Indian small screen programming started off in the early 1980s. At that time there was only one national channel Doordarshan, which was government owned. The Ramayana and Mahabharata (both Indian mythological stories) were the first major television series produced. This serial notched up the world record in viewership numbers for a single program. By the late 1980s more and more people started to own television sets. Though there was a single channel, television programming had reached saturation. Hence the government opened up another channel which had part national programming and part regional. This channel was known as DD 2 later DD Metro. Both channels were broadcast terrestrially. PAS-1 and PAS-4 are satellites whose transponders help in the telecasting of DD programmes in half the regions of the world.An international channel called DD International was started in 1995 and it telecasts programmes for 19 hours a day to foreign countries-via PAS-4 to Europe,Asia and Africa, and via PAS-1 to North America.

[edit] Television channels and networks


The central government launched a series of economic and social reforms in 1991 under Prime Minister Narasimha Rao. Under the new policies the government allowed private and foreign broadcasters to engage in limited operations in India. This process has been pursued consistently by all subsequent federal administrations. Foreign channels like CNN, Star TV and domestic channels such as Zee TV and Sun TV started satellite broadcasts. Starting with 41 sets in 1962 and one channel, by 1985 TV in India covered more than 70 million homes giving a viewing population of more than 400 million individuals through more than 100 channels. There are at least five basic types of television in India: broadcast, or "over-the-air" television, unencrypted satellite or "free-to-air", Direct Broadcast Satellite, cable television, and IPTV (internet protocol television). Over-the-air and free-to-air TV is free with no monthly payments while Cable, Direct Broadcast Satellite, and IPTV require a monthly payment that varies depending on how many channels a subscriber chooses to pay for. Channels are usually sold in groups, rather than singly.

[edit] Cable television


As per the TAM Annual Universe Update - 2010, India now has over 134 million households (out of 223 million) with television sets, of which over 103 million have access to Cable TV or Satellite TV, including 20 million households are DTH subscribers. In Urban India, 85% of all households have a TV and over 70% of all households have access to Satellite, Cable or DTH services. TV owning households have been growing at between 8-10%, while growth in Satellite/Cable homes exceeded 15% and DTH subscribers grew 28% over 2009. (However, some analysts place the number of households with television access at closer to 180 million since roughly a third of all rural families may watch television at a neighboring relatives home,

and argue that Cable TV households are probably closer to 120 million owing to a certain percentage of informal/unregistered Cable Networks that aren't counted by mainstream surveys). It is also estimated that India now has over 500 TV channels covering all the main languages spoken in the nation. In 1992, the Indian government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao started a series of economic reforms including the liberalization of the broadcasting industry, opening it up to cable television. This led to an explosion in the Indian cable TV industry and saw the entry of many foreign players like Rupert Murdoch's Star TV Network, MTV, and others. Following the liberalization of the broadcasting industry, the Hong Kong-based Star TV Network introduced five major television channels into the Indian broadcasting space that had so far been monopolised by the Indian government-owned Doordarshan: MTV, STAR Plus, Star Movies, BBC, Prime Sports and STAR Chinese Channel. Soon after, India saw the launch of Zee TV, the first privately-owned Indian channel to broadcast over cable followed by Asia Television Network (ATN). A few years later CNN, Discovery Channel, National Geographic Channel made their foray into India. Later, Star TV Network expanded its bouquet with the introduction of STAR World India, STAR Sports, ESPN, Channel V and STAR Gold. With the launch of the Tamil-language Sun TV (India) in 1992, South India saw the birth of its first private television channel. With a network comprising more than 20 channels in various South Indian languages, Sun TV network recently launched a DTH service and its channels are now available in several countries outside India. Following Sun TV, several television channels sprung up in the south. Among these are the Tamil-language channel The Raj Television Network and the Malayalam-language netwok Asianet Communications Limited, both launched in 1994. These three networks and their channels today take up most of the broadcasting space in South India. Throughout the 90s, along with a multitude of Hindi-language channels, several regional and English language channels flourished all over India. By 2001, international channels HBO and History Channel started providing service. In 19992003, other international channels such as Nickelodeon, Cartoon Network, VH1, Disney and Toon Disney entered the market. Starting in 2003, there has been an explosion of news channels in various languages; the most notable among them are NDTV, CNN IBN and Aaj Tak. The most recent channels/networks in the Indian broadcasting industry include UTV Movies, UTV Bindass, Zoom, Colours, 9X and 9XM. There are several more new channels in the pipeline, including Leader TV.

[edit] Conditional Access System


CAS or conditional access system, is a digital mode of transmitting TV channels through a settop box (STB). The transmission signals are encrypted and viewers need to buy a set-top box to receive and decrypt the signal. The STB is required to watch only pay channels. The idea of CAS was mooted in 2001, due to a furore over charge hikes by channels and subsequently by cable operators. Poor reception of certain channels; arbitrary pricing and increase in prices; bundling of channels; poor service delivery by Cable Television Operators

(CTOs); monopolies in each area; lack of regulatory framework and redress avenues were some of the issues that were to be addressed by implementation of CAS It was decided by the government that CAS would be first introduced in the four metros. It has been in place in Chennai since September 2003, where until very recently it had managed to attract very few subscribers. It has been rolled out recently in the other three metros of Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. As of April 2008 only 25 per cent of the people have subscribed the new technology. The rest watch only free-to-air channels. As mentioned above, the inhibiting factor from the viewer's perspective is the cost of the STB. The information and broadcasting ministry set March 31, 2015 as the deadline for shift from analog to digital systems. Digitization, where the feed will be received through set-top boxes, is expected to be executed in phases and the four metros of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai have to shift to digital addressability by March 31, 2012. Phase II will include 35 cities with population of more than one million, such as Patna, Chandigarh, Pune and Bangalore by March 31, 2013. All urban areas are expected to digitize by November 30, 2014 and the remaining areas by March 31, 2015. [4]

[edit] Satellite television


As of 2010, over 500 TV Satellite television channels are broadcast in India. This includes channels from the state-owned Doordarshan, News Corporation owned STAR TV, Sony owned Sony Entertainment Television, Zee TV, Sun Network and Asianet. Direct To Home service is provided by Airtel Digital Tv, BIG TV owned by Reliance, DD Direct Plus, DishTV, Sun Direct DTH, Tata Sky and Videocon D2H. DishTV was the first one to come up in Indian Market, others came only years later.

Tata Sky Dish India

These services are provided by locally built satellites from ISRO such as[5] INSAT 4CR, INSAT 4A, INSAT-2E, INSAT-3C and INSAT-3E as well as private satellites such as the Dutch-based SES, Global-owned NSS 6, Thaicom-2 and Telstar 10.

DTH is defined as the reception of satellite programmes with a personal dish in an individual home. As of July 2011, India had roughly 35 million DTH subcribers. DTH does not compete with CAS.[citation needed] Cable TV and DTH are two methods of delivery of television content. CAS is integral to both the systems in delivering pay channels. Cable TV is through cable networks and DTH is wireless, reaching direct to the consumer through a small dish and a set-top box. Although the government has ensured that free-to-air channels on cable are delivered to the consumer without a set-top box, DTH signals cannot be received without the set-top box. India currently has 7 major DTH service providers and a total of over 35 million subscriber households in mid 2011. DishTV(a ZEE TV subsidiary), Tata Sky, Videocon D2H, Sun Network owned ' Sun Direct DTH', Reliance Digital TV,Bharti Airtel's DTH Service 'Airtel Digital TV' and the public sector DD Direct Plus.As of 2010, India has the most competitive Directbroadcast satellite market with 7 operators vying for more than 135 million TV homes. India is set to overtake the USA as the world's largest Direct-broadcast satellite market by 2012.[6] The rapid growth of DTH in India has propelled an exodus from cabled homes, the need to measure viewership in this space is more than ever; aMap, the overnight ratings agency, has mounted a peoplemeter panel to measure viewership and interactive engagement in DTH homes in India.[7]

[edit] Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)


IPTV launched only in some cities around 2006-2007 by Mtnl/Bsnl later Expands to many urban areas and still expanding. Private Broadband provider Bharti Airtel also starts its IPTV service in Delhi,NCR region. At present (2009/2010) IPTV in India is hardly making any impact in the market. But IPTV and Online Video Services in India[8] are expected to expand. Screen Digest estimates broadband penetration of TV households to increase from 4.2 percent in 2009 to 13.4 percent in 2013.[9]

[edit] Audience Metrics


Television Metrics in India have gone through several phases in which it fragmented, consolidated and then fragmented again.

[edit] DART
During the days of the single channel Doordarshan monopoly, DART (Doordarshan Audience Research Team) was the only metric available. This used the notebook method of recordkeeping across 33 cities across India.[10] DART continues to provide this information independent of the Private agencies. DART till this date is the only rating system that still measures audience metrics in Rural India.[11]

[edit] TAM & INTAM


In 1994, claiming a heterogeneous and fragmenting television market ORG-MARG introduced INTAM (Indian National Television Audience Measurement). Ex-officials of DD (Doordarshan) claimed that INTAM was introduced by vested commercial interests who only sought to break the monopoly of DD and that INTAM was significantly weaker in both sample size, rigour and the range of cities and regions covered.[12] In 1997, a joint industry body appointed TAM (backed by AC Nielsen[13]) as the official recordkeeper of audience metrics.[12] Due to the differences in methodology and samples of TAM and INTAM, both provided differing results for the same programs. In 2001, a confidential list of households in Mumbai that were participating in the monitoring survey was released, calling into question the reliability of the data.[12][14][15] This subsequently led to the merger of the two measurement systems into TAM.[16] For several years after this, in spite of misgivings about the process, sample and other parameters, TAM was the defacto standard and monopoly in the audience metrics game.[17]

[edit] aMap
In 2004, a rival ratings service funded by American NRI investors, called Audience Measurement Analytics Limited (aMap) was launched.[18][19][20] Although initially, it faced a cautious uptake from clients, the TAM monopoly was broken. What differentiates aMap is that its ratings are available within one day as compared to TAM's timeline of one week.[19]

[edit] Broadcast Audience Research Council


An even newer industry body called the Broadcast Audience Research Council seeks to set up an almost real-time audience metrics system. Plans for this was announced in march 2008 and work is said to be in progress.[20][21]

50 years of Indian Television


India witnessed its first television clipping 50 years ago. Since then, rest is history. Today India is amongst the worlds biggest television markets. Approximately half of all Indian households own a television today. From a single television channel, over 300 satellite TV channels are broadcasted today. Beginning: Doordarshan had a modest beginning with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15 September 1959 with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. The regular daily transmission started in 1965 as a part of All India Radio. The television service was extended to Bombay and Amritsar in 1972. Till 1975, seven Indian cities had television service and Doordarshan remained the only television channel. Television services were separated from radio in 1976. Each office of All India Radio and Doordarshan were placed under the management of two separate Director Generals in New Delhi. Finally Doordarshan as a National Broadcaster came into existence. National telecasts were introduced in 1982. In the same year, color TV was introduced in the Indian market with the live telecast of the Independence Day speech by then PM Indira Gandhi on 15 August 1982, followed by the 1982 Asian Games. TV Programs: The 80s was the era of Doordarshan with shows like Hum Log (1984), Buniyaad (198687) and comedy shows like Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi (1984), Mythological dramas like Ramayan (1987-88) and Mahabharat (1989-90) glued millions to Doordarshan and later on Bharat Ek Khoj, The Sword of Tipu Sultan and Chandrakanta. Hindi film songs based programs like Chitrahaar, Rangoli, Superhit Muqabla crime thrillers like Karamchand, Byomkesh Bakshi. Shows targeted at children include Dada Dadi ki Kahaniyan, Vikram Betal, Malgudi Days, Tenali Rama. Post Liberalisation Television: The central government launched a series of economic and social reforms in 1991 under PM Narasimha Rao. Under the new policies the government allowed private and foreign broadcasters to engage in limited operations in India. Foreign channels like CNN, Star TV and domestic channels such as Zee TV and Sun TV started satellite broadcasts. Cable television: The cable TV industry exploded in the early 1990s when the broadcast industry was liberalized, and saw the entry of many foreign players like Rupert Murdoch's Star TV Network in 1991, MTV, and others. Sun TV (India) was launched in 1992 as the first private channel in South India. Today it has 20 television channels in the four South Indian languages. Five new channels belonging to the Hong Kong based STAR TV gave Indians a fresh breath of life. MTV, STAR Plus, BBC, Prime Sports and STAR Chinese Channel were the 5 channels. Zee TV was the first private owned Indian channel to broadcast over cable. A few years later, CNN, Discovery Channel, National Geographic Channel made its foray into India. Star expanded its bouquet introducing STAR World, STAR Sports, ESPN and STAR Gold. Regional channels flourished along with a multitude of Hindi channels and a few English channels. By 2001 HBO and History Channel were the other international channels to enter India. By 20012003, other international channels such as Nickelodeon, Cartoon Network, VH1, Disney and Toon Disney came into foray. In 2003 news channels started to boom. Today, India has over 130 million homes with television sets, of which nearly 71 million have access to cable TV. The overall Cable TV market is growing at a robust 8-10%. Latest Technologies: Conditional access system (CAS) is a digital mode of transmitting TV channels through a set-top box (STB). The transmission signals are encrypted and viewers need to buy a set-top box to receive and decrypt the signal. The STB is required to watch only pay channels. Direct to Home (DTH) is defined as the reception of satellite programs with a personal dish in an individual home. Internet Protocol TV launched only in some cities around 2006-2007 by MYNL/BSNL later Expands to many

urban areas and still expanding. Private Broadband provider Bharti Airtel also starts its IPTV service in Delhi, NCR region. TV Industry: Today, the Indian TV Industry is running parallel to the big screen. With the mushroom growth of daily sops the entire TV viewing is revolutionized. The serials like Amanat, Kyuki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi, Tara, Kasauti Zindagi Ki, Kahani Ghar Ghar Ki, Ghar Ek Mandir redefined the saga of tele viewing. Then comes the age of reality TV, the programs like Kaun Banega Carorepati, MTV Rodies, Spiltsvilla, Fear Factor, Big Boss, Is Jungle Se Mujhe Bachao, Sach Ka Samna and Rakhi Ka Swamvar. These programs have witnessed the highest TRPs and even stormed a lot of controversies. A total estimation of the TV industry annual budget is over 1 lack crores. Since 2002 News channels have grown exponentially. Today the news channels have become a significant market and their no is catching the entertainment channels fast. They have become a super package where they not only show the news bulletins but have the entire list of programs where they have special hours for Talk shows, debates, Exit Polls, Film critics, Program clippings and masala news packages like Sansani, Vishesh, Kaal Kapal Mahakal etc. A no. of Sports channels have also come up and Channels like Movie on Demand and Music on demand are also favorites amongst the viewers. TV Advertisements: We all know those beautiful ads of Nirma, Surf and Bajaj. But now, the TV commercial industry has moved through leaps and bounds. With the advent of latest technologies and huge customer markets, almost everything is being advertised today by big names of the Bollywood industry. It has estimated that TV commercial industry is about 400-500 crores. Starting with 41 sets in 1962 and one channel (Audience Research unit, 1991) at present TV in India covers more than 70 million homes giving a viewing population more than 400 million individuals through more than 100 channels. A large relatively untapped market, easy accessibility of relevant technology and a variety of programs are the main reasons for rapid expansion of Television in India. The Indian TV has crossed a 50 year mark and instead of getting old and mature it is still young and immature. Sometimes, there is a need of a censor board as the contents go too vulgar and even un-regularized. The Indian TV needs to hold the responsibility of showing good content which should be a value added for the society and acts as the responsible medium for the betterment of the society.