You are on page 1of 84

-

)(IBP
)(IHRIP

2004
ISBN 0-9707700-6-5
)( -
)(IHRIP
)(IBP

.
.
.

:
: .


) (
.
)( Fundar
International Human Rights Internship Program .International Budget Project
:
)( -
.

. )(
. .
)( .
) - (IBP .

.

. ) (IBP
.
) - (IHRIP
(IIE) Institute of International Education .

. ) (IHRIP

) (Ripple in Still Water
Ma. Soccoro Diokno
) (Circle of Rights ).(Out of the Shadows
2001 )( )( Ford Foundation
.

.
)( )(
/ 2002
)(

Cuernavaca .


Promises to Keep: Using Public budgets as a tool
) to advance economic, social and cultural rights :
( .

1
.
Cuernavaca .

.
) (IHRIP ) .(IRP
)( .
.

.
/ 2003
) (ESCR Net .
.

.
)(
.
.

.
IHRIP )(
10 12/ .2004
Babes Ignacio
: .

.
.

.Dignity Counts

ii

.

.
Mertz Gilmore Foundation

.

IHRIP

IBP

iii

iv

i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
: 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
: 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
: 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
: : 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
: 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
: 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:1 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:2 68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:3 70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:4 / 71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004
72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi



. .

.
.

. .

.
.
.
.
)(.

.
.

. .
.



.


.

.

.
:

.
.
. )(
.


.

) ( )
(.
)
( .
.
.

.
.

.

. .
. .

.
.

.

)Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS



MKSS .

.
.

.




.
.
.
.

.



.
.

.

.
.


+

=



.

.

.


.


.



.
.

.

1



.

) (

.




.
/
/

.
) ( .
.
.

//
.




.
.



.

.
) (1
.


.
:


.

. !

// //


.


. ) (5
.

.
:
.
):(1

):(2

) (.

):(3

):(4

/ .2004




Consuelo 21
Guerrero


.

.
. Consuelo
.
.
.

.
.

. .
50 : .

.
. .
.
.
)( Fundar .

.

.


. .

.
) (SSA 1943 2
: ) (IMSS
) (ISSSTE
) (ISSFAM ) (PEMEX
.

: .
.
45
:
.
.

) (SSA
.
:
-


.
32 . SSA
32
.

.
. 2002 20 53.1
3
20 4.4
50

26 50 .

50 .

)(

. : .

. )(:


SSA

IMSS

PAC
1998

ISSSTE

ISSFAM

IMSS-Solidaridad
19

.
PEMEX


.

IMSS
.
32


FASSA .
1998 .
) 90 (
.

10

:
.
:
.
: 32
.

)( .
.

11

1 )
(
.
:



. .
- - .
.


.

.
.

.
.
.
.
.

12


. .

.

. .

. .

.
.

4

.


.
2
:
.
.
.
) ( .
.
.
.
.

.
!

13


.

. .
:
.
.


.
7
.
8.
.
9
.
/ .

14

2
:

15


1997

.

.
2000
1998 .

.
:http://www.cceia.org/viewMedia.php/prmTemplateID/8/prmID/940



.
) (1 ) (2

.
.1
:

.
.
.

.
:
-

16

.

.
.
.
.
.




.
.

.

.2

10

:
1966 .1976
11

. .
:
14
12 13 .
:
.
-

: :
.

:
.

:
.

17

15



)

(



)

(




.
.

16

.
.

) (
) (.
.

18




.
.
.
:
.
.
.

.


.
.
/

.

. .
.
.
.

. ) .
17
(.

19



.
.
)(

.1981
)(

/
.

.
: 4

: ) .(2

) .(27 ) (29
) (SSA .
) .(28

)
.(25
) .(35
) 12 (


.
.
) 12 (
.
) (SSA
.

20

.
12
) (
.

) : ( .

.

.
: 12
:
.1
.
.2
:
.

. .
. .
. .
18 .
14
.

12 .
.14
12
!

21

11 6

12


.

-1

-2

15 13


-4

-3

22

12
) (CESCR

. 14



.


.

23

.
.


.
.

. .

.

.

.
.

.
.

.

.
.
:

.

.
.

24

.
.
.

. .

.
.
.

.
.

.

.


.
.

.
.



.

.

25


.


19.
.
.


.




.

.


.
.
)( .

:
.
.
.

: 1998 .2002
1998
. 2002
.

26

: .
) (
) (
.

.
. :
:



.
.

.
:
88.4 ................................................................ 1999
91.6 ................................................................ 1999
97.8 ................................................................ 2000
101.4 ................................................................ 2001
106.2 ................................................................ 2002
112.7 ................................................................ 2003

1998 37.4 2003



. 2003
1998 2003
:1998
) 37.4 47.7 = 88.4 (112.7 .
.
.
.
.

27


. .


.



.
.
.

.
.

.
.


.
: .

. .

. 1

.

.
.2002

-
.
2002
. : 1998
2002 )(SSA
) (FASSA ) (ISSSTE ).(IMSS

28

2002 :
) (IMSS.

. 3









.
) 4
.


.


.



.


.

.

.

.
.
.
.

29



.
2 .
5 2.4 .2.15
.

:

.

.
6
11 1998 9 .2002

.
.

. .
.
) ( .
.
.
)(
.

.
.
)(

.

25
. 17 .
.

30




.
.

.
.
www.internationalbudget.org.



.
.

)(
.



.

2.3



.
.
2002 22
2000 .2002
.

31

12
)(

12 .

.
.

1998 2001 2002 .2003
2002
2003 .

. ) PAC (
.
9 PAC
.
.
31
: .

) .(2 9
PAC .
.

) (9
.
Michoacn
Veracruz .

.

32

) (10
.
.1999 :

.
.
.
.

.
)(

) (FASSA .1998
.

.

14 FASSA
.

) () . 15 (16
.17
)(
.
.

.

33


3.5
)( . 95
.
. 1998
1999
.
/ 2000
.

.
.
.
.

34

.


. .
:
.
.

.
.
)
( ) (
.
: )(

.
.

.
.

: :


.




.

35


.
) :
12
( .
.

.
.
:
:
.

.

.

.


.
.
.

.
.
.

.
)(

.
.
.
) ( .

36

.
.

.
.
.

.

.

. 2002
.


.
.
.

.

.
.

. .

37




)(
.



.

.


.
.
) (CBU ) (IDASA

.
.

. .
) (IDASA
) (.

38


:


:
-

12 .



. .
)(

12
)
( . .
1998 .2002
.1998
2002 .
.

2002 1998
.
(
2

.


.

39

) (1

2001 1998 130 142 . 1999
2001 2002 1998 .

1

144
140
138
136
134
132
130
128
126
124
2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

Billions of constant 2002 pesos

142

: 1998-2002


) (SSA ) (FASSA ) (IMSS ) (ISSSTE

.
) ) (1


.
) (2 1998 .2002

40

2

1998 .2002

ISSSTE
2002

IMSS
2001

2000

FASSA
1999

SSA

Billions of constant 2002


pesos

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

1998

: 2002 1998

:
-

: 2002 ) (IMSS .
) (SSA ) (FASSA ) (ISSSTE .2002
) (IMSS .

: ) (SSA ) (FASSA . )(FASSA


20 30 .
.
.

3
.

. 2002 65
35
50 .

41

3

2002
70
60

65.08
50.81
50.81

40
30

34.92

20

Percentage

49.19
49.19

50

10
0
""Open population
% spending

Right-holders
% population

: 2002

) (SSA
.


20. 4 920
1660 .
4

) 2002 ( .
1,800
1,600
1,400

1,000
800

1,659.88

600
920.00

2002 pesos

1,200

400
200
0

Per capita "right"holders

Per capita "open


"population

: 2002

42

(
:
.

.

.

.
.
.1

.
.
.
.
5 1998 .2002
6

:

43

5

2.45
2.40
2.35
2.30
2.25
2.20
2.15
2.10
2.05
2.00
2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

: 1998-2002 2001

6

12.00

11.00

10.00

9.00

8.00

7.00
2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

: 1998-2002


. 2002
.1998 2000 2001 2002
1998 .

5 6

44

2000 2001 2002


.


.
.
.2


.


) 2000 2001 2002 5 .(6

.
.
:

2001 .

.
. 2.3
) (PAC .2002

.

24.9 17.2
) .(7
51.4 .

45

7

2001
30

24.9

17.2
Defense

10

Navy

Health

0
-10
-20
-30

-51.4

-40
-50
-60

Percent change in infrastructure


spending

20

: 2001

2002 47 .217
-

61 .

23 ) (PAC .2002

22 2000
2001 2002 .


.

.

( 12


.

46

(i

) ( :

.
) ) 12((
2001
. 65 .
67.3
.
)( 12 . 14
.
.
8 1998 2003
1998 .2001 2002 .

2003

2002

Spent

2001

2000

1999

1998

Millons of constant 2002 pesos

275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0

Approved

: 1998-2002 2003

) (8 : .2002
.
.

47


.
.
.

.
.
) (PAC
.
. .
) (PAC 13
. .
.
.
1996 2002 ) (PAC 13.27
.
. .
PAC
. 33.9
PAC 21
84.5 ) 22 .(9

48

9
PAC 2001
90
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Low

Medium

High

Pesos per PAC population

80

Very High

State groups by level of marginalization

:
2001 2000

) (Veracruz
PAC 18.1 ) 2 ( .
137.2 Michoacn
)(.
6 PAC 40 Chiapas
Guerrero Mexico Puebla Veracruz .Yucatn 5
120 Chihuahua
Durango Guanajuato Jalisco .Michoacn


.

.

.
:

.

PAC

49

. 20 ) 2 (
.

PAC
.
-


. .


.
.
(ii

:
)(

) ) 12((
14

.
).(SSA


.
.
.
) (10 .
.
. 1999 88 96 .

50

. .
10

2003 1999

500
400
300
200
100
0
2002

2001

2000

1999

Millions of constant 2002


pesos

600

: 19992001


.
.
. 2001
.
).(11
11

223
223.6

222
221
220
219
218

219.5

217
2002

2001

Millions of constant 2002 pesos

224

: 2001-2002

2003 1.901.562 . 94.5.


51

95 .
.
(iii

:
)( .
) ) 12((
.
12 .
.
: .
.
:
.
) (FASSA .
1998 FASSA ) (12 40
.
.
12
FASSA 1998 2002

25
20
15
10
5
0
2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

Billons of constant 2002 pesos

30

: 2001-2002

52

. ) (FASSA
. FASSA
. ) (13 .
.
.
13
2002
80%

60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%

Share of total population

70%

0%
Very Low

Low

Medium

High

Very High

State groups by level of marginalization

: 2001
2000

FASSA
.

).(14

53

14
FASSA 2002
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Nat'l
Avg.

Very
Low

Low

Medium

High

Very
High

Pesos per FASSA population

800

State groups by level of marginalization

: 2001
2000


420 ) 42 ( .
700 ) 70 (

.

FASSA
.


.

.
:
.

.

.
.
) (15 100,000
2000 .CONAPO

54

100 100,000 .
23
.
15
100,000 2001
180

140
120
100
80
60
40
20

Doctors per 100,000 persons,


2001

160

0
Very Low

Low

Medium

High

Very High

State groups by level of marginalization

: 2001
2000

) (16 .
50 100,000 2000 .
110 100,000 900 .

.

55

16
100,000 2001
120

80
60
40
20

Hospital beds per 100,000


persons, 2001

100

0
Very Low

Low

Medium

High

Very High

State groups by level of marginalization

: 21 2002

) (17 .
. .
53 100,000
.
.
.

56

17
100,000 2001
70

50
40
30
20
10

Doctors offices per 100,000


persons, 2001

60

0
Very Low

Low

Medium

High

Very High

State groups by level of marginalization

: 2001
2000

) (18 .

.
.

.
18
100,000 2001

1,600
1,200
800
400
0
Very Low

Low

Medium

High

Doctors visits per 100,000


persons, 2001

2,000

Very
High

State groups by level of marginalization

: 21 2002
2000

57


.

.

) (FASSA
.

. .

.

).(19
19
FASSA SSA
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2003

2002

Spent SSA

2001

2000

1999

Approved SSA

1998

Millons of constant 2002 pesos

1,000

Spent FASSA

: 1998-2002 2003

11 2002.2003
1998 1999 800 .
400 . 2001
.

(
.

58

.
.
:
.1 SSA FASSA
.

.
SSA FASSA .
.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.3
.
.4
.
) (PAC

.
).(PAC
.5
.
.
.
.6
.

.
.

59


. .
.
.

60




.

.
.
:

.
.
.
.
. .
:

:
: .
.
.

.
.
:
.


.
:
.

.
.

61


.
:
.

.

. .
:
.
.
.
:


.

.

.
. )(


.

62



2002 )( Fundar
.
2000 .2006
. )(
. )(
.



. .
.
.

.
.

63

Accession


) (.

Adoption

) (

African Charter on Human


and Peoples Rights

1981 1986

African Commission
on Human and Peoples Rights


Civil rights



Committee on Economic, Social
)and Cultural Rights (CESCR

Committee on the Elimination of


all forms of Discrimination against
Women

)
(

Convention

) (
)Content (of a right

Core content

Minimum core content




. .

.

64

Covenant

.


.


Cultural rights

Declaration

Discrimination


) (
.

ESC rights


European Commission on Human
Rights

) (.


European Convention on Human
Rights

1950
1953 .


European Social Charter

1961 1965
.

.


General Comments


General Recommendation

Inalienable


Inter-American Commission
on Human Rights

Interdependence/Indivisibility

/ .

65



International Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against women
)(CEDAW

1979 1981
.


International Convention on
)the Rights of the Child (CRC

1989

.



International Covenant on
Economic, Social and Cultural
)Rights (ICESCR

1966 1976

.

1966 .1976

International Covenant on Civil


)and Political Rights (ICCPR

International human rights

Legally-binding

Maximum available resources

2


.


Non-discrimination


)Norms (human rights



Obligation to respect, protect,
fulfill

: .
: .
:
.


Political rights

)
(

66


Progressive achievement/
Progressive realization

2


.

Protocol

Provision

Ratification


Social rights

) (
)Standards (human rights

Treaty

Treaty body


Universal Declaration of Human
Rights

10/ 1948
.
.

Universal


Universality


Violation of human rights

67

:
.1 .
.2 CONAPO ) )
.1
CONAPO: Consejo Nacional de Poblacin
: .
FASSA: Fondo de Aportaciones para la Salud

.
IMSS: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

.
ISSSTE: Instituto de Seguridad Social Servicios Para Los Trabajadores del Estado

.
Municipal Marginalization Index

) CONAPO(.
Opportunities Program
.

68

: ) ( .
.
PAC: Programa de Ampliacin de Cobertura
.
.
PEF: Presupuesto de Egresos de la Federacin

.
Public Account

. .
SSA: Secretaria de Salud

.2

2002

2002

2002
2002
2002

Chiapas

4,176,199

3,228,265

947,934

77.3

Guerrero

3,264,735

2,331,066

933,669

71.4

Hidalgo

2,376,222

1,499,425

876,797

63.1

Oaxaca

3,662,824

2,604,319

1,058,505

71.1

Veracruz

7,205,637

4,294,644

2,910,993

59.6

20,685,617

13,957,719

6,727,898

67.5

Campeche

735,862

361,315

374,547

49.1

Guanajuato

5,061,839

2,849,871

2,211,968

56.3

Michoacn

4,357,309

2,884,595

1,472,714

66.2

Nayarit

979,682

511,404

468,278

52.2

Puebla

5,303,248

3,521,426

1,781,822

66.4

Tabasco

2,002,775

1,209,700

793,075

60.4

Yucatn

1,724,897

745,170

979,727

43.2

Zacatecas

1,482,372

896,853

585,519

60.5

24,136,298

13,891,796

10,244,502

57.6

69

2002

2002

2002
2002
2002

Durango

1,562,050

626,394

935,656

40.1

Morelos

1,651,942

915,194

736,748

55.4

Quertaro

1,481,730

651,974

829,756

44.0

Quintana Roo

864,863

369,304

495,559

42.7

Sinaloa

2,524,778

1,323,809

1,200,969

52.4

Tlaxcala

1,026,061

604,362

421,699

58.9

9,111,424

4,491,036

4,620,388

49.3

Aguascalientes

1,037,057

352,606

684,451

34.0

Baja California Sur

416,350

131,569

284,781

31.6

Chihuahua

3,168,978

1,010,924

2,158,054

31.9

Colima

568,454

233,639

334,815

41.1

Jalisco

6,694,217

2,932,124

3,762,093

43.8

Mxico

13,642,704

6,343,981

7,298,723

46.5

Sonora

2,307,292

703,738

1,603,554

30.5

Tamaulipas

2,819,109

1,037,452

1,781,657

36.8

30,654,161

12,746,034

17,908,127

41.6

Baja California

2,505,285

831,771

1,673,514

33.2

Coahuila

2,441,879

493,269

1,948,610

20.2

Distro Federal

8,857,833

3,038,296

5,819,537

34.3

Nuevo Len

3,985,148

904,646

3,080,502

22.7

17,790,145

5,267,983

12,522,162

29.6

70

3

Are our Budgetmakers Faithful to the Constitution? A Tour of the Budgets 1947-2001, L.C. Jain, Peoples
Bias, National Centre for Advocacy Studies and Patheya, India, 2000.
Budget Analysis as Social Audit, Tamilnadu Peoples Forum for Social Development, India, 2002.
Circle of RightsEconomic, Social and Cultural Rights Activism: A Training Resource, International Human
Rights Internship Program and Forum-Asia, USA and Thailand, 2000.
Follow the money: Lessons from civil society budget work and how they might be applied to the challenge
of monitoring oil and gas revenues, Jim Shultz, Open Society Institute, New York, 2004.
Monitoring government budgets to advance child rights: a guide for NGOs, IDASA, South Africa, 2003.
Promises to Keep: Using public budgets as a tool to advance economic, social and cultural rights, Fundar
and Ford Foundation, Mexico, 2002. (Available in English and Spanish).
A Rights-Based Approach towards Budget Analysis, Ma. Socorro Diokno, International Human Rights
Internship Program, USA, 1999.
The International Budget Project has a web site, which is generally very informative and which has a page
devoted to budget analysis and ESC rights: http://www.internationalbudget.org/themes/ESC/index.htm

71

4
2004 /
Ann Blyberg, International Human Rights Internship Program (USA)
Pamela Gomez, International Budget Project (USA)
Enrique Gonzalez MacDowell (Venezuela/Spain)
Helena Hofbauer, Fundar (Mexico)
Johannes Babes Ignacio (Philippines)
Gabriel Lara Salazar, Fundar (Mexico)
Felix Morka, Social and Economic Rights Action Center (SERAC) (Nigeria)
Jim St. George, International Budget Project (USA)

72

FUNDAR Centro de Anlisis e Investigacin


Popotla No.96 5
Col. Tizapn San Angel
Mxico DF
Mxico
Telephone: (52 55) 55.95.26.43
Fax: (52 55) 56.81.08.55
e-mail: fundar@fundar.org.mx
web site: www.fundar.org.mx/
International Budget Project
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
820 First Street, NE, Suite 510
Washington, DC 20002
USA
Telephone: (1 202) 408 1080
Fax: (1 202) 408 8173
e-mail: info@internationalbudget.org
web site: www.internationalbudget.org
International Human Rights Internship Program
Institute of International Education
1400 K Street, N.W., Suite 650
Washington, D.C. 20005
USA
Telephone: (1 202) 326-7725
Fax: (1 202) 326-7763
e-mail: ihrip@iie.org
web site: www.iie.org/ihrip

73

(1 :
http://www.internationalbudget.org/themes/ESC/FullReport.pdf
:
http://www.fundar.org.mx/fundar/documentos/ddhh/promesas_que_cumplir.pdf
Torres Ruiz, Descentralizacin en salud: algunas consideraciones para el caso de Mxico, Centro de Investigacin y Docencia (2
.Econmicas, Divisin de Administracin Pblica, Documento de Trabajo nmero 69, Mxico, 1997, p. 10
Instituto Nacional de Estadstica, Geografa e Informtica, Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares 2002, (3
.Mxico
(4 1 .
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/z1afchar.htm (5
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/oasinstr/zoas3con.htm (6
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/oasinstr/zoas10pe.htm (7
http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/005.htm (8
http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/163.htm (9
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_cescr.htm (10
(11 :
http://www.unhchr.ch/pdf/report.pdf
http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/cedaw.htm (12
http://www.unicef.org/crc/crc.htm (13
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/d_icerd.htm (14
(15 : 161
3 .
(16 ) 2(1 :

.
(17 14 :
http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(symbol)/E.C.12.2000.4.En?OpenDocument
(18 ) . 3 Circle of Rights
(19
.

74

:
(20 25 .
(21 2000 ) (CONAPO 32
5 . 2 .
(22 PAC
(23 16 18
. ) (
.
. .
100,000 .
.

75

76