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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The diagnostic study of Pashmina has been undertaken by Craft Development Institute (CDI) under MSE-CDP. The cluster development approach has been adopted as a key strategy by MSME and GOI with the purpose of increasing the productivity, competitiveness as well as capacity of Micro and Small enterprises. The Handicraft Industry, particularly the Pashmina craft Cluster is struggling for its progressive and prosperous existence. Therefore it requires a lot of support for identifying the cluster strengths, weaknesses, socio-economic environment and feasible steps to be taken for the overall sustainable growth of the cluster. The competitive advantage for MSMEs is becoming increasingly dependent on three critical factors viz. Cost reduction, Efficiency of working and Innovations (CEI). Business Development Services (BDS) has significant impact on (CEI) leading to productivity gains. Therefore, BDS plays a vital role in improving competitiveness of MSMEs. The pashmina industry of Kashmir is a crucial economic contributor to the state and to the country as well. However, the industry is facing a lot of challenges due to the intervention of modern machinery and also increased competition from various countries. The cluster for the pashmina based goods in Kashmir is Eidgah Srinagar. Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages, which are not enough for them to sustain their livelihood in the present times amid high expenses and high inflation. Though there is sufficient raw material availability but there is no control on the cost and the quality of the raw material being supplied. Hence the costs of raw material are increasing and the quality of raw material is decreasing due to unchecked adulterations. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude. The benefits being framed for the artisans could not be distributed among the deserving people because of their unawareness about the schemes. In this context the study is meant to provide a broad framework for providing an in-depth picture of the cluster in order to identify the clusters core issues.
AT A GLANCE Undertaken by Craft Development Institute (CDI) Srinagar, under the MSE-CDP for Pashmina Cluster, Iddgah, Srinagar. Pashmina craft Cluster is struggling for its progressive and prosperous existence. The pashmina industry of Kashmir is a crucial economic contributor to the state and to the country as well. Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude. In this context the study is meant to proide a broad framework for providing an in-depth picture of the cluster in order to identify the clusters core issues.

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STATUS OF CLUSTER
The Pashmina products cluster is mainly concentrated in Eidgah area of district Srinagar of Jammu and Kashmir. The constituent areas of the cluster include Zoonimar, Saidapora, Firdous colony, Khaiwan, Rathpora, Ganderpora, Laigerdora, Shaheed Mazaar, Wanganpora, Bagwanpora, Waniyar, Narwara, Wantpora, Tangbagh, Armpora and Merjaanpora. The various types of practitioners involved are artisans, artisan manufacturers, traders, trader manufacturers and exporters. Majority of the artisans are operating on job work basis supplying to the manufacturers and traders. Pashmina craft in the Eidgah cluster has a history of around 600 to 700 years. The people of the cluster have been dedicatedly involved in the manufacturing of plain and embroidered pashmina products for all these years. The art of Kaani shawls however, is a recent addition to the cluster having a history of around 15 years only.
AT A GLANCE Mainly concentrated in Eidgah area of District, Srinagar. Practitioners involved are artisans, artisan manufacturers, traders, trader manufacturers and exporters. Pashmina craft in the Eidgah cluster has a history of around 600 to 700 years. The art of Kani shawls however, is a recent addition to the cluster having a history of around 15 years only.

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The snapshot of Eidgah Cluster is as under:


Exact Location of Cluster Spread of Cluster Age of Cluster Artisans Profile: Raw Material Procureres Spinners Weavers Barengur Naqqash (Designers) Dyers Clippers Washermen Aggregate Investment ( Rs. Crores) Estimated Turnover ( Rs Crores) Machine interventions in cluster: Dehairing Units Spinning Units Product Mix Major stakeholders Latitude : 34.097910 Longitude: 74.791855 5 -7 km 600-700 Years for Plain Pashmina 15 Years for Kani 15 20,000 5000 50 11 10 150 80 3.29 786 300 20 Plain Pashmina( ), Embroidered Pashmina( ) Kani Pashmina( ), Raw Material Providers. Poiwanies. Dehairing Units Spinning Units/Women Folk Naqats Barengur Weavers Dyers Clippers Artisan Manufacturers Traders Trader Manufacturers Exporters Arts Emporium State Handicraft Dept. State Handloom Dept. JK Bank ICICI Bank. Weavers Service Centre CDI ICAR(NAIP Project)

Major BDS Providers

INDUSTRY SCENARIO
The global textile and clothing industry trade stands at around US$ 360 bn. The Indian textile industry is valued at US$ 36 bn with exports totalling US$ 17 bn in 2005-2006. At the global level, Indias textile exports account for just 4.72% of global textile and clothing exports. The Textile industry occupies a unique place in our country. One of the earliest to come into existence in India, it accounts for 14% of the total Industrial production, contributes to nearly 30% of the total exports and is the second largest employment generator after agriculture. Today, Indias textile sector comprises four important segments: Modern Textile Mills Independent Power looms Handlooms and Garments of the total cloth produced in the country and also adds substantially to export earnings. Handloom is unparalleled in its flexibility and versatility, permitting experimentation and encouraging innovations. The production of handloom fabrics had gone up to 4629 mn sq mtrs in 2005, from 500 mn sq mtrs in the 1950s, representing an annual growth of around 4%. The major contribution of the handloom sector is the well-known Raffal, Pashmina and Kani-Jamawar shawls, loies and blankets, khadi and woollen cloth.
AT A GLANCE Mainly concentrated in Eidgah area of District, Srinagar. Practitioners involved are artisans, artisan manufacturers, traders, trader manufacturers and exporters. Pashmina craft in the Eidgah cluster has a history of around 600 to 700 years. The art of Kani shawls however, is a recent addition to the cluster having a history of around 15 years only.

SENARIO & ROLE OF HANDLOOM SECTOR The Handloom sector plays a very important role in the countrys economy. It is one of the largest economic activities providing direct employment to over 30 lakhs weavers engaged in weaving. In addition to the direct employment, it provides indirect employment to 1.5 persons per weaver in the loom engaged in production. Besides all these, the industry through the back ward and forward linkage effect generates employment for many others such as loom and accessories manufacturers such as dyers, printers, processors etc. On the whole the handloom industry provides an employment of 5.5 % of the employment in the decentralized sectors of the countrys economy. Goods manufactured in handlooms also have high export potentiality. Despite the presence of the power loom sector in a big way along with all its advantages, the handloom sector has been able to withstand the competition. It has also proved its indispensability on certain fronts. Wave of ethnic revivalism and effective state intervention through financial assistance and implementation of various developmental schemes have brought about more than tenfold increase in the production of handloom fabrics. The handloom sector contributes nearly 19%

METHODOLOGY
The diagnostic study for the Eidgah pashmina cluster has been completed and prepared by the team of Researchers from Craft Development Institute under the guidelines of MSME-CDP. The cluster diagnostics has been done with the aim to gather information on the cluster, identify the main actors, collect trade and business data from them, identify the most effective leverage points for intervention and provide a baseline for future monitoring and evaluation. For carrying out the diagnostic study, the following methodology has been adopted: a. b. c. d. Desk research for secondary data Primary data collection Data processing and Analysis Preparation of study report During the Second field visit for 20 days, meetings were arranged with the Traders, Trader Manufacturers, Manufacturer Exporters and various BDS providers working in the area and explored them as potential local project partners and resources. We also investigated for existing government schemes functional in the area and the people benefiting from those schemes. The government organizations and line departments like J&K handloom department, J&K handloom department, SKUAST were contacted and information on various aspects relevant to the cluster was collected through detailed interactions and discussions. We also organized focus group discussions with the various groups of weavers of the cluster who were the members of a functional cluster development program under the Weavers Service Centre Srinagar. DATA PROCESSESING & ANALYSIS The secondary and primary data collected was compiled in order to carry out a comprehensive analysis regarding status of the cluster, BDS provision, key issues and required interventions. PREPERATION OF STUDY REPORT Based on the compiled data and analysis, a detailed study report was thus prepared as per the template provided by the MSMECDP.
AT A GLANCE Secondary data was collected from the related websites like J&K handloom department, J&K handicraft department, ICAR and various portal maintained by technology suppliers as well as from available data with CDI, Srinagar. Primary data was collected by a random sample of 100 artisans based on job done, scale of investment, turnover and product lines and interactive sessions held with Traders, Trader Manufacturers, Manufacturer Exporters and various BDS providers working in the area.

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DESK RESEARCH FOR SECONDARY DATA In order to collect the Secondary data we scanned books, documents and other reading material for initial archival material on pashmina craft process, design repertoire, local dynamics and existing linkages to markets. Data was also collected from the related websites like J&K handloom department, J&K handicraft department, ICAR and various portal maintained by technology suppliers. Information was also gathered about cluster actors and their contacts from the already available data with the Craft Development Institute, Srinagar. Various BDS providers involved in the process were identified and information was collected about their mandate. PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION After getting an understanding of the working of the craft in the cluster, we proceeded through an initial field visit for 15 days to meet the artisans/units working in the area. For this purpose a random sample of 100 artisans based on job done, scale of investment, turnover and product lines etc was chosen representing different areas of Eidgah cluster and data was collected with the help of questionnaires.

CLUSTER PRODUCTS
Kashmiri Pashmina refers to type of fine cashmere wool and the textiles made from it. It took centuries of experimentation and refinement to raise this traditional practice of shawl making from a necessity to a unique textile art. Kashmir is the only place in the world where fine embroidered pashmina shawls are being woven. Despite upheavals, the art of making the pashmina shawls in Kashmir is unique and is still practiced in traditional way by local artisans. Pashmina shawls are made of wool which comes from a soft, downy undercoat that grows primarily on the neck and belly of the rare Central Asian mountain goat known as Changthangi goat or Capra-Hiracus. Changthangi goats are found about 14,000 ft where high speed winds and freezing temperature exists. The wool being referred to as Pashm, which means wool in Persian, hence the shawls are known as pashmina shawls. Pashm has a special lustre due to its long fine fibres, which are as thin as 14-16 microns which makes the pashmina shawls exceptionally light, soft and warm and adds to the glamour of a person wearing it. The natural colours of the fleece include white, grey, red, brown and black. The most unique characteristics of the pashmina shawls with which they are known are as follows: a. The fineness of the Pashm wool is between 14-16 microns in con trast to the fines sheeps wool which is 23 microns and of hu man hair which is up to 200 mi crons. Thus making the pashmina shawl exceptionally light, soft, and warm. b. The pure Pashm wool is so fine and delicate that it can only be hand spun and hand woven into fabric, as it keeps breaking during the entire pro cess. c. The traditional methods involved in process of making pashmina from more than 2000 years has helped in retaining its unique soft character of Pashm wool and given to the world of craft the most exquisite pashmina products. d. The basic pashmina shawl from Kash mir is woven colored yardage of 27 41 to 54 widths which is subse quently made into shawls and other accessories. e. Pashmina shawl is a result of highly specialized chain production makingit superior not only due to its finness of fibers but also meticulous cleaning sorting and hand spinning. The main products of the cluster are: a) Plain Pashmina Products, b) Embroidered Pashmina Products c) Kani Pashmina Products. The various products differ in quantity of raw material, yardage and the type of weave which can be light or tight having minimum or maximum number of warp thread respectively. The specifications of the pashmina shawls manufactured are as under:
Type of product
Ladies shawl Gents shawl Stole

Quantity of Raw material


200-250 gms 370-400 gms 120-140 gms

Yardage

Type of Weave
13001800 warp threads 17002400 warp threads 750-850 warp threads

81- 41 108-54 81-27

AT A GLANCE Secondary data was collected from the related websites like J&K handloom department, J&K handicraft department, ICAR and various portal maintained by technology suppliers as well as from available data with CDI, Srinagar. Primary data was collected by a random sample of 100 artisans based on job done, scale of investment, turnover and product lines and interactive sessions held with Traders, Trader Manufacturers, Manufacturer Exporters and various BDS providers working in the area.

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1. PLAIN PASHMINA GOODS The plain pashmina products are the basic products manufactured from the Pashm wool. The entire process of weaving is by hand on basic type of foot loom setup on a wooden frame work, with a bench for a weaver. It has a warp beam, heddles and comb suspended from the top. This traditional loom works on the throw and catch movement of the shuttle back and forth across the warp. The wooden comb is brought down heavily to push the wool into place after each line of Warp is woven. The shuttle (Moik) used for weaving is entirely different from modern looms. It is tapered towards the ends with a hollow cylinder in the middle into which the weft yarn is stuffed after being wound around a long stick. The four heddles are controlled by foot peddles that are used to create different weaves like Twill, Diamond and Herring Bone. The Diamond weave is most popular and called Cheshm-e-Bulbul meaning eye of the Bulbul. Unlike modern looms, the regularity of throw and catch movement is continuously interrupted as the delicate yarn keep breaking and the weaver has to re-attach it with fresh Pashm Yarn. The plain pashmina products include ladies shawls, stoles and gents shawls. The plain pashmina products can also have variety of designs comprised of various intricate patterns as well as the reversible patterns having 2 different faces. Few patterns are illustrated here.

Gada Kond Bunai (Herringbone Weave)

Cheshm-e-Bulbul Bunai (Diamond weave)

Sade Bunai (Twill Weave)

Striped Design

Check Design

Reversable Check Design

SUPPLYCHAIN OF PASHMINA
INDUSTRY The supply chain of pashmina involves 9 different stages starting with the procurement of the raw material and ending with the distribution of the pashmina products to the end customers. The process involved from preparing the pashm wool to the packing of the manufactured pashmina products is known as the production process. Each stage of the production process is completed manually as the fiber keeps breaking through the whole process which cannot be tied except by physical hand. Therefore the fabric is the result of complete hand spinning and weaving. The different stages of plain pashmina production are as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Procuring the Pashm wool Preparing the Pashm wool Spinning the yarn Arranging the warp Weaving of fabric Clipping the loose threads Dyeing Washing and Packing Distribution.

animals. They collect this fleece and by combing the goats in the late spring, just before they molt. Sometimes these animals shed their coat by rubbing against rocks and bushes. The fleece is collected by this way also. Apart from natural shedding of inner fleece, the domesticated goat is so shared with a knife once a year at the commencement of summer. Scissors are not used because they allow the inner and outer layers of fleece to mix. Thus the outer hair is cut first and the under fleece is combed towards the head and cut off progressively. Even after taking such care there is always some mixture of hair which has to be sorted out manually. Raw pashm wool of 3 different kinds is brought into the Srinagar market mostly by Kashmir traders dealing in this business. The three types of pashmina are graded as A, B and C depending upon the content of pashmina present. The amount of pashmina contained is 38%, 32% and 30% respectively. Originally the raw pashm is Pashm is greasy, lumpy, discoloured wool mixed with strong hairs and many organic impurities like, dung, dirt and pieces of even skin which costs around Rs 2800 per kg but only about 35% of it is pashm which means about 2.85 Kg of raw pashm gives 1 kg of pure Pashm (which equals Rs. 7980). Pashm from Ladakh called Ariwalla is considered by shawl makers as the most superior quality followed by Topiwalla from Tibet.
Types of Raw Material Percentage of Pashmina Grade A 38% Rs 3000/ kg Grade B 32% Rs 2900/ kg Grade C 30% Rs 2600/ kg

PROCUREMENT OF RAW MATERIAL:


HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh. Types of pashmina are graded as A, B and C depending upon the content of pashmina present. Originally the raw pashm has many organic impurities like, dung, dirt and pieces of even skin and costs around Rs. 2800 per kg but only about 35% of it is usable, which means about 2.85 Kg of raw pashm gives 1 kg of pure Pashm (which equals to Rs. 7980).

Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh. In summer, most wool producing communities travel from higher altitudes to low heights along with their

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PREPERATION OF PASHM WOOL


HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh. Types of pashmina are graded as A, B and C depending upon the content of pashmina present. Originally the raw pashm has many organic impurities like, dung, dirt and pieces of even skin and costs around Rs. 2800 per kg but only about 35% of it is usable, which means about 2.85 Kg of raw pashm gives 1 kg of pure Pashm (which equals to Rs. 7980).

SPINNING OF YARN
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh. Types of pashmina are graded as A, B and C depending upon the content of pashmina present. Originally the raw pashm has many organic impurities like, dung, dirt and pieces of even skin and costs around Rs. 2800 per kg but only about 35% of it is usable, which means about 2.85 Kg of raw pashm gives 1 kg of pure Pashm (which equals to Rs. 7980).

It is the women folk, who buy the Pashm from small retailers called Poiwanis so that it can be processed and spun into yarn. The first step is manual removing of the strong hairs present in raw pashmina mostly by nails and fingers. Till recently it was largely performed in this long and laborious process which takes around 8 hours for preparing 50 grams of raw Pashm. Since the last ten years preparing the wool for spinning has been mechanized with private manufacturers installing machines to do the job. The dehairing of raw pashm by dehairing machines cost about Rs 300 per kg. Since 2.85kg of raw pashmina gives 1 kg of pure pashmina ,thus dehairing cost for getting 1kg of pure pashmina costs Rs 855/- and therefore takes the cost per kg to around Rs 8835/- . Hence the procurement of raw pashm in bulk is a profitable deal since buying dehaired pashmina costs 9500/- per kg which is currently being done by the people who can invest money in bulk. While mechanization has benefited the Pashmina industry by allowing large quantities of Pashm to be processed in less time and saving the drudgery for women, it has also increased potential for the adulteration of the Pashm wool. There are many divided opinions about the impact of the recent mechanization on the quality of the Pashm wool and has lead to no conclusive assessment on either the softness or fineness of the end Pashmina product.

The next step is the most tiring one of cleaning & separating the remaining coarse hairs and the seconds wool which is fibres of shorter length. This shorter length fibres makes the spinning more difficult and renders the yarn weak. Partially cleaned fine pashm wool is kept in the clean cold water usually for 24 hours till it produces a peculiar Pashmina odour and become soft. The water is then poured off and the pashm wool is completely mixed with the rice flour ground especially for this purpose. It is occasionally doused with water if weather is hot. After about an hour, the flour is shaken off along with any lingering dirt and the wool is opened out and torn to pieces, by nails and the comb. During this combing process the seconds wool of a shorter fibre length falls to the floor. Soap is never used and it is said that the flour absorbs excess oil in the Pashm and facilitates its combing. The fine Pashm is kneaded with comb and finger tips to remove the seconds wool. This process is called vechenawun. The instrument used for this purpose is called the KANGNI. The Kangni made of wood, is firmly mounted on a frame to allow smooth conduct of the job. Vechenawun is the most tiresome job for the eyes; the operation is carried out mostly in broad day light. Women folk, after performing their daily domestic work, patiently sit on their kneading job. The pashm is piled up and rendered into soft flat tufts or square pads, called TUMBU. Pashm is thus cleared of the PHIRI or the seconds wool. This process is repeated till the workers are satisfied that the wool is

absolutely free from the phiri. The soft and delicate pads of wool are kept in deep stone pots or TAS to keep them free from dust and dirt till it is spun. The spinning is done on the traditional charkhas called yeinders. A lump of Pashm is manipulated by the fingers of the left hand while the right hand is used to turn the Yeinder smoothly. The yarn thus prepared gets automatically wound around a detachable length of straw enclosed around the iron spindle. The next stepis to twist two of these threads together into a single yarn using a Preitz. When substantial yarn is collected around the yeirantul, it is slipped off, counted and knotted into denominators of ten threads each. The length of the yarn is usually measured in a Pan. A pan is about 9-10 inches long. There are several varieties of threads, distinguished by their degree of fineness.. The yarn continuously breaks and requires the deft fingers of the skilled artisan to regulate their speed and pressure needed to make even and smooth yarn. The women folk are provided one Tola of pashm for Rs 90 and they are given Rs 1 for one gund (9 threads of 9 inches) and one tola of pashm is spun into 200-250 gunds depending upon the fine spinning of pashmina by women. The hand spinning of pashm incurs around Rs 8.50 per gram for spinning and on average takes 3 days for a woman to spin 1 tola(10 gms). After the job is finished, the thread is then is sold to poiwoni. He evaluates the fineness of the yarn and pays the spinner accordingly. The yarn thus gathered is sold by the Poiwanis to the loom master and the karkhandar or the unit holder. The spinning machines have also been introduced which provide yarn which is a cheaper method of spinning the pashm and total cost including the raw material for providing yarn is about Rs 12.50 per gram as such it costs around Rs 3 per gram. However for obtaining machine yarn, the dehaired pashmina is to be mixed with a carrier substance like Nylon for giving strength to the thread. The yarn obtained from the machine is then carbonized with

acid in order to take the carrier off the thread. But the acid damaged the thread and reduces the life time of the fabric. However, nowadays water soluble carriers are also being used which can be removed by washing the thread with water. The machine yarn is thicker than hand spun yarn and also some proportion of carrier remain in the yarn. The proportion of pashmina in machine yarn varies from 70% to 50% but is sold in the name of pure pashmina which gives huge threat to the hand spun pashmina. PREPERATION OF WARP
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh. Types of pashmina are graded as A, B and C depending upon the content of pashmina present. Originally the raw pashm has many organic impurities like, dung, dirt and pieces of even skin and costs around Rs. 2800 per kg but only about 35% of it is usable, which means about 2.85 Kg of raw pashm gives 1 kg of pure Pashm (which equals to Rs. 7980).

Before weaving would actually commence, the yarn is subjected to warping, dressing and reeling. Hand spun bunch of thread, known as Poiy/Hank being applied Rente Maay which gives the weak thread strength and the poiys are then dried in sun in summers or in front of heaters during winter. The dried poiy is then put into two wooden stands known as Theane Joor and the yarn is then spun onto wooden instrument known as Pretchz. The yarn is taken off the pretchz and is applied Saresh Maaye. Then the yarn is again put on pretchz and is spun on other pretchz, the two pretchz being holded in two hands and the process is known as Pretchz to Pretchz. This process of Pretchz to Pretchz is done several times in order to get the yarn stronger. Thus the entire poiy are prepared and yarn is now ready for warp. Artisans usually take up material for 4 shawls or chunni for preparation of warp for cost effectiveness. Preparing the hand spun

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yarn of 4 shawls (1 kg pashmina) for warp it takes about 12-16 working days of a single artisan. Apart from the artisans themselves, the job is also done by few people who are involved with the preparation of warp only and charge about Rs 1000 for the job. Thus average cost for preparing yarn for 1 shawl is about Rs 250/-.In case of Gents shawl (1 shawl = 3 Guzz), material taken up may be for 2,3or 4 shawls i.e. 6 guzz,9 guzz or 12 guzz and in case of ladies stoles material taken up is for 8 stoles for the purpose of cost effectiveness. Naqat, the warp maker, adjusts the dyed yarn for warp and weft as per the design to be produced. The warp consists of threads of double yarn while as weft is usually of a single but thicker yarn wound around the Bobbin in the shuttle. There are variations in the combination of the yarns for the warp and weft depending on the closeness or openness of texture proposed and the kind of value addition that it has to take. Thus 100gm of hand spun yarn gives about 700 warp threads. The weft is usually of a single but thicker yarn wound around the Bobbin in the shuttle. This process is known as Yaerun. It costs about Rs 50 for yaerun of 1shawl or chunni. Pennakami-gor, or warp dresser with the help of sticks stretches the length into a band and immerses it into boiled rice water. After getting it out of the water, he squeezes it and then again draws it into a band which is brushed and left to dry. In this process each thread is stiff and rests apart from each other. The yarn is then given to the WARP THREADER /Barengur who passes it through heddles with the help of an assistant. The Barengur charges Rs 12 per 100 threads. Since 4 shawls taken for the purpose of cost effectiveness and the Barengur charges around Rs 250, thus the average cost of installing the warp on the loom is Rs 60 per shawl. Weavers later on fix it on to the loom. WEAVING OF FABRIC
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh.

Types of pashmina are graded as A, B and C depending upon the content of pashmina present. Originally the raw pashm has many organic impurities like, dung, dirt and pieces of even skin and costs around Rs. 2800 per kg but only about 35% of it is usable, which means about 2.85 Kg of raw pashm gives 1 kg of pure Pashm (which equals to Rs. 7980).

Weaver prepares a loom for Pashmina weaving. The entire process of weaving is by hand on basic type of foot loom setup on a wooden frame work, with a bench for a weaver. The labour of artisan per shawl ranges from 800-1000 weaving a machine spun yarn shawl and 1000-1200 for hand spun yarn because the machine spun yarn is stronger and does not cut while weaving which is the case with hand spun yarn where the thread is delicate .The capacity of an artisan is 4 shawls per month in case of hand spun yarn which may increase to 6 to 8 shawls in case of machine spun yarn.2 gents shawls ( 6 guzz ) material is equivalent to 4 ladies chunni and therefore takes 1 artisan about 12 to 16 days for material preparation and other 14-18 days for weaving yielding artisan about Rs 40004800. Also in case of stoles, 8 stoles are equivalent to 4 chunni. For weaving one Stole, an artisan earns Rs 500-600, depending upon the type of weave which may be tight or light. The total earning of a plain pashmina weaver per month is about Rs 5000-6000 including Rs 1000 of preparing of yarn and thus the average earning per day Rs 170-200. CLIPPING OF THREADS
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh. Types of pashmina are graded as A, B and C depending upon the content of pashmina present. Originally the raw pashm has many organic impurities like, dung, dirt and pieces of even skin and costs around Rs. 2800 per kg but only about 35% of it is usable, which means about 2.85 Kg of raw pashm gives 1 kg of pure Pashm (which equals to Rs. 7980).

Pashmina thus woven in the manner described above is sent to the Purzgar or Clipper, whose role is to free them from disordered hairs or yarn and nips mixed with the threads during spinning. He also removes loose ends and knots with perfection. Purzgar employs a pair of large pincers moving it rhythmically over the fabric in a clipping action. Purzgar costs around Rs 100 per chunni.

it is to be dyed with a single colour. In case of a designed shawl constituting of various colours, the threads are to be dyed before warping and are adjusted in the warp as per the requirements. The dyer charges Rs 4-5 per Tola for dying pashmina threads while as the cost of dying a shawl with a single colour is about Rs 60-70/-. WASHING & PACKING
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh. Types of pashmina are graded as A, B and C depending upon the content of pashmina present. Originally the raw pashm has many organic impurities like, dung, dirt and pieces of even skin and costs around Rs. 2800 per kg but only about 35% of it is usable, which means about 2.85 Kg of raw pashm gives 1 kg of pure Pashm (which equals to Rs. 7980).

DYEING
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh. Types of pashmina are graded as A, B and C depending upon the content of pashmina present. Originally the raw pashm has many organic impurities like, dung, dirt and pieces of even skin and costs around Rs. 2800 per kg but only about 35% of it is usable, which means about 2.85 Kg of raw pashm gives 1 kg of pure Pashm (which equals to Rs. 7980).

Constituting a separate class of workers, the dyers are proficient in dyeing yarn with various brilliant colours and tints of permanent nature. Previously most of the colours were derived from natural vegetable dyes such as kirmizy, gullaly (red), zaitooni (olive), badamy (light brown), fakhtai (grey) and zaharmuhri (light brown). Presently most of the dyers have shifted to using industrially produced dyes available in the market. The unique skill of the Dyer/Kashmiri Rangrez lies in achieving the same subtle colours capturing the softness of the natural colours of the past. The process consists of soaking the Pashmina yarn in boiling water mixed with specified proportion of dye material. Sulphuric acid solution is added in the last stages to open out the Pashm wool so that the colour is sealed inside. The yarn is subsequently rinsed thoroughly and dried. The woven yardage is given to the rangrez dyer to be dyed according to the requirements of the end product. The shawls are given for dying at the end of weaving if

Finally the shawl is sent to a washer man who has specialized in shawl washing. He washes it very cautiously with locally manufactured caustic free soap comprised of Renthas etc. The shawls are washed in clear, cold water on the bank of streams in Srinagar in open air. The more recent washing units use laboratory soaps and softeners along with hand operated machines to remove access water. Washed and dried shawls are subjected to calendaring done with the help of a wooden cylinder for two days. After this process shawls are pressed and wrapped in sheets of smooth kite paper and polythene bags to prevent insects and moths. The washing costs around Rs 50-70/- per shawl.

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HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
In ancient Kashmir Pashmina shawls were woven by the weavers called Tantuvaya. Kashmir has been famous throughout the world for manufacture of the light, warm and elegant article of dress which forms its native appellation known as the Shaal. The word SHAAL exists in Persian, Arabic and English, denoting a kind of very soft and delicate woolen cloth of Kashmir, worn on shoulders. The weaving of Pashmina shawls appears to be known to Kashmiris prior to the Christian Calendar Era. The earliest references about the Pashmina have been from the Chinese, Pilgrim Huien Tsang who traveled to India in 631 AD. The Pashmina fabric was woven in Kashmir as small time craft by the peasantry before the medieval period. It was after the arrival of Sayyads from Central Asia, called Sadat, to Kashmir in 13th century and with the establishment of Muslim Rule the Pashmina manufacturing became an organized industry. Thus Pashmina, as organized industry was founded by Mir Saiyyad Ali Hamadani (R.A) in 1378. Mirza Haider Kashgari (Duglat) in 1541 started to bring the fleece of Pashmina goat from Ladakh with the help of a Persian craft master Naghz Beg in order to produce best Pashmina shawls. When the Mughals conquered Kashmir in 1586 AD, Pashmina as an industry was well developed in Kashmir. Under the Mughals regular shawl trade was established and the industry was organized to produce the shawls with unique craftsmanship so that it could be worn by the royalty and their courtiers. The treaty signed between Maharaja Gulab Singh and Tibetan Government (1842) guaranteed the export-of Pashmina wool and tea by way of Ladakh in accordance with the ancient usage. Pashmina weaving remained a small time craft of the Peasantry of Ladakh who used to produce Pashmina for two purposes: (i) For native population (ii) For export market of Central Asia.

By the 17th century, Kashmir Pashmina apparels with different kinds of ornamentation had become Fashion in Europe.

AT A GLANCE Secondary data was collected from the related websites like J&K handloom department, J&K handicraft department, ICAR and various portal maintained by technology suppliers as well as from available data with CDI, Srinagar. Primary data was collected by a random sample of 100 artisans based on job done, scale of investment, turnover and product lines and interactive sessions held with Traders, Trader Manufacturers, Manufacturer Exporters and various BDS providers working in the area.

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VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF PLAIN PASHMINA LADIES SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 81 - 41
Rs. 6070/Washing & Packing Rs. 50/Value Addition 0.82% Rs. 6020/Clipping Rs. 100/Value Addition 1.65% Rs. 5920/Weaving Rs. 1000/Value Addition 16.47% Rs. 4920/Barengur Rs. 60/-

Value Addition 0.99% Rs. 4820/-

Warping

Rs. 50/-

Value Addition 0.82% Rs. 4810/-

Dyeing

Rs. 60/-

Value Addition 0.99% Rs. 4750/-

Preparation of yarn @ Rs. 1000/-kg 250 gms = Rs 250/-

Value Addition 4.11% Rs 4500/-

Spinning Rs. 8.50/gm 250 gm = Rs. 2125/-

Value Addition 35% Rs. 2375/-

Machine Dehaired Raw material cost @ 9500/-kg 250gm = Rs. 2375/-

Value Addition 39.12%

VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


TIME ANALYSIS OF PLAIN PASHMINA LADIES SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 81 - 41

Washing & Drying

Time taken 2 Days

Clipping

Avg. Time taken 1 Day

Weaving

Weavers time 3 Days

Barengur

Avg. Time taken 4 Days

Warping

Time taken 1 Day

Dyeing & Drying

Time taken 1 Day

Preparation of Yarn

Avg. Time taken by a weaver 4 Days

Spinning

Avg. Time taken by 1 woman 75 Days

Machine Dehairing of Raw material

1 Day

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VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF PLAIN PASHMINA GENTS SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 108 - 54
Rs. 9510/Washing & Packing Rs. 100/ Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 9410/Clipping Rs. 100/Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 9310/Weaving Rs. 2000/Value Addition 21.03 7% Rs. 7310/Barengur Rs. 120/-

Value Addition 1.26 % Rs. 7190/-

Warping

Rs. 100/-

Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 7090/-

Dyeing

Rs. 60/-

Value Addition 0.63 % Rs. 7030/-

Preparation of yarn @ Rs. 1000/-kg 370 gms = Rs. 370/-

Value Addition 3.89 % Rs. 6660/

Spinning Rs. 8.50/gm 370 gm = Rs. 3145/-

Value Addition 33.07 % Rs. 3515/-

Machine Dehaired Raw material cost @ 9500/-kg 370 gm = Rs. 3515/-

Value Addition 36.96 %

VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF LADIES PASHMINA SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 81 - 41
Rs. 9510/Washing & Packing Rs. 100/ Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 9410/Clipping Rs. 100/Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 9310/Weaving Rs. 2000/Value Addition 21.03 7% Rs. 7310/Barengur Rs. 120/-

Value Addition 1.26 % Rs. 7190/-

Warping

Rs. 100/-

Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 7090/-

Dyeing

Rs. 60/-

Value Addition 0.63 % Rs. 7030/-

Preparation of yarn @ Rs. 1000/-kg 370 gms = Rs. 370/-

Value Addition 3.89 % Rs. 6660/

Spinning Rs. 8.50/gm 370 gm = Rs. 3145/-

Value Addition 33.07 % Rs. 3515/-

Machine Dehaired Raw material cost @ 9500/-kg 370 gm = Rs. 3515/-

Value Addition 36.96 %

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VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


TIME ANALYSIS OF PLAIN PASHMINA GENTS SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 108 - 54

Washing & Drying

Time taken 2 Days

Clipping

Avg. Time taken 1 Day

Weaving

Weavers time 7 Days

Barengur

Avg. Time taken 4 Days

Warping

Time taken 1 Day

Dyeing & Drying

Time taken 1 Day

Preparation of Yarn

Avg. Time taken by a weaver 6 Days

Spinning

Avg. Time taken by 1 woman 111 Days

Machine Dehairing of Raw material

1 Day

2. KANI PASHMINA PRODUCTS


Kani shawl is a particular type of shawl that is woven using numerous eyeless wooden spokes in place of shuttle-Moik. These spokes are traditionally called Tujis of Kanis meaning eyeless, hence the name Kani Shawl is given to this particular shawl woven. The Kani pashmina products include ladies Kani shawls and gents Kani shawls. The technique of shawl weaving has been termed as the Twill Tapestry Weave by Sir John Irwin. In this particular technique wefts of the patterned part of the fabric are inserted by means of wooden spools or spokes without the use of the shuttle. Weft threads alone form the pattern: these do not run the full width of the cloth, being woven back and forth round the warp threads only where each colour is needed. The practice of weaving is also found in Europe. The significant difference between the technique as practiced in Europe and Kashmir is that in the former case the ground is plain weave whereas it is twill in Kashmir. The Kani shawl has been historically produced using fine hand spun Pashmina and Shahtoosh fabric which have further added to its richness and earned it the name of ring-shawls meaning that it can pass through the ring. Though 80% of contemporary Kani shawls continue to be produced out of fine hand spun fibers of pashmina wool, it has also expanded the range of raw materials to silk and other fine wool. Therefore, it is the technique that is considered for registration without specifying any particular raw material used for the weaving of the shawl. UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS The most unique aspect of this tapestried form of weaving is the interlocking of each weft yarn with the one before it and with the one after it wherever there is a change of colour, thus distinguishing the different motifs in the pattern. It also gives the shawl strength and durability as it uses a single weft thread unlike the jacquard imitations

which are woven with double weft threads. Researchers are of the opinion that this interlocking technique is not practiced by any other contemporary weaving tradition and also that it cannot be performed by the present technology and machines available in weaving. This ingenious innovation from the Kashmiri artisans is the reason for its unparalleled quality, both historically and in the contemporary age of high technology, even though the visual motifs and designs have been endlessly imitated. The Kani shawl is unique also in the waythat every single shawl is woven based on a drawing of the pattern visualized by a designer and its corresponding Talim, which is a coded script consisting of precise instructions to be strictly followed by the weaver during the weaving process The colour palette is also given a lot of importance and is done by a colour schemer and the yarns for the weft and warps are subsequently dyed by traditional dyers who are skilled in producing the subtle yet colourful shades of colour. Thus, the Kani shawl is woven in a highly streamlined manner employing specialized artisans at each stage. During the intricate process of its weaving, the Kani shawl Design slowly evolves with the manipulation of the weavers deft fingers till the colours become significant in

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the fabric, displaying such twists and turns in the pattern that that the vision almost fails to follow it. It is a time consuming and laborious craft employing 100 to 1500 Kanis in a single shawl, depending on its intricacy and only about half an inch is woven per day by two weavers working on a shawl simultaneously. Kani shawls have been exported to England, France, Russia, Turkey, Morocco & Egypt, Persia and even Japan. It has continuously changed and adapted to the demand and taste of its patrons and has evolved over the last 400 yrs absorbing Persian, European and the Indian aesthetic influences.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
From the reign of Sultan Shahabuddin in 1354 AD, Kashmir witnessed a sudden surge in economic development.. His most important contribution was to make the authorities in Ladakh, Kashgar and Tibet, bound by an agreement to supply Pashm, the Pashmina goats wool primarily used in Kani shawl weaving, regularly to Kashmir. It is said that the next great king of Kashmir, Sultan Zainul Abideen, invited Central Asian artists to introduce this technique in the valley. He exchanged craftsmen to reflect the beautiful environs through this technique. Therefore, the patterns and designs woven looked like sketches of the trees, landscape and human figures. The first step taken towards the development of the craft was its production in rolls of one and a half yards of width and three and a half yards of length each; a few threads of the same wool jointly dyed in indigo were woven to form the breadth wise border of about a barley gain width on either sides of the roll. Similar lines also came to be woven length wise. After a lapse of few month One more innovation was made instead of using shuttle for weaving, a thin instrument chiseled to a definite shape and called Seekh. This Seekh was replaced by Kani in the later days as it was easily available and suited the environment. With the fall of Sultanate period in Kashmir, the Mughals (1586 to 1752 AD) became new masters who showed great interest in the development of the shawl industry of Kashmir. It was during this period that Kani shawls attained great perfection when production processes and market trends underwent a qualitative change globally. An account says that three hundred colours were known in Mughal Shawls. According to some researchers the credit for invention of Du-shaala, goes to King Akbar. Du-Shaalas are two Shawls stitched back to back to conceal the ridges left by weaving and from a single

THIS TECHNIQUE RESULTS IN SHAWLS THAT ARE:

relatively light weight using a single weft yarn unlike its Jacquard imitations; having a compact weave as the weft yarns are interlocked with each other at each colour change, unlike its Jacquard imitations or other brocades which have weft yarns that are loose; soft in texture as the shawls are hand woven with very fine & delicate yarns of pashmina; with an interlocking of weft yarns all along the outline of the pattern and motifs wherever there is a change of colour. (It may not be visible to the eye, yet it is possible to check it by loosening a single weft yarn slightly or by examining it under a magnifying lens).

reversible shawl. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the shawl industry in Kashmir went on to grow and develop further. In the reign of the Emperor Mohammad Shah, a new floral design was introduced and named after him, Mohammad Shah Buta. With the decline of the Mughal fiat over the region and due to their humiliating defeat at the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali, who captured Kashmir in the year 1752, the Kani Shawl changed its character and adapted itself to the tastes of new buyers in Persia, Middle East and Eastern Europe. The Afghans(1753-1819 AD) introduced a cruel method of taxation known as the Dag-Shawl and henceforth shawl trade became a source of corruption and exploitation. The whole shawl system was controlled by the governor. No shawl maker could escape this practice with impunity It was during the governorship of Abdullah Khan (1796 AD) that the Kashmiri Kani shawl reached Europe. During the Afghan rule over Kashmir, some different motifs appeared on Kasmir Kani shawls which reflected the Kashmir environment. It was the boteh (Booti, as kashmiri artisans call it), the pine cone, the tear drop and more popular in the west, the paisley. During the Sikh rule (1819-1846 AD) in Kashmir the shawl industry was under strict control of the feudal administration. In order to reduce the monopoly of Kashmiris, Maharaja Ranjit Singh tried similarly to manufacture shawls at Lahore but failed in the same manner as the British failed in their imitations. The Kani shawls were also exported to Iran and turned into common accessories for both men and women. Domestic manufacturers in Iran and Europe began replicating the Kani Shawls, but without fine materials and workmanship that distinguished the originals. During Dogra Period (1846-1947 AD period the Kashmir shawl industry, especially the Kani, witnessed a many up and down trends. Between 1850s and 1860s the shawl export of Kashmir, more than doubled, far exceeding the usual sale target during that period

of time. However, during the Prussian War of 1870-71, the French market of Kashmiri Kani shawls received a set back and a sudden collapse. With the introduction of Jacquard Loom in Europe in 1805, a machine made copied version of Kani shawl came into existence It is said that after the Franco- Prussian war in 1870, which almost all finished the European market for Kashmir Crafts, many shawl weaving families forgot the old Kani craft. The Kani Shawl weaving further received a set back again on account of the famine of 1878 and 1879 Many shawl- weavers left Kashmir for Lahore, Amritsar and Ludhiana where they carried on the trade up to 1947. After that they returned to the valley with a new determination to re-establish Kani craft. Some of the traditional Kani weaver families had retained the knowhow and skills associated to Kani Shawl weaving They have extended training to several young weavers, both men and women and Kani shawl weaving. So the Kani shawl weaving has quickly become a sustainable source of employment for many people in the Valley. The government of J&K has also extended extensive assistance and financed few Kani weaving units. As a result of the encouragement from the State, the Kani Shawl Weaving is fast developing cottage industrial sector and regaining its lost importance and luster and, thereby, contributing to the economic development of the State.

AT A GLANCE Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude.

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SUPPLYCHAIN OF KANI SHAWL


PRODUCTION PROCESS The process of making Kani pashmina shawls involve 8 different stages and each stage is completed manually. The different stages of plain pashmina production are as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Preparing the Pashm wool Spinning the yarn Dyeing. Arranging the warp Weaving of fabric Clipping Washing and Packing

subsequently dyed by traditional dyers who are skilled in producing the subtle yet colourful shades of colour. Kani shawls are intricately patterned using around 12-15 different weft colours in a single pick of the weave. The tujis in a shawl may vary from 100-200 having the dyed weft threads on them. The dyer charges Rs 4-5 per Tola(10 grams) of pashmina threads. ARRANGING OF WARP:
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh.

PREPERATION OF PASHM WOOL:


HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh.

The process is same as has been explained in the Plain Pashmina production process. However the only difference is that the material taken up for Kani shawls is always for a single shawl.

WEAVING OF FABRIC:
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh.

The procedure for preparing the raw pashm wool is same as explained in Plain Pashmina production process. SPINNING OF YARN:
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh.

The pashmina is spun as has been explained in the Plain Pashmina production process. DYEING:
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh.

The yarns for the weft and warps are

In this particular technique of weaving, wefts of the patterned part of the fabric are inserted by means of wooden spools or spokes without the use of the shuttle. Weft threads alone form the pattern: these do not run the full width of the cloth, being woven back and forth round the warp threads only where each colour is needed. As far as Kani shawl weavers are concerned, it takes 1artisans about 6 months to complete one ladies shawl, 10-11 months to complete gents shawl (3 Guzz) and 3 months to complete stole. The income for an artisan ranges 5000-6000 per month as the labour for Kani ladies shawl is Rs 35000-40,000 for 3 guzz gents shawl it is Rs 60,000 to 65,000. The total earning of a Kani pashmina weaver is about Rs 6000 per month as such the earning per day for Kani weaver is about

Rs 200/-. The earnings per day for a skilful and more dedicated weaver can go up to Rs 250/-. CLIPPING:
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh.

The process of clipping the loose threads of the woven shawl is same as has been explained in the Plain Pashmina production. WASHING:
HIGHLIGHTS Pashm, the raw material comes from domesticated goats called Capra Hiracus from high altitude pastures of Western Himalayas, including the contiguous South Eastern Ladakh.

c. Butidaar Shawl, in which small or large butis (individual motif) is used repetitively. d. Khat-e-raas shawl, with various striped patterns rendered with almond, leaf and flower motifs. Langedaar and Thahridaar are variations of a striped shawl. e. Jamawar shawl, in which the entire field is covered with intricate all over pattern and motifs. f. Chand-daar Shawl, a square or rectangular shawl with a central medallion and four quarter medallions on four corners. It is also called the moon shawl. g. Du-Shaalli, two shawls that are stitched together back to back to form a single reversible shawl.

The washing of the Kani shawls is done with more care as compared to the plain pashmina shawls and it costs more than plain pashmina shawls. The washer charges Rs 150-200 for washing a Kani shawl as he has to use some more washing substrates in order to prevent the fabric as well as the colour from getting damaged while washing. PATTERNS OF KANI SHAWLS: The patterns comprise of a range of floral, almond, cypress tree, chinar leaf and fruit motifs inspired by the flora and fauna of Kashmir Valley. The predominant motif that is seen in the Kani Shawl is the elongated Almond buti with a bent tip, also known as `Teardrop motif, Kairi or mango motif and the `elongated cone or `Paisley motif in the Mediterranean, Indian and European cultures, respectively. Characteristic Kani Shawl designs are: a. Hashiadaar Shawl, with narrow running borders on all four sides. b. Palladaar Shawl, with intricate pattern only on the two ends of the shawl along with narrow borders.

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VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF KANI PASHMINA LADIES SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 81 - 41

Rs. 9510/Washing & Packing Rs. 100/ Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 9410/Clipping Rs. 100/Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 9310/Weaving Rs. 2000/Value Addition 21.03 7% Rs. 7310/Barengur Rs. 120/-

Value Addition 1.26 % Rs. 7190/-

Warping

Rs. 100/-

Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 7090/-

Dyeing

Rs. 60/-

Value Addition 0.63 % Rs. 7030/-

Preparation of yarn @ Rs. 1000/-kg 370 gms = Rs. 370/-

Value Addition 3.89 % Rs. 6660/

Spinning Rs. 8.50/gm 370 gm = Rs. 3145/-

Value Addition 33.07 %

Rs. 3515/Machine Dehaired Raw material cost @ 9500/-kg 370 gm = Rs. 3515/Value Addition 36.96 %

VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


TIME ANALYSIS OF KANI PASHMINA LADIES SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 81 - 41

Washing & Drying

Time taken 2 Days

Clipping

Avg. Time taken 1 Day

Weaving

Weavers time 7 Days

Barengur

Avg. Time taken 4 Days

Warping

Time taken 1 Day

Dyeing & Drying

Time taken 1 Day

Preparation of Yarn

Avg. Time taken by a weaver 6 Days

Spinning

Avg. Time taken by 1 woman 111 Days

Machine Dehairing of Raw material

1 Day

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VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF KANI PASHMINA GENTS SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 108 - 54

Rs. 9510/Washing & Packing Rs. 100/ Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 9410/Clipping Rs. 100/Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 9310/Weaving Rs. 2000/Value Addition 21.03 7% Rs. 7310/Barengur Rs. 120/-

Value Addition 1.26 % Rs. 7190/-

Warping

Rs. 100/-

Value Addition 1.05 % Rs. 7090/-

Dyeing

Rs. 60/-

Value Addition 0.63 % Rs. 7030/-

Preparation of yarn @ Rs. 1000/-kg 370 gms = Rs. 370/-

Value Addition 3.89 % Rs. 6660/

Spinning Rs. 8.50/gm 370 gm = Rs. 3145/-

Value Addition 33.07 %

Rs. 3515/Machine Dehaired Raw material cost @ 9500/-kg 370 gm = Rs. 3515/Value Addition 36.96 %

VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


TIME ANALYSIS OF KANI PASHMINA GENTS SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 108 - 54

Washing & Drying

Time taken 2 Days

Clipping

Avg. Time taken 1 Day

Weaving

Weavers time 7 Days

Barengur

Avg. Time taken 4 Days

Warping

Time taken 1 Day

Dyeing & Drying

Time taken 1 Day

Preparation of Yarn

Avg. Time taken by a weaver 6 Days

Spinning

Avg. Time taken by 1 woman 111 Days

Machine Dehairing of Raw material

1 Day

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3. SOZNI SHAWL SOZNI KEAM:


Basically the word Sozni is a Persian derivative. The word Sozni means needle and sozan-kari the needle work. The person who performs this craft is called the sozankar. There are similar words in Kashmiri lexicon. Sozni work is exclusively used to add value to Plain pashmina products for high end market segments. Sozan in ancient Kashmiri language meant a wise man. The 13th Century mystic poet Sheikh-ul-Allam has used this word in one of his couplets called shalok in Kashmiri. He says: Sozan Ishara seeten bozan Kozan bozan na dum duma gath (Meaning: The wise will understand by small hints, while as, fools will not understand even if we cry a lot) So, if we consider the Kashmiri word Sozan as the origin of the Sozni then it means a craft performed by the wise men. Subsequently, it has become synonymous to the craft form in which embroidery is performed by the skill full traditional Sozni embroiderers of Kashmir, using motifs depicting geography of the land through coloured threads and a fine needle work. While there are many different stitches used in executing these patterns, the Sozni craft employs predominantly the Sozni stitch, darn stitch and stem stitch. The button hole stitch, herring bone stitch, chain stitch, satin stitch and knot stitches are also used but in limited proportions. In fact the Sozni stitch is a kind of fine couching stitch with a reinforcing stitch laid over it .The Sozni embroidery craft from Kashmir is immediately recognizable because of the predominant use of this Sozni stitch, both in the outlining and the filling up of the motif and even in the rendering of petals and leaves. The demand of the Sozni embroidery has, in recent times, expanded to a range of applications like sarees, dress materials,

accessories and home furnishings. Like wise, the range of fabrics that Sozni embroidery is being done on has also expanded to various natural fibres and synthetics like cotton, silk, chiffon, silk crepes and spun polyester. UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS: The unique aspect of Sozni embroidery is the way it uses the Sozni stitch which lends it a distinct identity of overall delicacy and uniformity on both sides of the fabric. It also renders the embroidery very strong and durable. The various unique characteristics of Sozni work are as under: a. The total appearance is of highly intricate patterns with a very colourful look but yet balanced harmoniously so that it does not hurt the eye. The Sozni stitch can be a simple continuous line as an outline or diamond shaped outline used for petals and flowers. It can also be used in filling up of a motif with small stitches. It always has a reinforcing stitch over it. b. Sozni embroidery is minute work and highly skill and time intensive. The stitches are so fine that there is very little embroidery visible on the reverse side of the fabric. Therefore it is also expensive. c. There are many varieties of Sozni embroidery being practiced today depending on the price that the client is willing to pay or the market segment being targeted. d. The patterns and motifs used in Sozni craft were initially copied from the loom woven designs of Kashmir; hence, it is also referred as Amlikar work, which literally means to copy. Subsequently the Sozni hand embroidery evolved its own free flowing, colourful and independent character covering a range of themes restricted only by the visualization and skill of the Sozni craftsmen.

e. The abundance of colours is most evident in Sozni embroidery and selection of colours is considered very important with endless discussions amongst the master craftsmen about the exact shade of colours to be used. The subtle and yet colourful look associated to Sozni craft from Kashmir is much dependent on the use of colours in the embroidery.
AT A GLANCE Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
The historians unanimously believe that this craft has been introduced and improved by the Sadat who came to Kashmir in 14th Century in order to save themselves from the persecution of the then Tyrant rulers in Central Asia. The most respectable personality who visited Kashmir in 14th Century was Mir Syed Ali Hamadani who is considered to be the founder of organized Islam in Kashmir. It is said that Hashiya (the border) in Sozni on Kashmiri shawls is his invention. According to some researchers Zainul Abideen (1420-1470 AD) sent some Kashmiris to Iran and Central Asia for learning these different arts and professions. After Zainul Abidin, it was Mirza Haider Dughlat, sent for artists and craftsmen from all quarters,and laboured for the renown and prosperity of Kashmir The Mughals (1586-1752 AD) encouraged this craft for their own ends. They decorated their robes, gowns and sashes with embroidery using golden and silver thread. The Sozani was specially applied to shawls for decorating them with this fine and minute embroidery which had no parallels. Akbars admiration for embroidered shawl designs is well documented. It is also known that during his reign, His royal decree initiated important exchanges between the two textile weaving lands that culminated in the immigration of Persian merchants and traders, who like their European counterparts two hundred years later, began to organize this craft into a much larger enterprise for their own benefit. It was during this period that Sozani embroidered sashes reached far and wide to the extent of Western Europe. After the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the Sozini embroidery became more popular in the western market owing to its rich colour spectrum and exquisite workshop with beautiful composer design depicting common local symbols. From the mid 19th century, Kashmiri artisans started producing Du-rukha design in Sozani embroidery, which

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meant no reverse side but have designs on both the sides of the shawls and sashes. At the end of 19th century the Shawl industry in Kashmir experienced a decline, mainly due to Franco Prussian war of 1870-71, which almost all finished the export demand of shawls. It was the Sozini embroidery that gave lease of life to the Kashmir shawl exports due to its bewitching and exquisite designs. Besides shawls, Sozani embroidery was performed by the skilful kashmiri embroiderers on the oriental dresses, gowns, coverlets, table-cloth and similar goods. This craft gave boost to the tourist market in Kashmir as many tourists visited for shopping purpose also. In the twentieth century, the Sozani embroidery became a burgeoning trade in enriching fabrics with this craft. Sozani embroidered rumals (kerchiefs/ scarves) became a big export commodity for Eastern Mediterranean markets. The production of such variety of products in Sozni created a potential for employment in this craft in the postindependent Kashmir. Realizing the vast potential for employment, the J & K Government has undertaken large-scale training programmes for the youth in different crafts, using their inherent skills in learning and creating the new designs while conserving the past. The Directorate of Handicrafts, J & K Government, has established Sozani training centers throughout the State.

Hashia, a running pattern on all edges of the fabric like a Border. Dour/ Palla, a large sized border with large motifs (4-10 Inches) used on opposite edges of the fabric. Mattan, is the main field of the fabric which may be left plain or also rendered with embroidery. Buti, individual unit motif that is repeated. Buta is a large sized Buti. Kingri, a three petaled flower that separates the field from the border. Kanj, a running buttonhole stitch edging the fabric. Kanij, an arched, running pattern signifying the end of the palla. Bel, continuous straight lines demarcating border from kingri and kanj.

MOTIFS: The contemporary popular themes are mostly floral themes from the rich vocabulary of the natural environment of Kashmir. The majestic chinar and Cyprus trees; flowers like the iris, narcissus, tulips, lotus, roses and dahlias depicted like lush gardens with tracing creepers and leaves; Fruit themes are mostly around almond, grape, pomegranate and cherries and cotton seed; and Geometric themes depict the octagonal chandelier, diamond and elliptical patterns. The most dominant motif in Sozni embroidery is the Buti , a floral or almond motif with a bent tip which has persisted all along in different forms. The Buta is the larger version of the Buti. The rich repertoire of motifs and patterns are found across Kashmir crafts in papier mache, wood carving and silver engraving and form a common visual vocabulary of Kashmir crafts that again finds a resonance in the natural environment of Kashmir but it is most accurately and emphatically demonstrated in the sozni embroidery craft of Kashmir. The rendering flowers are never boring as they are alternated with full blossomed, radial and bud like depictions of the same flowers representing the different fruiting and flowering seasons and the different seasons and festivals that form an integral part of Kashmiri life.

AT A GLANCE Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude.

DESIGN VOCABULARY: The overall design vocabulary has the following components:

PATTERNS: The Embroidery is usually applied in the following ways. Border (Hashia), Buti and Jaali are predominantly on apparel accessories and furnishings; Neem jama, Jamawar and Kunjdaar on shawls.
KUNJDAAR

JAMA

A Kunj is a large sized (6-10 inches) motif that is placed on the corner of the fabric moving towards the center and usually accompanied by a corresponding border and the shawl is known as kunjdaar.
BAELDAAR

Jama is a highly intricate Sozni embroidery form and is so completely filled in with stitches that it barely allows any ground fabric to be visible. It is also refered to as Jamavaar and is derived from the word Jama, meaning an article of clothing, since Mughal times. It lends a stiff heaviness to the fabric because of the compactness of the embroidery. Almond, floral and chinar motifs are most commonly used in this highly expensive and exclusive type of Sozni embroidery.
AT A GLANCE Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude.

Bael are the continuous straight lines demarcating border from kingri and kanj and the shawl is known as baeldaar.
HASHIADAAR

It has the borders are of _ inch, _ in, 1in, 1.5 in, 2 in to even 3 inches applied on the edges of the fabric. 3in to 8in borders are also given different names like Dour, Palla and are called dourdaar and palladaar respectively.
BUTIDAAR

It has mostly small sized (2- 4 inches) individual motifs that are repeated at regular intervals in straight lines or one up one down order. They consist of almond, flower or geometric motifs that are also correspondingly repeated in the border.
JAALI

All these patterns of embroidery work can be implemented in a variety of styles on the pashmina shawls. Few of the well known are:
THE DO-RUKHA STYLE

Jaali is a kind of lacy net like pattern embroidered all over the fabric. The pattern can be of lines that are criss- crossed, or wave like and interspersed with flower butis and leaves. Each of these variations have different local names to differentiate them like lehardaar, Longedaar and Khateraas meaning wavelike, diagonal and stripes respectively.
NEEM JAMA

Do- Rukha means double sided or reversible embroidery. In this style of Sozni embroidery, the pattern appears exactly the same on both sides of the fabric while a comparatively untidy finish on the reverse side would make it Ek- Rukha. The embroidery is so carefully done with the length and placement of stitches regulated so accurately that both sides are rendered with the same pattern and appears equally finished. It is the finest achievement of Kashmiri embroidery and a tribute to the ingenuity of the skilled artisans of Kashmir.
THE DO- RANGA STYLE

Neem jama refers more specifically to the quantity of embroidery done on the fabric, though it is usually an all over pattern. It is more extensive than the Jaali embroidery and less than a completely filled in Jama embroidery, therefore popularly called neem jama, meaning less than Jama.

This is a more advanced form of Do-Rukha in which the embroidery is done only on one side of the fabric leaving the reverse side completely blank. Subsequently the second side is again embroidered but in different colours. Therefore, it is called Do- Ranga, which literally means two- coloured. This unique style of Sozni embroidery is done by ensuring that the needle pierces through the middle of the warp thread and not

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therefore, not seen on the reverse side of the base fabric.


PAPIER MACHE STYLE

This style of Sozni embroidery uses motifs and especially colour schemes more typical of the Papier Mache craft in Kashmir, of fine painting with a brush on products made of paper pulp. The colours are brighter with complementary colours used together like blue with pink or green and orange. The floral motifs are rendered with satin and stem stitches like Vatachikan but are not so large- sized and are outlined with a Sozni stitch in a darker shade of colour. This style is very popular with the Indian market and has an embossed feel.
VATACHIKAN is a variation of Sozni style

which employs basically two stitches; a satin stitch for filling up of motifs and a stem stitch for long, continuous linear forms. There is no outlining in this kind of embroidery and the raised form of the pattern and its shadow form are due to the thickness of the yarn created by the satin stitch. It is also called chikan dozi meaning resembling the chikan work of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh in India. Today, Do-Rukha and Do- Ranga is done by few Master craftsmen only on request for a very exclusive clientele as it is highly skill and time intensive. Papier Mache and Vatachikan style of Sozni are less fine comprising of large stitches and looks more filled to a not- so discerning customer, so the present production of Sozni embroidery has started to combine these two styles in large proportions to make it more viable in the market. COLOURS: The abundance of colours is most evident in Sozni embroidery and selection of colours is considered very important with endless discussions amongst the master craftsmen about the exact shade of colours to be used. The subtle and yet colourful look associated to Sozni craft from Kashmir is much dependent on the use of colours in the embroidery. The concept of colour is dictated by the term sofiyana rang-

meaning subdued colours. An emphasis on pastel and white shades on a white background is preferred. Fine embroidery work distinctly of Kashmir sensibility shows many shades of colours discreetly blending with the background. Of course it is also necessary to have a complete range of contrasting colours which keeps changing according to dictates of the market. During the initial development of Sozni craft, colours favoured were mainly red, saffron and indigo blue with the dyeing techniques largely based on vegetable dyes. Presently simple tone on tone is made for European and Arab markets in pastel shades. The term tone on tone refers to a printed fabric that is made by combining different shades and tones of the same colour. Tone on tone fabrics often appear to be solid when viewed from a distance, but their printed motifs become recognizable on closer inspection. Bright shades of warm colours like orange, pink and maroon are embroidered on fabrics dyed in the contrasting colours of black, dark green and orange are executed for the Indian markets. Central Asian markets continue to demand the deep red colour found in carpets. Any piece of the Sozni embroidery typically consists of 7 to 15 different shades of colours. They are juxtaposed with such ingenuity and skill that the overall embroidery is harmoniously balanced but with enough contrast of colours to also retain its vitality and not become dull or boring. The colours have interesting locals names like Sabz for green, zarad for orange shades which are even today used by dyers and embroiderers involved in Sozni craft. On high quality of Sozni embroidery, it is possible to identify 2 shades of colour used together. For example, a piece of Sozni is rendered using 2 shades of yellow, 2 shades of blue and 2 shades of green along with either orange, white or black for contrasts depending on the ground colour. TYPES OF SOZNI WORK: The very fine Sozni work uses the Sozni stitch for outlining the motif with a darker shade of thread while the filling is done with the same fine Sozni stitches but in a different

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colour. There is no visible gap between the outline and the filling. The motifs are also outlined several times in shades of colour. This is most expensive and is used on high value products like silks, pure Pashmina wool and crepes. The less intricate work uses a combination of fine Sozni stitches for outlining of motifs and larger stitches like satin stitch for filling up the motif sometimes using Vatachikan stitches for thicker fillings. Larger buttonhole stitch or herring bone stitch is used to fill empty curved or straight background spaces in between different motifs. The inferior quality of Sozni embroidery uses mostly large satin and Vatachikan stitches to delineate the motif with no outlining at all. The creeper and leaves are also rendered in large sized stem stitches and rarely employs any reinforcing stitch. These are not as lasting as the original Sozni embroidery and are usually done on products for mass market.
AT A GLANCE Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude.

VALUE-CHAIN & TIME ANALYSIS


PLAIN PASHMINA EMBRIDERD LADIES SHAWL OF DIMENSIONS 81 - 41

Plain Pashmina Ladies Shawl (without washing) Rs. 6040/Fine Embroidery work Cost Rs ( 2000 - 150,000/-) Embroidery work 2 months to 1 year. Rs. 9310/Washing & Packing Rs 100/-

Washing & Drying Time taken 2 days Rs. 7310/-

TOTAL COST (Depends upon embroidery work)

Value Addition 1.26 %

Pattern of shawl Bael daar Buti daar Hashiadaar/ Meemdour Dor daar Pal daar Jaal Neem Jaame Jaame

No. of days taken to complete/artisan 15 days 15 days 30 days 2 months

Wages for Artisan Rs. 2000/Rs. 2000/Rs. 5000/Rs. 8000/-

2 months-3 months 3 months-5months 6 months-1 year 1 year-2 years

Rs. 10000 15,000/Rs. 12000 20,000/Rs. 25000 60,000/-

Rs. 50,000 150,000/-

OVERVIEW OF ONGOING INTERVENTIONS

NAME OF PROGRAM Saidepora Cluster Development Program Eidgah Cluster Development Program Diagnostic Study Report Preparation on Pashmina Under MSME-CDP Geographic Indications of Pashmina

IMPLEMENTATION BODY Jk Handloom Dept. Weavers Service Centre Craft Development Insititute Srinagar Craft Development Institute Srinagar

BENEFICIARIES 310 Artisans 300 Artisans Whole Eidgah Cluster

Whole Eidgah Cluster

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SAIDEPORA CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: The said Cluster was sanctioned by the GOI, Minister of Textile during the year 2007-08 in the phase IIIrd with the project cost of Rs. 60.00 lacs through J&K handloom department. Products identified for the cluster were Pashmina & Pashmina Kanishawls. The Components which comprised the cluster development programme are as under:
Formation of Consortium:

Development and Hoisting of Website:

Under this component, one Website of the Cluster has been hoisted.
Basic Inputs:

Under this component, margin money @ Rs. 5700/- released in favour of the financial institution for raising the loan in favour of the 50 weavers of the Cluster.
Provision for purchase of new looms:

Under this component, out of the total 310 weavers of the Cluster, a consortium of 10 Weavers were formed. These 10 weavers facilitated the Department for identification of their needs under various components of the Clusters.
Corpus fund for Yarn Depot:

Under this component, 60 Fly shuttle looms have been provided to the 60 weavers of the Cluster.
AT A GLANCE Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude.

Under this component, 0ne Yarn Depot has been established in the Cluster by procuring yarn from the NHDC.
Skill Up gradation:

Under this component, a batch of 20 weavers of the Cluster have been imparted two months training programme.
Design Development and Product diversification:

EIDGAH CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: The cluster development program has been sanctioned by GOI for Eidgah cluster through Weavers Service Centre Srinagar. The programme included the formation of 10 groups out of 300 artisans being selected for the programme where each group had strength of 30 members. Each group of the cluster was provided with a loom and margin money of Rs 10,000/- per group was deposited in the newly opened bank accounts. 70-80 newly developed design samples were distributed among the groups so that they would manufacture sample shawls of the same designs. The groups would be provided with another instalment of Rs 10,000/- of margin money would be deposited in the respective bank accounts on the completion of the task of sample development. Weavers service Centre has Buyer Seller meets in pipeline where the samples being developed by the cluster members would be displayed and any supply order from the buyers would be given to the cluster members.
AT A GLANCE Majority of Artisans being job workers working

Under this component, a Chief Designer has been engaged for the preparation of diversification of new samples
Awareness and Exposure visit:

Under this component, one awareness camps was organized where in financial Institutions and representatives of the Insurance companies highlighted their activities in the Camp. The family of the weavers is being provided Health Insurance through ICICI Lombard GIC for which State Govt has agreed to subsidise the premium so that the weavers will now have to pay Rs 50 only as premium. Through the registration to the scheme, the weaver, spouse and two children shall be given Medical Insurance for one year which will include a maximum reimbursement of Rs l 5,000 /- per family. The other benefits include cashless treatment on being admitted to the empanelled Hospitals.

for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude.

DIAGNOSTIC STUDY REPORT PREPARATION ON PASHMINA UNDER MSME-CDP: The diagnostic study of Eidgah Cluster has been undertaken by Craft Development Institute (CDI) on behalf of MSME. The objective of the diagnostic study is to map the business processes in the cluster and propose remedial measures, with a validated action plan.
AT A GLANCE Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude.

was the first to move the application for a GI registry for Kashmir Pashmina. The CDI has submitted a proposal to government for labelling of Pashmina products manufactured in Kashmir. The unique project involved identifying real Pashmina and tagging them with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip. The wafer thins chip would be coded with information about the manufacturing source as well as product specifications. A RFID reader can read the tag anywhere in the world and send the information to a centralised station meant for validating the same. The chip would cost less than Rs 15 per piece.
AT A GLANCE Majority of Artisans being job workers working for Master Artisans and Traders are receiving low wages. Unavailability of market is the main problem as the products are being sold through intermediaries and direct trade with the buyers is lesser in magnitude.

GEOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS OF PASHMINA: Under the Geographical Indications (GI) of goods patent, Kashmiri Pashmina and Kani shawls will now have their own distinctive logos. While the status to Pashmina was patented on September 12, Kani was patented on July 29. The patent came after an agreement among Kashmir Handmade Pashmina Promotion Trust (KHPPT), Wildlife Trust of India (WTI), Crafts Development Institute (CDI) and Tahafuz, a society of diverse Kashmiri handicraft artisans, on September 12. This would mean only yarn made in Kashmir in the traditional way can use the names Pashmina and Kani. Lack of branding and promotion of Kashmir Pashmina is a major impediment. The Textile Committee Mumbai had authored a project report for Srinagar based Craft Development Institute (CDI) for setting up of a Pashmina Testing and Research Lab in Kashmir. The sophisticated lab costing Rs 3.8 Crore would help in segregating fake Pashmina from real Pashmina. CDI

OVERVIEW OF ISSUES OF CLUSTER

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PARAMETER 1. Raw material

ISSUES RELATED TO ARTISANS Scarcity of raw material. Adulteration of raw material. No linkages with raw material providers. Absence of raw material depot. Lack of knowledge about technological advancements in processing.

BENEFICIARIES Rising prices of raw material. No collective purchase mechanism. Non availability of raw material in local market for medium scale buyers. Exploitation by middlemen. Limited knowledge about advancements about process technologies. Lack of access to technological advancements in designing, distribution and marketing. Mismanagement of Govt. arts emporiums. Consignment basis trade of Govt. arts emporiums. Limited direct linkages. Branding of fake products under the banner of Kashmiri products has decreased market. Threat from products of other countries like Nepal, China etc. Lack of knowledge about modern market needs. No fixed rates system in existence. Domestic markets emphasized poorly. Limited market season. Absence of Market. Limited entrepreneurial capabilities. Artisans not working skillfully due to lower wages. Govt. rural employment schemes decreasing artisan base and export trade is time specific. No authentic registration of artisans which would be grading the artisans in accordance to their skills. Defunct training centers and hence no skill enhancements. Women folk abandoning hand spinning giving opportunity for machine spinning. No quality control checks. Absence of stiff rules and regulations of violating quality standards.

2. Technology

3. Marketing

No direct market linkages. Exploitation by buying agents. Mismanagement of Govt. arts emporium. Poor emphasis on domestic market. Branding of fake products under the banner of Kashmiri products has decreased market.

4. HRD

Low wages for artisans. Lack of information of Labour rights. Absence of old age benefits for artisans. Women folk abandoning hand spinning giving opportunity for machine spinning. Introduction of machines for spinning and weaving. Absence of SHGs in cluster. Lack of training facilities because of defunct training centers. Low literacy levels. Limited entrepreneurial capabilities. Machine spun yarn being used extensively has problems of low life and bobbling. Power looms taking over and products are of low quality. Adulteration of raw material for meager benefits decreases quality and hence image of Kashmir as a whole. Inadequate working capital available. Lack of awareness about financial schemes. Procedure for finance schemes is lengthy and conditions are unfriendly.

5. QUALITY

6. FINANCE

SWOT ANALYSIS

ACTIVITY

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITY

THREATS

MARKETING

Good domestic demand for the pashmina products. National markets in close proximity also have good demand.

Inadequate information of current market trends. Mismanagement of Govt. Arts emporiums. Limited market season. Absence of product diversification. No quality bechmarking. Difficult to differentiate the authentic product from fake products. Absence of Patent. Loosing ground in national markets due to mechanization introduced in pashmina in various parts of country. Inadequate working capital with the weavers. Unawareness about the bank financial schemes. Benefits of Govt. Schemes not distributed equally and hence disinterested. Lesser savings due to high inflation. Condition of Bank guarantors /Mortgage for artisans. Lack of coordination between government departments and financial institutions. Lesser wages being offered to artisans. Being labour intensive, its production is time consuming. Lack of information about the new designs. New product development is not considered. Inadequate information of new technologies. No control on Raw material costs and are increasing. No control on quality of raw material as such adulteration is scaling high. Machine intervention in spinning is degrading the life cycle of products.

Growing Economy and Potential Domestic and International Market. Rising demand for handicraft products in developed countries as Italy, USA, Britain, Germany, France etc. E-Commerce and internet have emerged as promissory distribution channels to market and sell the craft products.

Imitated products being sold under the banner of Kashmiri pashmina. Invasion of power looms in shawl making.

FINANCE

Financial requirement for an artisan is lesser in amount.

Artisan credit Schemes available with all the banks. Lower interest rates for artisans. Artisans ready to go for bank finances if conditions made friendly.

Rising raw material costs. Increasing costs of living.

PRODUCTION

Traditional weaving and designs. Skilled manpower availability. Durability and usage of the pashmina fabric. Both male and female are provided occupation. Tools and equipments locally manufactured and available at low cost.

Skill Upgradation. Product diversification to cater the global demand. Passing the craft to new generations in order to increase the work force and hence the production. New designs as per market trends can open up new markets. E-Commerce and internet have emerged as promissory distribution channels to market and sell the craft products. Full scale implementation of GI can put a check on the adulteration of raw materials and spinning by machines. Raw material depot for artisans.

Competition from other developing countries, especially China. Machine made products being sold in the name of handmade products is the biggest threat to the industry. Artisans shifting to other professions due to lower wages. Artisans keeping their children away from the craft. Govt. Schemes for labourers like NREGA lure artisans to abandon their craft.

BDS PROVIDERS & ANALYSIS


Business Development Services (BDS) have significant and positive contribution to the growth and health of the smallscale enterprises (SSE). Using professional business development services would help them to access better technology, finance and infrastructure and help the enterprises to manage their business more successfully and efficiently. BDS providers of Pashmina are: a. Development Commissioner Handicrafts (DC-H) b. JK Handloom Department c. J&K Arts Emporium d. School of Design e. State Handicrafts Department f. Craft Development Institute g. KCC&I h. DIC i. Weavers Service Centre j. SKUAST-SHUHAMA k. Unions/Societies l. Financial Institutions (Punjab National Bank, Canara Bank, State Bank of India, ICICI) a. DC-HANDICRAFTS Development Commissioner (Handicrafts) Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India extend various assistance through Apex/Primary Handicrafts Co-operatives/NGOs for development of Handicrafts Industries in the State. All the Artisans who pass the artisan test get the Artisan Card through DCH. Only the registered artisans are eligible to avail the benefits of various schemes implemented by DC-H. Artisans are registered either directly or through NGOs after passing a skill test. It is time consuming process and takes months. As for as Pashmina Craft is concerned only one segment is registered through DC-H i.e. Sozni Artisans
Category of Artisans SOZNI ARTISANS Number of Artisans 1700 Areas included Srinagar, Ganderbal, Budgam

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SCHEMES UNDER DC-H: The different schemes implemented by development commissioner Handicrafts are as under: 1. Baba Sahib Ambedkar Hastshilp Vikas Yojna. 2. Design & Technology up-gradation scheme. 3. Marketing Support & Services Scheme. 4. Human Resources Development Scheme. 5. Handicrafts Artisan comprehensive Welfare Scheme. 6. Research & Development Scheme Baba Sahab Yojna: Ambedkar Hastshilp Vikas

It was launched in 2001-02 wherein the main thrust is on a projectised, need based approach for integrated development of potential handicrafts clusters with participation of the craft persons at all stages of implementation of the scheme with the ultimate objective of their empowerment and hence sustainability. The scheme envisages a package of support to the cluster of handicraft artisans, which interalia includes basic inputs and infrastructure support in addition to capacity enhancement to cater to target markets. Design Technology Scheme: and Upgradation

Office of DCH is implementing HRD Scheme to provide qualified and trained workforce capable of establishment and strong production base coupled with improvement quality and use of appropriate techniques, processes and innovative designs to meet the present market requirements. Marketing support and Service Scheme: Registered Artisans get the Shops or Stalls in the Exhibition centres free of cost where they get an opportunity to buy their products.

Research and Development Scheme: Research and Development Scheme is a central sector scheme introduced in the year 1956-57 to generate feedback on Economic, social, aesthetic and promotional aspects of various crafts and artisans in the handicrafts sector Handicrafts Artisan Comprehensive Welfare Scheme: Broadly welfare measure for the handicraft artisans are for the following:Janshree Bima Yojana: under which an artisan can avail insurance coverage by paying an annual premium of Rs.40 only. The insurance cover is for natural death, accidental death , partial or complete disability. Besides a scholarships to two children for ensured artisans is also given @ Rs.300 per quarter per child for studying in class 11TH to 12TH. Rajiv Gandhi Shilpi Swasthya Bima Yojana: which is health insurance scheme in which an artisan gets a medical cover of Rs.15,000 and a person accidental cover by paying annual premium of just Rs.200/-. However if the artisan belongs to SC/ST/BPL/NER, his/her annual contribution is just Rs.100/. The details of this scheme is available on website : handicrafts.nic.in. b. JK HANDLOOM DEPARTMENT: The Handloom sector in J&K State is centuries old and is known for weaving of fabrics like Pashmina, Raffal, Silk Sarees and Cotton items. The industry occupies a significant place in the socio-economic structure of J&K. It plays a crucial role in employment generation for weaker sections of the society. It is a labour intensive cottage Industry. The Handloom Dev. Department plays a catalytic role in modernization of Handloom Sector in the State through skill up-gradation of weavers by providing modernized looms, training in design and weaving, marketing of Handloom products through marketing incentives and by fostering participation of weavers in National, State and District level Handloom Expos and Melas.

C. J&K ARTS EMPORIUM: The Government of Jammu and Kashmir had established Arts Emporiums at various places to provide market cover to the handicraft items manufactured by the artisans and Craft persons of the State and subsequently the management and administration of these sales outlets was entrusted to Jammu and Kashmir Industries Limited. However, Jammu and Kashmir (S&E) Corporation limited was incorporated as fully owned Govt. Company under the companies Act of 1956 on 6th of June 1970 with an Authorized Capital of Rs.2 crores subsequently enhanced to Rs.8.00 crores and all these emporiums were transferred to it for their management and administration. The main objectives are as under: To run, manage and administer the Kashmir Government Arts emporium or any other State Undertaking as may be notified by the Government from time to time, in a manner as would ensure their efficient, economical and better management and operation. To undertake sale in India and export of handicrafts, handloom products, Khadi and products of village industries and other products produced and manufactured in the State of Jammu and Kashmir as supplement to private voluntary effort. To open publicity-cum-information centers, Showrooms, sales depots and warehouses at suitable places in foreign countries. To organize production through cooperatives, artisans or its own production centers. To make available technical, financial and other assistance to co-operatives, producers, small traders and their associations, to procure and supply raw materials, tools and equipments, trained artisans to set up common facility centers and to establish a system of inspection and quality control.

d. SCHOOL OF DESIGN: Design is of basic importance in any production, for it is the designs that give

identity to the object. Its significance lies in the fact that it is the projection of creative urge of human being. Kashmir which has one of the richest craft traditions, has kept alive its crafts largely as a tourist trade, the same designs had more or less been continued decade after decade with very little variations. There was very little variety from one craftsman to another. In order to give more colour and life to the designs of Kashmir handicrafts, a design unit called School of Designs was established in late fiftys. Lots of new designs and reorientation of old designs and articles had to be made to catch the market so as to give boost to the industry. Their main task is to make new designs for various crafts like papier mache, tapestry, shawl weaving etc. and make people aware about the new designs so that they can compete at a global level. For this purpose they make new innovative designs and provide its dummy to artisans and there are no fees for artisans to learn these new designs. This process involves certain steps: a. The designer makes a new design with a practical implementation factor in mind. b. Then the design is sent to designer Schools workshop where design gets the practical shape. Then they invite artisans of particular craft and provide them verbal technical Knowledge and live demonstrations of the things and the procedure of making it. For Kaani Shawl weavers photocopy of Talim is also provided to them. c. School of Design works in collaboration with EDI to help the new entrepreneurs in handicrafts. They also participate in Exhibitions and National and International Trade Fairs to show people their new innovative design. e. STATE HANIDCRAFTS DEPARTMENT

the Department of Industries & Commerce (Directorate of Handicrafts), Government of Jammu & Kashmir. Established in February 2004, CDI brings together various stakeholders, individuals and agencies working in the sector to co-partner in implementing a sustainable development process. By providing a forum for creative exchange and knowledge creation across design, management and technology, CDI endeavours to create new avenues for innovation and entrepreneurship in handicrafts. G. KASHMIR CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY (KCC&I): The Kashmir Chamber of Commerce and industry has been constituted in the year 1924 of by the prominent businessmen of Kashmir and its memorandum and the articles of association have been sectioned in year 1935. The KCC&I was incorporated in the year 1937 as non-profit organisation. The major objective of KCC&I is to promote business, trade and economic relations. KCC&I promotes bilateral trade, investment and technology transfer, facilitates business collaborations, joint ventures, marketing tie-ups and strategic alliances through a set of proactive business-oriented initiatives. The Chamber continuously interacts with the Indian Governments, and provides them feedback on bilateral issues relating to trade and investment. h. DIRECTORATE OF INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCE: The Department of Industries and Commerce acts as a catalyst for the overall development of the industrial sector through effective discharge of developmental and facilitation roles. With a view to promote investment and trade, the department formulates and implements the policies of the state. Identification of sectoral advantages of the state and human resource development for sustainable and growth-oriented industrialization has been a crucial role of the Department. Facilitating the take off of infrastructure projects that boost the industrial growth has also been the departments forte. The department helps enhance the competitiveness of domestic industry through modernization, technology

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f. CRAFT DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE, SGR CDI, Srinagar is an autonomous Institute established by the office of DC-Handicrafts, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India and

upgradation and adoption of best practices. It also provides a forum for entrepreneurs and industrialists through their associations to represent their needs to the Government, which translates into policies of the State. Major functions can be summoned as under: Promotion and Development of Industries. Planning & Development of Industrial Estates Registration of New Units Nodal Agency for implementation of Central & State Package of Incentives. Holding of Industrial Exhibitions and Buyer - Seller Meets. Rehabilitation of Sick units. Coordinating Ministries Industrial activities with SIDCO, SICOP & G.O.IS Registration of Societies under J&K Registration of Societies Act. Registration of Firms under J&K Partnership Ac.

processing techniques. In preserving and documenting traditional skills and revival of traditional skills and revival of traditional designs for production and marketing. In implementing various schemes in handloom sector of the Government of India and providing assistance and interaction with State Governments, handloom agencies such as Apex and primary co-operatives, State and private undertakings dealing in handlooms. Monitoring of projects sanctioned under various central schemes.

The various arms of functioning of WSC are as under: Designing: Artists drawn from the best talent available in art schools are constantly engaged in preparing paper designs. These designs comprise both for weaving and for hand block or screen printing. The attempt is to preserve traditional designs by reviving them and/or adopting them to the requirements of the market. These designs help in production of items both for domestic and export markets. The CAD facility available presently in some of the WSCs helps in preparing the designs and techniques with the aid of a computer. These Centres have the services of Jala makers, graph paper designers who work in close association with the Dyeing Laboratory and the Weaving Section. Care is taken to see that the designs developed are within the discipline imposed by the types of yarn, dye stuffs and weaving techniques as per requirements of the sector. Weaving: Skilled weavers drawn from the main traditional weaving communities of the country man the Weaving Section. They are supervised by qualified textile technologists. Facilities of prototype looms and weaving equipments are available in the Section. Fabrics in new designs and new textures are produced using different yarns. The Section also undertakes simple improvements in looms and in the processes of weaving. Dyeing and Priniting: Fully equipped Dye Laboratory manned by experienced dyers and other qualified

i. WEAVERS SERVICE CENTRE: The weavers service centre being located at Nowshera is meant for guidance and Partner in progress through skill & technological Upgradation and product development. The objectives of weavers service centre are as under: Of product development to evolve more marketable products by interaction between expertises available in the fields of weaving, designing and processing. In improving weaving techniques and accessories and appliances used in weaving. In improving techniques of processing. In training weavers by disseminating improved techniques and new designs by undertaking training programmes within the precincts of the Centre and in the field. In providing market support by arranging interface between designers, producers and buyers which include execution of sample orders. In solving problems arising in pre-loom, loom and post-loom processes and technologies. In arranging exhibitions, seminars, workshops focusing on new and improved designs, equipments and

technical personnel capable of developing techniques in cost processing of fabrics is available in the WSC. These Laboratories bring out number of shade cards for silk, cotton and wool dyeing. These illustrate a number of shades in use in the field of handlooms and also give details of the method of application of dye stuffs, temperatures to be maintained and the length of dyeing period for each shade. These cards also provide information on de-gumming, scouring, blending, dyeing etc. and the equipments used in dyeing and testing methods. Printing section carries out experiments in preparation of basic materials for hand block printing as well as screen printing. Dischargeable and non-dischargeable dye stuffs have been effectively used to obtain multiple effects of rare beauty. Weavers Service Centre have expertise in block and screen making and they cordially develop new design and pattern. Sizable of handblock and screen are attractable for use by Weavers and Handloom organizations. j. SKUAST-SHUHAMA: Sheri Kashmir university of Agricultural Sciences situated at Shuhama is working on NAIP sub project on enhanced productivity and profitability of pashmina fiber. The objectives of the project being undertaken are as under: Augmentation of Pashmina production and productivity: The average pashmina productivity in the country is low (250g/animal/year) compared to world productivity of 700-900g/animal/ year. There is great scope in enhancement of pashmina production and productivity, if the existing diversity of the germ plasm in the region (100-900g pashmina fiber yield/ animal/year) is exploited scientifically. Moreover, the production system in the area is still primitive and extension of the advances in breeding, feeding, health and management practices will result in enhancement of both production as well as productivity of pashmina, thereby increasing the economic returns to the farmers. Fillip in the horizontal growth of pashmina production is also envisaged by experimentation on the introduction of

the pashmina goat in non-traditional belt, having niche for the pashmina goat rearing. Successful introduction shall meet growing demand of the cottage sector in the country. Innovative husbandry practices being implemented for goat rearing in order to increase pashmina production are as under: Improved feeding practices (feed block, mineral block, rotational grazing) Low cost shelter. Timely and reliable diagnostic facilities. Prevention and Control of economically important diseases. Use of improvised Pashmina combs and machine shearing for efficient harvesting. Use of improvised Charkhas and Handlooms for efficient/ economic processing.

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Improvement in Pashmina utilization: The processing of Pashmina is undertaken at cottage level by economically weaker sections of the society including women. The processing methodologies presently followed are obsolete/ inefficient and full of drudgery resulting in low returns (Rs.5060/worker/day).Therefore, any effort for improvisation of harvesting and processing tools, techniques and skill development will improve the overall processing efficiency, thereby increasing net returns to the artisans involved in the trade. This improvement will also ultimately acts as a catalyst for employment generation in the sector. Applications being implemented in order to improve the utilization of pashmina are as under: Revival of Traditional designs (Kani, Cheshmibulbul, etc). Introduction of Noval designs in weaving. Introduction of organic agents for dyeing and finishing, thereby reducing environmental and health hazards. Development of quality standards of pashmina and pashmina products for value based pricing and control of illicit trade. Hands on training to artisans on improvised processing techniques and tools.

k. UNIONS/ SOCIETIES: KHPPT: The KHPPT is a body of former Shahtoosh, and pashmina workers that was created at the behest of WTI and International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) to promote traditional Kashmir Handmade pashmina. KHPPT is an initiative of WTI that has been trying to organize workers affected by the ban on Shahtoosh since past several years. The organization is registered as a trust with three founding trustees --women spinners and traditional Shahtoosh and pashmina weavers of Kashmir valley, and other subcategories of artisans like dyers, clippers barengur, naqats, dhobis etc. The worker groups are organized on locality basis known as local area groups (LAGs) and applicant groups. The minimum requirement for forming locality groups is ten workers per locality and applicant groups have less than 10 workers. So far 30 such groups have been formed in and around Srinagar, involving 450 workers approximately. All the products manufactured by these groups have to go through quality check by the inspection committee consisting of 5 senior members chosen by workers. The finished pieces are checked for genuineness of material used; thread count, skill, and other standards. The products are marketed through craft exhibitions such as Dastkaar Nature Bazaar in Delhi. Bulk and individual orders from domestic and international buyers interested in genuine Pashmina are also taken. TAHAFUZ: Tahafuz is a society of local artisans from Kashmir, facilitated by the Crafts Development Institute. In conformance with the regulations of GI Act, there was a need to set up a society consisting of the practicing artisans, producers and traders of the Kashmir crafts. CDI initiated this step that lead to the establishment of TAHAFUZ, a registered society to be the authorized proprietor of GI Registration of all crafts proposed for protection. l. FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: The financial institutions that are active in the cluster are as under:

State Bank of India: The Bank is actively involved since 1973 in non-profit activity called Community Services Banking. All the branches and administrative offices throughout the country sponsor and participate in large number of welfare activities and social causes. The Bank has developed a wide array of products to meet the changing needs of the industry. It provides end -to -end solutions for the financial needs of the industry. To service the specific credit needs of small and medium enterprise (SME) the Bank established the Small & Medium Enterprise business unit in 2004. Apart from the general working capital requirements (like Cash credit, Bill Discounting limits, LC, BG etc) to meet the day to day requirements and term loans to take care of investment needs for acquiring fixed assets, Bank has an array of products/schemes to cater to the enterprise specific require-ments of SME Units both in Manufacturing and Trade and services sectors. ICICI Lombard General Insurance Company: ICICI Lombard General Insurance Company Limited is a joint venture between ICICI Bank Limited and the US-based Fairfax Financial Holdings Limited. ICICI Bank is Indias second largest bank; while Fairfax Financial Holdings is a diversified financial corporate engaged in general insurance, reinsurance, insurance claims management and investment management. ICICI Lombard GIC Ltd. is the largest private sector general insurance company in India. Health Insurance Plans are as under: Family Floater Health Insurance - It offers the best of both worlds by taking care of familys health while helping you save on your taxable income. Health Advantage Plus It is a specially planned health insurance product to help you get maximum savings on your tax while comprehensively covering your health. Personal Accident Insurance - ICICI Lombard Individual Personal Accident Insurance policy covers you against Accidental Death and Permanent Total Disablement (PTD).This includes coverage against terrorism and acts of terrorism.

Critical Care - Critical Care insurance is a pure benefit policy. Though the premium is payable in Indian Rupees, the coverage offered is worldwide. The Government of India introduced the Health Insurance Scheme for Handloom Weavers in 2005-06, which is being implemented through I C I C I Lombard General Insurance Company Ltd with suitable modifications from time to time. For this purpose, the artisans of the cluster are being provided with the ICICI Lombard health care cards. The Health Insurance Scheme aims at enabling the weaver community to access the best of healthcare facilities in the country. The scheme is to cover not only the weaver but his wife and two children, to cover all pre-existing diseases as well as new diseases and keeping substantial provision for OPD.

come to know about the various schemes. Schemes of PNB for the artisans are as under: Artisan Credit Card: Artisans can get the credit from PNB up to 30000 and there is no need of guarantor and they have a period of 60 months with an interest rate of 25% on which they get a subsidy of 11.25% from various Departments of Governments. From the past two years PNB has issued 100 Credit cards. Loan Facility: Loan facility of PNB is available for Individual borrowers as well as Unit holders. For a Unit holder, PNB provides 3.80 lacs per unit on which 1 lac subsidy is provided by the central government. The rebate period is 60 months. The subsidy of 1 lac that is provided to the borrower is kept in the form of FDR for 3 years at 0% interest with the bank and after three years the borrower can get the cash of 1 lac. From the past two years(2009-2011) the bank has cleared 200 cases of Loan to the artisans out of which 5-10 cases were of State Handloom

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Canara Bank: Canara bank provides loans to the artisans. The criteria of issuing loans to the Artisans is that the J&K Handicrafts department forwards the cases of the desiring artisans who want to apply for loan which is then proceeded forward to the Canara bank which passes the loans of artisans at an interest rate of 14% out of which 5% subsidy is provided by the Handicrafts department and time of return is 60 months. Bank provides maximum loan of 50 thousand to an individual borrower and 5 lakhs per group. Insurance scheme of Canara bank: Joint liability group: In joint liability, group of minimum 10 artisans is prerequisite to avail this scheme. These groups have to work under the guidance of NGO for at least 6 months. NGO has to monitor their work and after 6 months NGO can forward their cases to J&K Handicraft department and then the department forwards their cases to bank which in turn forwards it to LIC. Bank provides 50% premium on Insurance schemes and 50% is provided by the group of artisans. Punjab National Bank: Punjab National Bank provides various schemes for Artisans. They have held awareness Camps so that the artisans would

BUSINESS PROVIDERS SNAPSHOT

1. HANDICRAFTS DEPARTMENT J&K GOVT.


FUNCTIONS Artisans Registration; Unit Registration ; Export license; Trade Act Registration; Awareness Programmes regarding the opportunities available for Artisans; organising marketing events at local, national and International level; Organising seminars, workshops for Artisans development regarding business avenues and other aspects with entrepreneur development. Provides Training both Elementary and advanced SCHEMES Artisans Finance, Artisans insurance Microcredit plan Artisan credit card Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hastshilp Vikas Yojana Bima Yojana for Handicrafts Artisans so far ISSUES Increase in no. Of defaulters towards finance. Redundancy in artisan registration Artisans reluctant to come forward to avail the facilities. SUGGESTIONS Sector needs to be organised Raw Material Bank (CFC) should be provided for a cluster.

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2. DC-(HANDICARFTS), MOT, GOI


FUNCTIONS Design and Technical Up gradation, Export Promotion, Marketing Support and Services, Research & Development, Training & Extension, Financial Assistance to State Handicrafts Development Corporation, State Apex Societies and Bima Yojna for Handicrafts Artisans Organising workshops and seminars Camps for on spot registration. SCHEMES ISSUES SUGGESTIONS

In addition to Artisans reluctant schemes provided to come forward to by state handicrafts avail the facilities. DCH provides Most of Application Health insurance for registration Policy through NGOs come Provide Free stalls to out to be fake. artisans at various Actual artisans exhibitions are not getting Training Programmes stalls in at various exhibitions.

3. STATE HANDLOOM DEPT.


FUNCTIONS Employment generation for weaker section of society Provides Registrations Organising workshops Organising Buyerseller meetings for interaction Awareness programs Provides basic as well as skill upgradation trainings Design development and product diversification Developing clusters Provides schemes SCHEMES Integrated Handloom Development scheme (IHDS) 10% special rebate on the sale of handloom clothes/ products Package for handloom units Publicity and Exhibition Credit plan scheme Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Bima Yojna (MGBBY) Health insurance scheme Training Programes Loan for purchase/ modernisation/ renovation of looms Share caspita loan assistance to cooperative societies Loan to RMG societies for purchase of sewing machines. ISSUES SUGGESTIONS

People not coming There is a law known forward to take as quality control benefits law, which is not functional. It should Govt. Employees are be made functional. not playing their Policy makers should roles properly come in action to NAREGA has taken save the industry and the crafts man out to maintain credibility There is no control of kashmiri items. on quality, as quality control failure is there Abuse of schemes are there There is no proper utilisation of manpower Militancy and turmoil has effected every aspect of Kashmir.

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4. KCC&I
FUNCTIONS Promotion of business Trade and economic relations Promotion of bilateral trade Investment and technology transfer Buyer seller meet SCHEMES Facilitates business collaborations, joint ventures, marketing tie-ups & strategic alliances through a set of proactive business oriented initiatives ISSUES SUGGESTIONS

5. SCHOOL OF DESIGNS
FUNCTIONS Provides innovative &new designs of different crafts Provides verbal technical knowledge & live demonstrations of things & procedure of making it. SCHEMES ISSUES They find people of Kashmir less innovative , due to which only few people came there Lack of awareness about new markets among people are there SUGGESTIONS The craft should be introduced at elementary level as one of he subject in order to make new generation aware about the craft.

SUGGESTED ACTION PLAN


The action plan outlined for the cluster consists of the following strategies: 01. AWARENESS ABOUT FORMATION OF SHGS: Formation of SHGs is the immediate step to be taken for the implementation of the cluster development programme in Eidgah cluster. Each SHG should have a governing body constituted from the members of the SHG. There should be one main governing body for the purpose of review of progress of SHG formation and dissemination of information regarding all the activities and events. In the later course of action the number of SHGs can be increased by reducing the number of constituent members in each SHG. 02. SKILL UP GRADATION PROGRAMME: The skill levels of the artisans of cluster e.g. weavers, dyers, designers etc have to be upgraded in order to train them for new design development for the value addition of the pashmina shawls and to provide them knowledge about the latest trends and demands. Technological demonstrations should be arranged regarding advanced dying, finishing etc of the products. The participants should be paid a fixed monthly amount. 03. PROMOTIONAL DRIVES: The biggest challenge being faced by the cluster is in terms of the market. Awareness programmes need to be organized in order to give wide promotion to the products of the cluster. Opportunities for boosting up of sales can be created through awareness of the masses in local as well as the national market. The state departments representing the craft of Kashmir should initiate full fledged promotional drives with immediate effect in order to boost up the sales of the pashmina production in the national and domestic markets. 04. PRODUCT DIVERSIFICATION AND DESIGN DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOPS: The artisans have to be made well versed with the modern market need in terms of new innovative products and designs. The workshops need to be organized in which 2-3 members from each SHG can participate and can then disseminate the information in their respective SHGS. The participant are to be paid TA/DA as per their daily income. 05. MARKETING- EXPORT WORKSHOPS: The workshops should be organized in order to make the traders aware about the marketing strategies that can be implemented in the modern markets in order to carve out a unique identity for their products. In addition they need to be made fully aware with the export procedures to be followed in order to reach out to the distant markets using the modern technological tools of distribution and marketing. 06. PARTICIPATION IN EXHIBITIONS: The objective of this strategy is to encourage the sales of products of SHGs, expose the weavers to the market and to give opportunity to the weavers to launch new innovative products on trial basis. The exhibitions organized at the various parts of the country should be facilitated with the active participation of the members of SHGs. In addition, the local tourist spots need to be targeted for the exhibition purposes in the peak tourist seasons. 07. PROMOTION OF CRAFT TOURISM: The pashmina craft of the cluster should be promoted by the State Department of handicrafts in order to attract the craft lovers all over the world and make them well acquainted with the pashmina craft and hard work being put by the artisans into the handmade pashmina products.

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08. BUYER SELLER MEETS: The participation of the SHGs of the cluster must be facilitated in all the time to time organized buyer seller meets of the valley. The members of SHGs will be motivated to participate in the exhibitions for which purpose they will be paid to and fro, TA/DA, transportation cost and ground rent. The products of the SHGs will get an important impetus by the participation in the buyer sellers meets. 09. EXPOSURE VISITS OF THE CLUSTER ACTORS: The exposure visits for the 2/3 members from each SHG must be organized to various active clusters functioning on the modern lines and the national craft markets in order to have an insight into the working and needs of the modern markets for which purpose they will be paid to and fro TA/DA. 10. AWARENESS PROGRAMMES REGARDING GI OF PASHMINA: The SHGs must be made fully aware about the GI and the benefits which can be reaped through the implementation of the GI so that they would be the active participants in making the GI implementation a success for the Cluster and the pashmina Craft as a whole.

SUGGESTED ACTION PLAN FOR THE CLUSTER FOR 18 MONTHS

ACTIVITY Awareness Workshops on SHG Formation Training Programme for skill upgradation Product Diversification and Design Dev. Workshops Workshops on Marketing-Export Exposure Visits to other Cluster Participation in Buyer Seller Meets Participation in Exhibitions BDS Cluster Meets GI Awareness door to door Programme Promotion Campaigns

NO. OF ACTIVITIES 10 No.

BENEFICIARIES PER BATCH Cluster Actors 50 No. Cluster Actors 20No. Cluster Actors 20 No.

FACILITATING INSTITUTION Craft Dev. Institute

DURATION 2 days each

FUNDS Rs. 4 lacs @ Rs. 40,000 per workshop Rs. 4.5 lac @ Rs. 1.5 lac per programme Rs. 3 lac @ Rs. 1.5 lac per workshop Rs. 3 lac @ Rs. 30,000 per workshop Rs. 4 lac @ Rs. 2 lacs per visit. Rs. 3 lac @ Rs. 1 lac per meet Rs. 1.5 lac @ Rs. 50,000 per exhibition. Rs. 1 lac @ Rs. 33,000 per meet. Rs. 50,000 @ Rs. 5000 per programme 1 lac

3 No.

Craft Dev. Institute Weavers Service Centre. Craft Dev. Institute School of Design Weavers Service Centre Craft Dev. Institute JK Handicraft Dept. Craft Dev. Institute Craft Dev. Institute

15 days each

2 No.

15 days each

10 No.

Cluster Actors 20 No. Cluster Actors 10 No. Cluster Actors

2 days each

2 No. 3 No.

10 days each 3 days each

3 No.

Cluster Actors 2 Stalls Cluster Actors 65 No. Cluster Actors

Craft Dev. Institute JK Handloom Dept. Craft Dev. Institute

2 days

3 No.

1 day each

10 No.

Craft Dev. Institute

3 days each

Cluster Actors

Craft Dev. Institute JK Handloom Dept.

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FINACIAL PARAMETERS FOR ORGANIZING EXHIBITIONS

PARTICULARS Cost of rent Cost of Display structure Cost of TA/DA wages compensation of 10 Craftsmen Cost of publicity including fee for designer Total:

AMOUNT (INR) 20,000.00 10,000.00 10,000.00 10,000.00 50,000.00

FINACIAL PARAMETERS FOR PARTICIPATING IN BUYER SELLER MEET

PARTICULARS Cost of rent Cost of Display structure Cost of TA/DA wages compensation of 10 Craftsmen (@ 2000/- per person) Cost of publicity including fee for designer Total:

AMOUNT (INR) 50,000.00 10,000.00 20,000.00 20,000.00 60,000.00

FINACIAL PARAMETERS FOR ORGANIZING 2 DAY WORKSHOP ON SHG INFORMATION

PARTICULARS Cost of rent ( Tent, Chairs etc) Cost of TA/DA wages compensation of 50 Craftsmen @ 200/- per person (including light refreshment/tea etc.) Miscellaneous expenditure towards site preparation for the participants of the workshop. Miscellaneous Costs and Publicity Costs Total:

AMOUNT (INR) 10,000.00 20,000.00

5000.00 5,000.00 40,000.00

FINACIAL PARAMETERS FOR CONDUCTING 15 DAYS WORKKSHOP ON PRODUCT DIVERSIFICATION AND DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

PARTICULARS Designers fee TA/DA, etc. Cost of Raw material for development of prototypes Cost of documentation, report, etc Cost of TA/DA wages compensation of 20 Craftsmen @ 200/- per person ( including light refreshment/tea etc.) Total

AMOUNT (INR) 50,000.00 35,000.00 5,000.00 60,000.00

1,50,000.00

FINACIAL PARAMETERS FOR CONDUCTING 15 DAYS TRAINING PROGRAMME ON SKILL UP-GRADATION

PARTICULARS Cost of rent Cost of Display structure Cost of TA/DA wages compensation of 10 Craftsmen (@ 2000/- per person) Cost of publicity including fee for designer Total

AMOUNT (INR) 50,000.00 10,000.00 20,000.00 20,000.00 60,000.00

FINACIAL PARAMETERS FOR CONDUCTING 2 DAYS WORKSHOP ON EXPORT MARKETING

PARTICULARS Experts fee TA/DA, etc. Cost of TA/DA wages compensation of 20 Craftsmen @ 200/- per person (including light refreshment/tea etc.) Cost of documentation, report, etc Miscellaneous Costs and Publicity Costs Total

AMOUNT (INR) 14,000.00 8000.00

4,000.00 4,000.00 30,000.00

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FINACIAL PARAMETERS FOR ORGANIZING 1 DAY WORKSHOP ON BDS CLUSTER MEET

PARTICULARS Cost of rent ( Tent, Chairs etc) Cost of TA/DA wages compensation of 65 Craftsmen @ 200/- per person (including light refreshment/tea etc.) Miscellaneous expenditure towards site preparation for the participants of the workshop. Miscellaneous Costs and Publicity Costs Total:

AMOUNT (INR) 10,000.00 13,000.00

5000.00 5,000.00 33,000.00

FINACIAL PARAMETERS FOR CONDUCTING 10 DAYS EXPOSURE VISIT TO OTHER CLUSTERS

PARTICULARS Travelling expenses @ 5000/- per person Accommodation and Food charges Other Expenses Total:

AMOUNT (INR) 50,000.00 60,000.00 90,000.00 2,00,000.00

ANNEXURE 1: LIST OF ARTISANS AND TRADERS

ARTISANS
Mohd yousuf Wani Ashiq Ahmad Wani Adil Ahmad Shah Zahoor Ahmad Dar Fayaz Ahmad Shah Eidgah Rathpora 9596287467 9018035127 9018888189 9596316295 9906867120 9796354370 9797920608 9596317790 9796506728 8803401038 9018311455 9906426936 9906938017 9797082013 9018441001 9622605957 9858457564 9796522590 9858975859 9906549130 9906867120 9906466734 9906131395 9797217934 9622683526 9622587505 9858456564 9906755325 9906459737 9797236160 9797291582 9906131395 9622414350 9858474425 9906459736 9622694952 9622649141 9018183819 9906601416 _

Wanganpora Saedpura Saedpura Rathpura Rathpura Khaiwan Khaiwan Khaiwan

Showkat Ahmad Bhat Abdul Majid Matto Mohd Shafi

Mashooq Ahmad Wani Mohd Altaf Shuloo Ishfaq Ahmad Wani Aijaz Ahmad Javid Ahmad Matto Ali Mohd Dar Bilal Ahmad Tanga Mohd Ayub Bhat Abdul Rehman Wani Bilal Ahmad Baba Shabir Ahmad Lone Gulzar Ahmad Bhat Fayaz Ahmad Shah Javaid Ahmad Bhat

Wanganpora

Wanganpora Wanganpora Wanganpora Narwara Wanganpora Wanganpora Wanganpora Wanganpora Wanganpora Saedpura Khaiwan Khaiwan Nawbag Wantpora

Abdul Hamid Shuloo Mehboob Hussain Bazaz Suhail Ahmad Bhat Bilal Ahmad Sofi Sajad Ahmad Wani Mohd Sidiq Bhat Adil Farooq Dar Zahoor Ahmad

Firdous colony Eidgah Ganderpora Wanganpora Wanganpora Wanganpora Wanganpora Rathpora Khaiwan Rathpora

Manzoor Ahmad Wani Mohd Yousuf Wani

Javaid Ahmad Bhat

Showkat Ahmad Mir Ghulam Nabi Lone Mushtaq Ahmad Lone

Saedpora Saedpora Saedpora Rathpora Rathpora

Mukhtair Ahmad Baba Mubashir Ahmad Bhat Mudasir Ahmad Bhat

Abdul Rehman Shuloo

Khaiwan Eidgah

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TRADERS CONSULTED
Mohd Maqbool Sheikh Farooq Ahmad Shah Mohd Ismail Naqati Zahid Ali Push Mohalla Waniyar Waniyar Zadibal Gratebal Waniyar,Noorbagh Rajouri Kadal Zoonimar Khayam 9906471636 9797864672 9419409117 9906696560 9906573073 9797397891 9419010001 0194-2457556

Shabir Ahmad Shah Hafizullah Bhat Pure weave

Ghulam Mohd Reshi

Ijaz Hussain Trumboo Ghulam Nabi Shora Qazi Brothers Apex crafts

Botakadal

Nowshera

Adalat Masjid,Hawal Nowshera

Bashir Ahmad Beigh Jan Mohd Hakeem

Baghali Mardan khan Rathpora iddgah

ANNEXURE 2: LIST OF CLUSTER DETAILS AND TURNOVER CALCULATIONS

Raw Pashmina being procured gives on average only 35% pure Pashmina after dehairing and cleaning. Thus total unfinished raw pashmina procured annually is 230 tonnes.

Total Pure Pashmina Supplied to Kashmir (annually) 80 tonnes

Approx. No. of Shawls in Eidgah cluster

Quantity of raw material consumed annually in cluster. ( 1 kg on average =3.5 shawls) 240000/3.5 = 69 tons

Raw material consumed within Cluster.

Utilization of Rest of Raw material.

20,000 per month. 2,40,000 annually

86.25%

1.Outside cluster 2. Yarn export 3.Power Looms

FINACIAL PARAMETERS FOR ORGANIZING EXHIBITIONS

Number of Weavers Registered Artisans Unregistered Artisans Monthly Income Investment for loom No. of looms Total Fixed Investment on Looms:

5000 2000 3000 Rs. 5000.00 Rs. 7000.00 4700 Rs. 3.29 Crores

TYPES OF WEAVERS

Master Weavers 10 %

Weavers paid on a piece-rate 55 %

Daily Wage Earning weavers 32%

Independent Weavers 3%

Plain Pashmina Weavers 85 %

Kani Kani Pashmina Weavers 15 %

BARENGER
No. of Barenger Charges for installing warp on loom Work done by a couple per day 150 Rs. 12 per 100 warp threads 1500-2000 threads

KANI DESIGNERS
Kani Designers Cost of Designs (along with Taleem) Time taken for Design 5 Rs. 50-20,000 (Depending upon Design) Few Hours 1 month.

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SOZNI NAQQASH
Sozni Naqaashs Cost of Design Time taken for Design 6 Rs. 50-200 15 minutes 2 hours.

DYERS IN THE CLUSTER


No. of Dyers Types of Dyers No. of Shawls Dyed per day per dyer Cost of dying single Shawl 10 Fabric Dyers (4) Yarn Dyers(3) Both (3) 50-100 Rs. 60-70

CLIPPERS (PURZGER)
No. of Clippers Cost of Clipping one Shawl No. of Shawls completed per day 200 Rs. 80-100 2-3

WASHERS
No. of Washers Average No. of Shawls per washer man per day (10% of whole work is pashmina) Cost of Washing per Shawl 100 10 Rs. 50-100

TYPE AND NUMBER OF TRADERS

Type of Trader Number of Traders Turnover

Small Scale Trader 1000 Up to 50 lacs

Medium Scale Trader 200 Up to 1 Crore

Large Scale Traders 30 Up to 10 crores

Total Turnover : 240000 pashmina shawls are manufactured annually. Out of which kani shawls are about 1500 in number. The remaining 238500 has a 80% contribution of ladies shawls (=190800) and rest 20% are gents shawls (=47700). Out of 190800 ladies shawls about 20% are embroidered (=38160) while the rest is sold off as plain shawls. The number of shawls manufactured in the cluster annually is mapped as under:Type of shawl Plain Ladies shawls (without embroidery) 152640 Rs. 6000 Rs. 9158,40,000 Plain gents shawls 47700 Rs. 10,000 Rs. 4770,00,000 Embroidered Ladies shawls 38160 Rs. 30,000 Rs. 11448,00,000 Kani shawls

Number Average Cost Turnover

1500 Rs. 50,000 Rs. 750,00,000

The production of pashmina products in the cluster is of about 262 crores annually. The price at the end customer point is on average triple the manufacturing cost after profits being added at various intermediate levels. Thus the estimated turnover of the pashmina industry is 786 crores.

ANNEXURE 3: VARIOUS TOOLS USED

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