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Summary. Almost every field operation is a potential source of damage to well productivity.

and in This presentation I tried to provides an overview of the nature of formation damage problems, how they occur during various oilfield operations, and their effects on well productivity. Diagnosis of formation damage problems has led to the conclusion that formation damage is usually associated with either the movement and bridging of fine solids or chemical reactions and thermodynamic considerations. The fine solids may be introduced from wellbore fluids or generated in situ by the interaction of invading fluids with rock minerals or formation fluids. Control of formation damage requires proper design of treating fluids for chemical compatability and strict quality control of fluid physical and chemical properties during treatment. The use of treating fluid filtration, clean work strings (pipe), and inhibited fluids has been shown to be important in the control of formation damage during well treatment. Introduction

Laboratory and field studies indicate that almost every operation in the field--drilling, completion, workover, production, and stimulation--is a potential source of damage to well productivity. During the many years when the cost of oil was extremely low, however, productivity damage was largely ignored and emphasis was placed on minimizing costs rather than maximizing productivity. Since the advent of the energy crisis and the Arab embargo, prevention of formation damage and maximization of well productivity has taken on added importance, not only for conventional well operations but also for taking advantage of EOR. In EOR, if the conductivity of injection and producing wells is damaged, sweep efficiencies and recovery factors will be adversely affected. The success or failure of an EOR project may depend on the ability to inject planned amounts of special fluids and to produce oil at adequate rates.

Because repair of formation damage is usually difficult and costly, the basic approach should be to prevent damage. To achieve this goal, the entire process of drilling, completion, and production needs to be viewed as a whole, including extensive preplanning, execution, and follow-up. Failure to control treatment or operating procedures and

chemicals properly at any stage may negate the effectiveness of all other well-designed and -executed operations. Severely damaged productivity may result from a single misstep in the path of well development. A broad knowledge of how formation damage occurs is the first step in prevention of well damage. Each operation must then be studied in detail. This paper takes the first step by reviewing how formation damage occurs and showing how it affects well productivity in various operations. Relative Importance of Formation Damage First, let us look briefly at the relative importance of the formation condition near the wellbore. Although the drainage radius may be several hundreds of feet, the effective permeability close to the wellbore has a disproportionate effect on well productivity.