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1.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT Increasing energy costs and environmentalists actions to protect the natural resources force energy supply companies to conserve and reduce energy usage [1]. Many companies focused on the reduction of losses in distribution networks, which is the key measures of distribution system performance; in order to reduce losses it is important to find a methodology to detect an accurate value of these losses and identify its location . In electricity supply to final consumers, losses refer to the amounts of electricity injected into the transmission and distribution grids that are not paid for by users. Distribution systems losses can be attributed to technical and non technical [2]. This chapter will develop the technical losses on each segment of the power distribution system, and determine the causes of technical and non technical losses and its impact in distribution network. 1.2. Electric Power system [3] The electric power system is an network of interconnected components which generate electricity by converting different forms of energy (potential , kinetic, chemical.).The electric power system consists of three main subsystems : generation, transmission and distribution . At the generation subsystem the electricity will be generated by converting a primary source of energy to electrical energy. Then the voltage is stepped up to a high voltage level in order to reduce losses in transmission lines . It is transmitted from a sending end substation to a receiving one where the voltage is then stepped down by a step-down transformer . The consumer receives power from the distribution system ,which include the following main parts : receiving substation , sub-transmission lines, distribution substation near to the center load, secondary circuits and services mains .


Distribution System + to mention the types (radial , parallel, loop, interconnected )

1.4. Main Components of Distribution System The distribution system consists of all facilities and assets that connect the transmission system to the customers equipment. The main components of a typical distribution system are : 1.4.1. Sub transmission Network It is a substation with a high voltage , used to switch generators , equipment and circuits or lines in and out of the system. It is used to change AC voltage from level to another so it is the points of voltage regulation, and used to transform an alternative current to continued one and vice versa . The input of the substation is at least two transmission or sub transmission lines and the output is a number of feeders which run along streets overhead or underground according to the area [3],[7] .It connects electric generation plants to the system , and makes interconnections between the electric systems of more than one utility as well as serves to control reactive kilovoltamperes supplied to and the flow of reactive kilovolt-amperes in the circuits . [9]It serves as a supplier for the low voltage distribution stations through it most primary class customers are served via primary distribution lines which function at medium voltage level [8] ( distribution feeder) 1.4.2. Distribution Feeder Distribution feeder is originating from the sub transmission network , it leaves the substation from a circuit breaker or circuit recloser, in order to carry power from substations to local load areas It includes all lines emanating from the distribution substation to the distribution transformer from which the customer load is served [4],[5].Several distribution feeder circuits can leave a substation extending in different directions to serves customers .The underground cables are connected to the primary circuit via a nearby riser pole . The distribution feeder bay routes power from the substation to the distribution primary feeder circuits to serve the primary customers via distribution lines [9].

1.4.3. Switches and Protective Equipment Distribution systems have switches installed at suitable locations in order to redirect or cut-off power flows load balancing or sectionalizing in case of any fault or unbalanced load . These switches serve to repair damaged lines or equipment there is many type of switches : circuit-breaker switches, single pole disconnect switches, three pole group operated switches , pad mounted switchgear . The protective equipment in distribution system consists of protective relays , cutout switches , disconnect switches, lightning arresters and fuses to open circuits whenever a short circuit , lightening strikes or other disruptive event occurs. In this case the entire distribution system is deenergized and disrupts power to many customers , to avoid the power cut-off to all customers , the distribution system is often designed with many layers of redundancy. The redundancy consists of the many fuses and fused cutouts throughout the system that can disable parts of the system but not entire system; lightning arresters act locally to drain electrical energy from a lightning strike so that the larger circuit breakers are not actuated. 1.4.4. Primary Circuits The primary circuit are the distribution circuits that carry power from substations to local load areas. They are also called feeders or distribution feeders. 1.4.5. Distribution Transformer After the electricity had passed the sub-transmission system and the primary distribution or feeders , it then being sent at low voltage through secondary lines . This voltage is stepped down though the distribution transformer [6]. This voltage varies and is usually : (residential , commercial.). Three phase pad mounted transformers are used with an underground primary circuit and three-single-phase pole type transformers of overhead service . For area with large concentrations of businesses there are transformers installed in an underground vault; power is sent via underground cables to the separate customers[9].

1.4.6. Secondary Circuits and Services Secondary circuits are the conductors originating at the low-voltage secondary winding of a distribution transformer. Secondaries for residential service are three-wire single-phase circuits. The secondaries can be overhead lines or underground lines[9]. The services are the wires extended from the secondaries or distribution transformer to a location of customers. A service can be above or under ground. 1.5. Distribution System Customers (more references) + insert pictures A distribution system derives at a distribution substation and incorporates the poles, lines, transformers and other equipment needed to deliver power at the required voltage to the customer that can be classified as: 1.5.1. Industrial Customer Most industries need 2,400 to 4,160 volts to run heavy machinery and usually they have their own substation or many substations to reduce voltage from the transmission line to the desired level corresponding to the plant area. They require 3 phase lines to power 3phase motors[9]. 1.5.2. Residential Customer The distribution electricity is reduced to the end use voltage (110-220volt single phase) via a pole mounted or pad-mounted transformer . Power is delivered to residential customer through a service drop line which leads from the distribution pole transformer to the customers structure for overhead or underground[9]. 1.5.3. Commercial Customer Commercial customers are usually served at distribution voltages ranging from (20kv to 11kv) through a service drop line which leads from a transformer on or near the distribution pole to the customers end use structure. They may require 3-phase lines to power 3phase motors[9].

1.6. Load profile (+more references need to be checked) A load profile is defined as the pattern of electricity load demand of a customer or a group of customers over a given period[10].Where the period concerned can be daily , weekly, monthly or yearly. This concept has long been used as an effective tool for tariff rate formulation, system planning, load management, and devising marketing strategies[11].Having knowledge of customers load profile not only assists distribution companies in determining the demand price of electricity but also provides better marketing strategies [12] Number of load profile studies have been carried out to classify electric utility customers based on their load consumption behavior .These studies have been carried out in countries including Taiwan ,Slovenia ,Romania ,Portugal ,United Kingdom ,Malaysia ,Belgium, Spain, and Brazil . The main objective of load profile studies in general is to extract an record information relating to customer load characteristics[13]. These studies have been carried out in all these countries since they have served various purposes and the countries have gained significant benefits ; Following are the reasons for conducting such studies in all these different countries : Taiwan(Taiwan Power Company): In Taiwan load profile has studied multiple functions of system planning ,system operation and maintenance. This includes developing effective load management alternatives to reduce system peak demands and designing proper tariff rate structures according to actual power consumption using statistical techniques [43-47] Slovenia : Load profiles have been used as an effective tool for billing customers who have deviated from their contracted schedules, using hierarchical clustering. [7-41] Romania: Load profile studies have been conducted to formulate better tariff rates due to market deregulation challenges using K-means clustering and Hierarchical Clustering [48-50]. Portugal (The Portuguese Distribution Company): Load profile studies were carried out on LV customers in order to develop a decision-making system to support the definition of adequate contract options as well as to develop better market strategies using K-means clustering , Two Level Approach[52].

United Kingdom: Load profile studies have been employed to formulate and set retail electricity tariffs [54], using Fuzzy Classification. [54-57] Malaysia (Tenaga Nasional Berhad): Load profile studies have been conducted using AI-based techniques in order to one of the identified similarities of customers and to allocate customers to one of the identified categories using Fuzzy C Means clustering ,Artificial neural network (ANN) and Fuzzy Classification [58-60]. In the case of Malaysia he only load profile studies that have ever been conducted used a set of load from 46 feeders in order to demonstrate a method of classifying the daily load curves of different consumers derived from a distribution network .[61,62] Load profile data is used in some methods in order to assess energy losses at the primary , transformers and secondary distribution voltage service levels. The customers annual energy consumption can be multiplied by an appropriate DLSE load shape in order to get the annual energy profile for that customer . Then the annual energy profiles for all customers on a certain feeder are summed and that will yield to the annual load profile fo that feeder and similarly for the substation[6] . It is important to mention load profile approach .. SVM that aimes to group load patterns of individual customers based on similarities of consumption behavior fo differentiating between fraud and good load patterns+ find the methodology or the factor that change could change the shape of the load profile for each customer .


Distribution System Losses There are certain losses which affect the economy of power system . The terms distribution losses refers to the difference between the amount of energy delivered to the distribution system and the amount of energy customers is billed .Distribution lines losses are comprised of two types : Technical and non technical losses .In general system losses increase the operating costs of electric utilities and typically result in higher cost of electricity. The increase in the electricity price to customers will depend on the regulatory treatment of the losses in the tariff [hard copy-analysis of NTL and its economy consequences on power system ]. By default , the electrical energy generated should be equal to the energy registered as consumed. In reality, the situation is different because losses occur as an integral result of energy transmission and distribution . These energy losses is defined in terms of the following equation : ELoss=EDelivered ESold [89_mee thesis] Where ELoss is the amount of energy lost EDelivered represents the amount of energy delivered ESold represents the amount of energy recorded or sold 1.7.1. Technical losses Technical losses on distribution systems are primarily due to heat dissipation resulting from current passing through conductors and from magnetic losses in transformers. Technical losses occur during transmission and distribution and involve substation, transformer , and line related losses . These include resistive losses of the primary feeders , the distribution transformer losses, resistive losses in secondary network, resistive losses in service drops and losses in KWh meters. [hardcopy] Technical losses are possible to compute and control , provided the power system in question consists of known quantities of loads. Computation tools for calculating power flow , losses, and equipment status in power systems have been developed for some time . Improvements in information technology and data acquisition have also made the calculation and verification of technical losses easier . These

losses are calculated based on the natural properties of components in the power system , which include resistance, reactance, capacitance , voltage and current. Load are not included in technical losses because they are actually intended to receive as much energy as possible .