You are on page 1of 40

Production Tool Design: Introduction

TAUFIK Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering UTeM Week 1


2/28/2012 BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 1

Learning Objectives

1.

2.
3. 4.

The objectives of this chapter are to : List the objectives of tool design. Explain the types of tools. Apply the design process of tool design. Describe the functions of a tool designers.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

Tool Design in Manufacturing

To be competitive in manufacturing requires the success of concurrent engineering. As one of the concurrent team member, tool design member involved in product design and production where their knowledge of fixtures and manufacturing will result in fewer design error.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

Tool Design

A process of designing and developing the tools, methods and techniques necessary to improve manufacturing efficiency and productivity.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

Tool Designer and Responsibility

Provide simple, easy-to-operate tools for maximum efficiency. Reduce manufacturing expenses by producing parts at the lowest possible cost. Design tools that consistently produce parts of high quality. Increase the rate of production with existing machine tools. Design the tool to make it foolproof and to prevent improper use. Select materials that will give adequate tool life. Provide protection in the design of the tools for maximum safety of the operator.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

Objective of Tool Design

Production Tool is an important component of manufacturing which contributes to - maintain production quality (Q) - lower production cost (C) - reduce production lead time (D) significantly.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

But how.?

Production Tool could help to: -Provide simple, easy-to-operate tools for maximum efficiency. -Reduce manufacturing expenses by producing parts at the lowest possible cost. -Design tools that consistently produce parts of high quality. -Increase the rate of production with existing machine tools. -Design the tool to make it foolproof and to prevent improper use. -Select materials that will give adequate tool life. -Provide protection in the design of the tools for maximum safety.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

Production Tool in Mass Production


Mass production aims at high productivity : -to reduce unit cost and interchangeability -to facilities easy assembly.

This necessitates: -production tool to increase the rate of manufacture -inspection device to speed up inspection procedure.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

Production Tool

Are generally work holders with/without tool guiding/setting arrangement. These are called Jigs and Fixtures

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

Types of Tools
a. Material Cutting Tools

The selection of cutting tools material for particular application is among the most important factors in production tooling, as is the selection of production tooling materials for holding, supporting, and clamping the workpiece must be maintained.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

10

Types of Material Cutting Tools

Tool steels (principal materials), Tool and Die Steel (typical hardness RC40~60)

W, Water-Hardening Tool-Steels O, Oil-Hardening Tool-Steels A, Air-Hardening Medium Alloy Die-Steels D, High-Carbon High-Chromium Die Steels S, Shock-Resisting Tool-Steels H, Hot-Work Die Steels P, Low-Carbon Mold Steels T and M, Tungsten and Molydenum High-Speed Steels L, Low-Alloy Tool-Steels F, Carbon-Tungsten Finishing Steels
BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 11

2/28/2012

Material Used

High Speed Steels (HSS)

Contains 18% tungsten (toughness & cutting strength), 4.3% chromium (hardenability & resistance), 1% vandadium (retention)

Air or oil hardened to RC 64-65 (cutting tools), i.e. drills, reamers and cutters

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

12

Material used (2)

Die Steels

For high temperature work like forging, casting and extrusion For bushing and locator

Carbon Steels

Collet Steels (Spring Steels)

Tempered to RC 47 hardness
For press rams
BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 13

High Tensile Steel

2/28/2012

Material Used (3)

Oil Hardening Non-Shrinking Tool Steel (OHNS)

For fine parts i.e. taps, hand reamers, milling cutters. For part only local hardness on small wearing surface For parts not subjected to much wear
BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 14

Case Hardening Steels

Mild Steel

2/28/2012

Material Used (4)

Cast Iron

For used widely in milling fixtures Combine steel strength & casting shape For soft lining for clamps (prevent damage) For replaceable nuts in screw (time consume & costly)
BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 15

Steel Casting

Nylon and Fiber

Phosphor Bronze

2/28/2012

Type of Tools
b. Workholding Devices
Workholding Devices means all devices that hold, grip, or chuck a workpiece in a prescribed manner of firmness and location, to perform on it a manufacturing operation.).

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

16

Type of Tools
c. Pressworking Tools

The purpose production tooling in term of pressworking tools are to hold and clamp of the workpiece during pressworking processes. The purpose production tooling in bending, forming and drawing dies are to support, hold, and clamp of the workpiece during bending, forming and drawing dies processes in order to develop a high level of the precise tolerances.

d. Bending, Forming and Drawing Dies

e. Tool Design for Inspection and Gaging

Every dimensions of every work piece must be specified as being between two limits.
BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 17

2/28/2012

Work Holding Devices Definition


Work holding devices include all devices that hold, grip or chuck a workpiece to perform a manufacturing operation. The holding force may be applied mechanically, electrically, hydraulically or pneumatically.

2/28/2012 BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

Principles of work holding

18

Typical Workholding Devices

Vise: it is an elementary workholder (Figure a). The clamping force is applied using a screw mechanism. The holding force is applied using a lever to exert a torque (T). T = F x a in.lb Where F = human force in lb. a = Lever length in inches. (a) Elementary Workholder (vise)
Vise with hydraulic clamping (Figure b). The holding force is applied using hydraulic pressure that is applied to the vise jaws

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool (b) Vise Design

19 with hydraulic clamping

Special Workholding Devices Fixtures


Fixtures Fixtures are usually designed for a particular work pieces. The function of a fixture is to hold, and clamp the workpiece in a precise position (Figure a) Jigs A jig is a fixture that guides the tool in addition to holding the workpiece in a precise position (Figure b)
2/28/2012 BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 20

Principles of Workholding

The objective of work holding is to position or locate a workpiece in definite relation to the cutting tool, and

must clamp it with a proper force in order to withstand the cutting forces while maintaining that precise position.
2/28/2012 BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 21

Elements

Locating Elements

Position work piece accurately Hold work piece securely. Aid guiding of setting of the tools in correct position with respect the work piece
BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 22

Clamping Elements

Tool Guiding and Setting Elements

2/28/2012

Design Consideration of Workholders Positive Location

The twelve degree of freedom


2/28/2012

Afixture must be strong to support and hold the workpiece precisely in space to restrict each of the 12 degrees of freedom. Repeatability workpiece should be located in the same position in order to produce parts with precise dimensions. Adequate Clamping Forces Fixtures should provide adequate clamping forces to hold and support the workpiece against all forces subjected to such as weight, centrifugal force, inertial forces, and cutting forces.
23

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

Design Consideration of Workholders


1. Reliability Must maintain the clamping force during operation. Must be easy to maintain and lubricate. 2. Ruggedness Must be able to withstand impact force during operation Must resist abrasion. Easy to maintain and replace worn parts. 3. Design and Construction Ease Use standard parts whenever possible. If possible use modular fixture 4. Low profile Must clear tool path and allow for tool clearance
2/28/2012 BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 24

Design Consideration of Workholders


5. Workpiece Accommodation Tolerates part variations without sacrificing positive location or other design objectives; e.g. casting or forging workpieces 6. Rapid Easy Operation Easy to load and unload parts to reduce cycle time 7. Freedom of Part Distortion Adequate clamping to avoid part distortion after releasing it. 8. Flexibility Can be used for more than one part such as family of parts Examples: Modular fixtures, programmable fixtures, etc.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

25

Advantages

Productivity

Eliminate individual marking, positioning, etc Facilitate uniform quality. No need for selective assembly

Interchangeability

Skill Reduction

Simplify locating and clamping of the WP


Scrap <<, easy assembly, saving labor cost
BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 26

Cost Reduction

2/28/2012

Inspection Devices

Facilitate Interchangeability, uniformity must be limited, taking into machines capability Certain variations allowed

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

27

Limits and Fits

Largest and Smallest dimension of the shaft (or hole) high and low limit Difference between these limit Tolerance, i.e., permission variation If tolerance allowed only one side of the nominal dimension unilateral 0.02 Example: 250.00 unilateral If tolerance both side bilateral
BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 28

2/28/2012

Classification of Fits

Running Fit: Push Fit Press Fit Force Fit

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

29

Limits and Fits

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

30

Limits and Fits (2)

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

31

Sample of Fits

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

32

Design Process

Overall Size and Shape of the Part Type and Condition of Material Type of Machining Operation Degree of Accuracy Required Number of Pieces to be Made

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

33

Tooling Drawing
Draw and dimension without crowding views or dimensions Draw only required views Specify surface roughness Tolerances and firs peculiar to tools need special consideration. Stock size for finishing machining operation should be indicated. Notes must be used for heat treatment and other finishing operations should be used Secondary operation should be avoided is possible Avoid use of tight tolerance.
2/28/2012 BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 34

Tooling Layout (1)

as a tool to explode the part as partial part in order to easy assemble. The actual work of creating on paper the assembly design of equipment or tools for manufacturing processes should be done within the general framework of the following rules:

Lay out the part in an identifying color (red is suggested) Lay out any cutting tools. Indicate all locating requirements for the part.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

35

Tooling Layout (2)

Indicate all clamping requirements for the part Lay out the details with due consideration to stock sizes, so as to minimize machining requirements. Use full scale in the layout, if at all possible. Indicate the use of standard (purchasable as shelf items) fixture parts whenever possible. Identify each different item/detail.

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

36

Tooling Layout Figure

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

37

Tooling Safety

Safety should be designed into the tooling. More minor injuries resulted from these. Never cut against a clamp because of vibration and tool chatter. Instead parts should be nested against pins in order to take the cutter load. Rigidity and fool proofing should be should always be built into the tooling. Drill jigs should be made large enough to hold without the danger of spinning. All punch presses and air or hydraulically operated tooling to be installed with a double button interlocking protection system.
2/28/2012 BMFR3143 Production Tool Design 38

Tooling Handle in the Work Place

Tooling handling is to minimize the risk of accidents of tooling-operator contact. The contact can be:

An individual making the contact with the tooling-usually the moving part, because of inattention caused by fatigue, distraction, curiosity, or deliberate chance taking; From the tooling via flying chips, chemical, and hot metal splashes, and circular saw kickbacks, to name a few; Caused by the direct result of a tooling malfunction, including mechanical and electrical failure

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

39

Work piece

2/28/2012

BMFR3143 Production Tool Design

40