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CHAPTER 3

## OSCILLOSCOPE & SIGNAL GENERATOR

LECTURER: NURHANUM BINTI OMAR

## 3.1.1 Define of Oscilloscopes

Oscilloscope is a device that allows the amplitude of electrical signals, whether they be voltage, current, power, etc., to be displayed primarily as a function of time ( the basic instrument for the study all types of waveforms).

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## 3.1.2 Explain the functions of Oscilloscope

The main functions of oscilloscope are: i. Measure the voltage (AC or DC) ii. Measure the time and frequency iii. Measure the phase differential between two waveforms

## 3.1.3 Classify types of Oscilloscope (analogue and digital)

Oscilloscopes can be classified into two categories: i. Analogue Works with con nuously variable voltages. Works by directly applying a voltage being measured to an electron beam moving across the oscilloscope screen. The voltage deects the beam up and down propor onally, tracing the waveform on the screen. This gives an immediate picture of the waveform.

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## 3.1.3 Classify types of Oscilloscope (analogue and digital) (cont)

ii. Digital Works with discrete binary numbers that represent voltage samples. Samples the waveform and uses an analog-to digital converter (or ADC) to convert the voltage being measured into digital information. It then uses this digital informa on to reconstruct the waveform on the screen.

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## 3.1.6 Basic functional block diagram of an analogue oscilloscope

When you connect an oscilloscope probe to a circuit, the voltage signal travels through the probe to the vertical system of the oscilloscope. Depending on how you set the vertical scale (volts/div control), an attenuator reduces the signal voltage or an amplifier increases the signal voltage. Next, the signal travels directly to the vertical deflection plates of the cathode ray tube (CRT). Voltage applied to these deflection plates causes a glowing dot to move. (An electron beam hitting phosphor inside the CRT creates the glowing dot.) A positive voltage causes the dot to move up while a negative voltage causes the dot to move down.

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## 3.1.6 Basic functional block diagram of an analogue oscilloscope (cont)

The signal also travels to the trigger system to start or trigger a horizontal sweep. Horizontal sweep is a term referring to the action of the horizontal system causing the glowing dot to move across the screen. Triggering the horizontal system causes the horizontal time base to move the glowing dot across the screen from left to right within a specific time interval. Many sweeps in rapid sequence cause the movement of the glowing dot to blend into a solid line. At higher speeds, the dot may sweep across the screen up to 500,000 times each second. Together, the horizontal sweeping action and the vertical deflection action trace a graph of the signal on the screen. The trigger is necessary to stabilize a repeating signal. It ensures that the sweep begins at the same point of a repeating signal.

## 3.1.7 Basic functional block diagram of an digital oscilloscope

Some of the systems that make up digital oscilloscopes are the same as those in analogue oscilloscopes. However, digital oscilloscopes contain additional data processing systems. With the added systems, the digital oscilloscope collects data for the entire waveform and then displays it. When you attach a digital oscilloscope probe to a circuit, the vertical system adjusts the amplitude of the signal, just as in the analogue oscilloscope. Next, the analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) in the acquisition system samples the signal at discrete points in time and converts the signals voltage at these points to digital values called sample points.

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## 3.1.7 Basic functional block diagram of an digital oscilloscope (cont)

The horizontal systems sample clock determines how often the ADC takes a sample. The rate at which the clock "ticks" is called the sample rate and is measured in samples per second. The sample points from the ADC are stored in memory as waveform points. More than one sample point may make up one waveform point. Together, the waveform points make up one waveform record. The number of waveform points used to make a waveform record is called the record length. The trigger system determines the start and stop points of the record. The display receives these record points after being stored in memory.

Advantages High-accuracy measurements Display storage Bright, well-focused display at virtually sweep speed Pre-trigger viewing capability Peak/glitch detection Automatic measurements Computer, printer/plotter connectivity Waveform processing capability including waveform math functions Display modes like averaging and infinite persistence Self calibration Disadvantages Can be more costly Can be less intuitive to operate because they typically have more features)

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Advantages Familiar controls Instantaneous display updating for realadjustments Direct, dedicated controls for Adjustments like vertical sensitivity, time base speed, trace position and trigger level low cost. Disadvantages Low accuracy Display flicker and/or dim display No pre-trigger viewing capability Limited bandwidth

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## 3.2.1 Explain function of Display Controls

POWER SWITCH ON/OFF Main power switches of the instrument. When this switch is turned on, the LED above the switch is also turned ON POWER LAMP This LED lamp lights when power is turned ON INTENSITY KNOB It can control the brightness of the spot or trace. FOCUS KNOB After obtaining appropriate brightness with intensity, adjust focus for clearest line

## 3.2.1 Explain function of Display Controls (cont)

TRACE ROTATION KNOB This knob is used to correct the horizontal trace when it becomes slanted with respect to the horizontal scale, due to the effect of magnetic fields SCALEILLUM KNOB This is used to adjust scale brightness. If this knob is turned clockwise, brightness is increased. This feature is useful for operation in dark places, or when taking pictures CAL 0.5V TERMINAL Outputs a 0.5V p-p 1 KHz rectangular wave for calibrating probes GND TERMINAL This is a grounding terminal

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## 3.2.2 Explain function of Vertical Controls

CH1 INPUT CONNECTOR This is a BNC connector used for vertical input CH1. The signal applied to this connector when in the X-Y mode becomes the X-axis signal. CH2 INPUT CONNECTOR This is a BNC connector used or vertical input CH2. The signal applied to this connector when in the X-Y me ie becomes the Y-axis signal. AC-GND-DC SWITCH Select following input coupling options for CH1 and CH2 AC: blocks dc signal component allowing only AC signal to pass into attenuator GND: input signal is switch off and attenuator is grounded DC: dc coupling, all signal are directly connected to attenuator

## 3.2.2 Explain function of Vertical Controls (cont)

VOLTS/DIV SELECTOR SWITCH This is a step attenuator switch adjusting the vertical deflection sensitivity. Set to the position which displays the input signal at the most convenient height on the CRT. VARIABLE KNOB The fine adjustment is used for varying the vertical-axis deflection sensitivity continuously. If this knob is completely counter clockwise the vertical sensitivity is reduced to less than 1/2.5 of VOLTS/DIV switch setting. This knob is used for comparing two waveform and rise time measurement. However this knob is normally in the locking position. PULL X5 MAG When the pull x5 Mag is pulled out, the vertical axis gain is magnified 5 times, the maximum sensitivity becomes 1mV/div

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## 3.2.2 Explain function of Vertical Controls (cont)

20MHz BANDWIDTH The frequency bandwidth of vertical axis is limited to 20MHz. This knob can be used when you cannot synchronize the signal by high frequency noise or expanded trace. ALT/CHOP When the vertical mode is in dual, this button can display ALT and CHOP mode. ALT mode is a sequential display mode with one cycle of signal between CH1 and CH2. CHOP mode is a sequential display mode with a frequency step of approximately 220MHz between CH1 and CH2. POSITION Used to move the CHI or CH2 trace up or down on the CRT screen

## 3.2.2 Explain function of Vertical Controls (cont)

INVERT SWITCH When the invert push button is pressed, the polarity of the input signal applied to CH2 is inverted. This function is convenient when 2 waveforms of difference are compared, or for displaying the CHI and CH2 difference waveform using ADD. MODE SELECTOR SWITCH Selects vertical axis operating mode CHI: only the signal applied to CH1 is displayed on the screen CH2: only the signal applied to CH2 is displayed on the screen DUAL: when both CH1 and CH2 buttons are pushed in the signals applied to CH1 and CH2 input are displayed on the screen ADD: display the algebraic sum of the CHI and CH2 input voltage

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## 3.2.3 Explain function of Horizontal Controls

A TIME/DIV Selects sweep speed from 0.05s/div to 0.2s/div in 21 calibrated steps. HORIZONTAL POSITION The trace can be moved in a horizontal direction. Tuning this knob clockwise moves the trace towards the right, turning the knob is counter clockwise moves the trace towards the left. PULL X10 MAG When pulled out, the trace will be magnified by a factor of 10 times. The sweep time becomes 1/10 of the indicated on-the time/div switch, (e.g. 100s/div becomes 10s/div for X10 MAG). To magnify a portion of a waveform: Move the waveform of interest to the centre gratitude on the horizontal scale.

## 3.2.3 Explain function of Horizontal Controls (cont)

A, B, ALT (H DISPLAY) This switch selects the sweep method of A, B. When both A and B buttons are pushed in, it was display B sweep which was duplicated by A sweep and 2 trace of B sweep simultaneously. X-Y Displays the CH1 and CH2 input signal as an X, Y graph. The vertical deflection signal is applied to the CH1 input and the horizontal deflection signal is applied to the CH2 input. The CH2 Vertical position control is used for the positioning the X, Y display on the vertical axis the horizontal position control positions the X, Y display on horizontal axis of CRT. TRACE SEPERATION This trace separation controls the vertical position interval of A sweep and B sweep at the sweep mode is A ALT B.

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## 3.2.3 Explain function of Horizontal Controls (cont)

DLY POS Adjusts to starting with B sweep during the A sweep periods. VARIABLE When this knob is turned all the way clockwise (cal) the sweep is indicated by the A time/diy switch, if the knob is turned all the way counter clockwise the sweep is less than of the A time/div setting. During normal operation, this knob is turned to the CAL position.

## 3.2.4 Explain function of Trigger Controls

B TRIS'D This knob selects between continuous delay and triggered delay. For continuous delay (normal state), the B sweep starts immediately after the sweep delay time determined by A time/div switch (19) and delay pos (25). For triggered delay (the knob is pushed), the sweep starts with B trigger signal after the continuous delay time. TRIGGER SOURCE SELECTOR SWITCH Selects sweep trigger signal source. INT: The input signal applied to CH1 or CH2 becomes the trigger signal CH2: The input signal applied to CH2 becomes the trigger signal LINE: The power line frequency becomes the trigger signal source EXT: The external signal applied to EXT input becomes the trigger signal. This is used when the trigger signal is external the vertical input signal

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## 3.2.4 Explain function of Trigger Controls (cont)

TRIG LEVEL KNOB This control sets the amplitude point on the trigger waveform that will start the sweep. Pull Slope knob Selects the polarity of the slope the trigger source waveform will start the sweep. (+) Slope is selected when the pull slope knob is in normal position (-) Slope is selected when the pull slope knob is pulled out. HOLD OFF By the operation of Hold Off, complicated repetitive signals can be captured.

## 3.2.4 Explain function of Trigger Controls (cont)

TRIG-MODE SWITCH Auto: Sweep continuously runs in the auto sweep mode. A trace will be displayed even when there is no input signal or when the input waveform is not triggered. A stationary waveform will be displayed when the input waveform is properly triggered. Norm: A trace will be displayed only when the input waveform is present and is properly triggered. There will be no trace displayed on the CRT if there is no input signal or if the input signal is not synchronized. Normal sweep is used when the input signal's frequency is less than 2LHz. TV-H: Effective when trig mode is set to TV, and is used when the horizontal of the TV signal is to be synchronized. TV-V: Effective only when trig mode is set to TV, and is used when the vertical of the TV signal is to be synchronized. *Both TV-V and TV-H are synchronized only when the trigger signal is (-).

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## 3.3.1 Define of Oscilloscope Probes.

Probe is more than a cable with a clip-on tip. It is a high-quality connector, carefully designed not to pick up stray radio and power line noise. Probes are designed not to influence the behaviour of the circuit you are testing. However, no measurement device can act as a perfectly invisible observer.

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## 3.4.1 Prepare procedure for calibrate Oscilloscope.

Turn on oscilloscope. Allow it to warm up for approximately 10 minutes. Letting the oscilloscope warm up prevents damage to its cathode ray tube. A green light is show on the CRT screen when the oscilloscope is ready. The green light should run across the screen horizontally and should be in the centre of the screen. Adjust the position knob on the oscilloscope by and turn it clockwise or counter clockwise until this line is at the centre of the screen. If the line shows up as a green dot moving across the screen, adjust the time/div knob until the dot appear as a line and then centre it.

## 3.4.1 Prepare procedure for calibrate Oscilloscope.

Usually an oscilloscope has two channels CH1 and CH2. Connect your oscilloscope probe to CH1. Find the voltage selector switch and set it to AC volts. Find CAL connector. It looks like a small enclosed hook, similar to the eye of a needle. Attach the oscilloscope probe to CAL connector. Ground the ground wire. A peak to peak square wave one volt above the centre division and one volt below the centre division. This means the oscilloscope is correctly calibrated at 2 Vpp.

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3.4.2 Connection between Signal Generator and Oscilloscope for signal measurement.

3.4.3 Using Oscilloscope To Measure Voltage, Frequency, Time And Phase Angle
Voltage (V) : = No. vertical division x volt/div x probe { x1 or x10 } Period, T (s) : = No. Horizontal division x time/div Frequency measurement, f(Hz): = 1 / period

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3.4.3 Using Oscilloscope To Measure Voltage, Frequency, Time And Phase Angle
Using oscilloscope to measure voltage

If the setting VOLT/DIV = 1V. Voltage peak-to-peak = Volt/Div X Div Example : Voltage peakto-peak = Volt / Div X Div = 1 Volt / Div X 10 Div = 10 Vp-p

3.4.3 Using Oscilloscope To Measure Voltage, Frequency, Time And Phase Angle
Using oscilloscope to measure frequency If the setting TIME/DIV = 0.2ms. Frequency= 1 / T Where T = Time / div x Div So, Frequency = 1 [Time / div] x div Example : Frequency = 1 [Time / div] x div Frequency = 1 0.2ms x 10 div Frequency = 500 Hz

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3.4.3 Using Oscilloscope To Measure Voltage, Frequency, Time And Phase Angle

o = ( 360 o ) x ( f ) x ( t ) o = 360 o x o
1 x t T 1 = 360 o x x1ms 4 ms

o = 90 o

3.4.3 Using Oscilloscope To Measure Voltage, Frequency, Time And Phase Angle

## a) Voltage measurement (V) (i) V = 4 x 2 x 1 = 8 Vpp

(ii) V = 2 x 2 x 1 = 4 Vp

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## 3.4.4 Evaluate the specification of analogue Oscilloscope

To use an analogue oscilloscope, three basic setting accommodate an incoming signal: a. The attenuation or amplification of the signal Use the volt/div control to adjust the amplitude of the signal before it is applied to the vertical deflection plates. b. The time base The time/div control to set amount of time per division represented horizontally across the screen. c. The trigger of the oscilloscope Use the trigger level to stabilize a repeating signal, as well as triggering on a single event. Also adjust the focus and intensity controls to create a sharp and visible display.

## 3.5 Introduction to signal generator

A signal generator is a test device which generates an alternating voltage signal suitable for test purposes. The signal generator is used primarily in the alignment of tuned circuits. A signal generator is classified according to its frequency and is one of two types: audio frequency or radio frequency. a. Audio frequency generators produce signals with a frequency range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. b. Radio-frequency generators produce signals covering a range of frequencies from 10 kHz to 10 GHz. Many radio-frequency generators have audio outputs separately available through front panel jacks. These outputs are normally 100 Hz and 400 Hz.

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## 3.5.1 Audio signal generators.

Audio signal generators produce stable audio-frequency signals used for testing audio equipment. Video signal generators produce signals which include the audio range and extend considerably further into the RF range. These generators are used in testing video amplifiers and other wideband circuits.

## 3.5.2 Classify types of signal generator.

Audio signal generators produce stable audio-frequency signals used for testing audio equipment. Video signal generators produce signals which include the audio range and extend considerably further into the RF range. These generators are used in testing video amplifiers and other wideband circuits.

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## 3.5.2 Classify types of signal generator.

Video signal generator : A device which outputs predetermined video and/or television waveform and other signals used to stimulate faults in, or aid in parametric measurements of television and video systems.

Pitch generator: - A types of signal generator optimized for use in audio and acoustics applications. - Sophisticated pitch generators will also include sweep generators a function which varies the output frequency over a range. - Pitch generators are typically used in conjunction with sound level meters, when measuring the acoustics of a room or a sound reproduction system, and/or with oscilloscopes or specialized audio analyzers.

## 3.5.2 Classify types of signal generator.

Arbitrary waveform generators (AWG): - Sophisticated signal generators which allow the user to generate arbitrary waveforms, within published limits of frequency range, accuracy and output level. - Unlike function generators, which are limited to a simple set of waveforms; an AWG allows the user to specify a source waveform in a variety of different ways.

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## 3.5.3 Explain Standard Signal Generators.

Produces known and controllable voltages Used as power source for measurement of gain, signal to noise ratio, bandwidth, standing wave ratio, and other properties. Extensively used in testing of radio receiver and transmitter. The output signal can be Amplitude Modulated (AM) or Frequency Modulated (FM).

## 3.5.4 Explain Function Generators.

Produce different waveforms of adjustable frequency Common output waveform are sine, square, triangular and saw tooth The frequency may be adjusted, from a fraction of a hertz to several hundred kHz

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## 3.5.5 Front Panel of a Signal Generators.

Frequency Selection Group Range switch: Provide seven fixed decades of frequency Multiplier: Variable potentiometer allowing frequency setting between fixed range. Sweep Group The sweep group can frequency sweep any of its function outputs. It could be swept up or down in frequency using linear or log sweeps. Unlike function generators, there are no annoying discontinuities or band-switching artifacts when sweeping through certain frequencies. Two sweep marker frequencies can be specified. When the sweep crosses either of the marker frequencies, a TTL transition is generated at the rear-panel output to allow synchronization of external devices.

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## 3.5.5 Front Panel of a Signal Generators.

Amplitude Modulation Group To provide 20dB of attenuation of the output waveform selected by function switch. DC offset Group To allow the DC level of the output waveform to be set as desire. Output Group Used to adjust the amplitude of the generators out signal. The group consists of the amplitude control knob, the three attenuation buttons and the fused 50 BNC connector.

## 3.5.5 Front Panel of a Signal Generators.

Function or Waveform group To provide selection of desired output waveform. (Square, triangle and sine waveforms are provided)

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3.5.6 Connection Between Signal Generator & Oscilloscope For Signal Measurement

3.5.6 Connection Between Signal Generator & Oscilloscope For Signal Measurement
Connect the oscilloscope probe and signal generator. Switch on the signal generator and adjust the output level to produce a visible signal on the oscilloscope screen. Adjust TIME/DIV and VOLTS/DIV to obtain a clear display and investigate the effects of pressing the waveform shape buttons. The rotating FREQUENCY control and the RANGE switch are used together to determine the frequency of the output signal.

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THANK YOU

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