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Prepared by: Bharath Mukundakrishnan and Thomas L. Ruen Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. 708 South Third Street, Suite 310 Minneapolis, Minnesota 55415 USA

November 1, 2002

Ref: 8506

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GRID GENERATION ................................................................................................ 2 GENERAL COMMENTS ........................................................................................... 2 SOLID MODEL GENERATION .................................................................................. 3 FLAC3D MESH FROM ANSYS+CIVILFEM MESH ................................................... 4 GEOMETRY TESTS IN FLAC3D .............................................................................. 7 Geometric Parameters: Orthogonality, Aspect Ratio, Face Planarity ....... 7 GRID GENERATION USING RATIOS ........................................................................ 11 EXAMPLE OF A GRADED GRID .............................................................................. 14 ANSYS+CIVILFEM MESH EXPORTED AND ATTACHED IN FLAC3D ..................... 16 Several sub-grids attached together ........................................................... 16 Circular tunnels embedded in a grid .......................................................... 19 CREATION AND MESHING OF TUNNEL INTERSECTION GEOMETRIES....................... 24 Building and meshing an intersection between two perpendicular tunnels24 Building and meshing three tunnels perpendicular to each other.............. 27 Building and meshing tunnel intersection with ratios ................................ 30 Building and meshing multiple, intersecting tunnels and shafts ................ 33 Building and meshing tunnel intersection at 45 angle.............................. 36 Building and meshing tunnel intersection at 45 with different radii ........ 41 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES................................................................................ 43 Importing and using an IGES surface to extrude and mesh a volume ....... 43 Import of *.SAT format files (ASIC format) from AutoCAD ...................... 46 A quarter ellipse model............................................................................... 48 A cubic volume cut by an arbitrary surface................................................ 51 Building and meshing a tunnel extruded along a given path ..................... 54

1.4.1 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.8 1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.3 1.8.4 1.8.5 1.8.6 1.9 1.9.1 1.9.2 1.9.3 1.9.4 1.9.5

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1.0 1.1

Grid generation in FLAC3D is accomplished using five basic primitives (brick, wedge, pyramid, cylinder and tetrahedron) that are built in as a part of the software. In addition, special geometries, such as tunnel intersections, are built into the software based on the five basic primitives. The built-in models, although useful, do not cover the entire spectrum of problems. Sometimes it is easier to create the model geometry defining curves, surfaces and volumes and then use a meshing process to convert the geometrical entities into discrete points and elements in space for analysis. A solid modeler can be used to accomplish the building of geometry, which can then be used as an input for a meshing utility to mesh the geometry. ANSYS+CivilFEM1 is one such software program that can help in both building and meshing the geometry. It is relatively easy to create solid models, but meshing the created model is a complex process. Meshing a 3D model depends on the type of element used. It is possible to mesh almost any complicated solid model with a basic three-dimensional element, namely tetrahedron. But if the solution analysis requires the model to be meshed with a certain type of element, then meshing can become an involved process. FLAC3D requires that all elements be hexahedrons in order to provide accurate solutions for plasticity. ANSYS+CivilFEM provides capabilities to build solid model geometry using two different approaches and also provides tools to mesh these geometries. The user can choose the eight noded SOLID45 element from the database of built-in elements to mesh the created solid model into hexahedral zones. This element can automatically degenerate into a wedge type element or a tetrahedron. The resultant mesh from ANSYS+CivilFEM can be exported into a FLAC3D format data file that translates the nodal positions into FLAC3D gridpoint positions and ANSYS+CivilFEM primitives to FLAC3D primitives. ANSYS+CivilFEM detaches the problem of meshing from the problem of building the solid model. With any numerical method, the accuracy of the result depends on the grid used to represent the physical system. In general, finer meshes (more zones per unit volume) lead to more accurate results. Furthermore, the aspect ratio (ratio of the smallest length to largest length in a zone) also affects accuracy. When creating model geometry with FLAC3D, it should be kept in mind that the greatest accuracy is obtained for a model with equal, square zones. If

1. ANSYS+CivilFEM is available from Ingeciber, S.A. For purchasing information visit http://www.ingeciber.com/eng/index.htm

-3the model must contain different zone sizes, then a gradual variation in size should be used for maximum accuracy; this factor is important enough that a special option is provided in the GENERATE command in FLAC3D whereby zone sizes can be arranged to increase or decrease by a constant ratio along any grid line. ANSYS+CivilFEM has the capability to specify ratios while meshing a solid model and thus control the size of elements generated. As a general rule, the aspect ratio of a zone should be kept as close to unity as possible. Anything above 5:1 is potentially inaccurate. The purpose of this document is to show the potential application of ANSYS+CivilFEM as a grid generator for FLAC3D. Several example grids are given to illustrate the types of geometries that can be considered for grid generation. All save files (*.db) and several script files (*.log) from ANSYS+CivilFEM v6.1 are provided for the examples in this document. Also, FLAC3D data files (*.dat) exported from the ANSYS+CivilFEM models are provided. All files are compressed in the file CIVILFEM_DAT. ZIP. 1.2 Solid Model Generation

There are two approaches available in ANSYS+CivilFEM to model any given geometry. One approach is called the bottom-up approach, and the other is called the top-down approach (also called the constructive solid-geometry approach). The bottom-up approach can be used for very complex geometries that cannot be defined using conic sections or by simple Boolean operations of basic solid primitives. Points, lines, areas and volumes can be created to describe the model geometry using this approach. The constructive solid-geometry approach, on the other hand, is used to create models using basic primitives provided by ANSYS+CivilFEM and applying Boolean operations on these primitives to construct a model. The approach that should be used is dependent on the complexity of the model and perhaps the resourcefulness of the user. Users should refer to ANSYS+CivilFEM manuals for guidance on solid modeling. Once a solid model has been created, it should be meshed to generate nodes and elements to fill in the solid. Hexahedral meshing of the solid geometry may require extra effort with subdivision, addition and subtraction of volumes. It should be noted that ANSYS+CivilFEM can generate tetrahedral meshing very easily with the least input from the user. There are two types of meshing: mapped meshing, and sweep meshing for creating zones in 3D volumes. Mapped meshing involves filling a model volume with the chosen element. Any geometry that needs to be map-meshed must be made topologically equivalent to certain basic shapes, which can be trivially meshed with the chosen element. ANSYS+CivilFEM has tools that allow volumes, areas and lines to be manipulated so that they conform to some basic topological entity that can then be easily meshed. Mapped meshing guarantees the

-4same type of element throughout the solid model. Sweep meshing is a technique in which a particular area (called a source area, which can be automatically determined or manually specified) of a volume is meshed and the mesh pattern is swept through the whole volume up to a target surface (automatically determined or manually specified) interpolating the pattern within the volume. Internally the meshing algorithm meshes the source area such that the resulting 3D element formed by sweeping corresponds to the element chosen by the user. (For FLAC3D grid generation, the 3D element chosen can only be a SOLID45 element.) Sweep meshing can be used effectively to mesh complicated geometries. However, in a complex model, sweep meshing may have to be done one volume at a time, specifying the source and target areas manually. The user should take care to ensure that resulting elements at the interface share the same nodes in order that the model properly transfers forces and other quantities across the meshed volume in FLAC3D. Also, see the ATTACH command in the FLAC3D command reference manual. 1.3 FLAC3D mesh from ANSYS+CivilFEM mesh

Figure 1 shows the ANSYS+CivilFEM v 6.1 screen that has the FLAC3D export option.

Figure 1

ANSYS+CivilFEM to FLAC3D export option. CivilFEM Preprocessor menu has to be invoked, for this option to work in ANSYS+CivilFEM v 6.1

-5imported into FLAC3D. ANSYS+CivilFEM export option does not recognize other types of elements. SOLID45 can automatically degenerate into a wedge or a tetrahedron. ANSYS+CivilFEM creates a script file that generates gridpoints from the nodal positions of the meshed geometry. This is done by issuing a number of GENERATE point commands to create gridpoints. ANSYS+CivilFEM then generates FLAC3D primitives using these newly created gridpoints. This is done by issuing a series of GENERATE zone commands for FLAC3D zone generation. Since a SOLID45 element in ANSYS+CivilFEM has eight nodes and can degenerate into a wedge or a tetrahedron, only the GENERATE zone brick, GENERATE zone wedge or GENERATE zone tet commands are used in the script file. The format of the output data file created by ANSYS+CivilFEM is shown in Figure 2. GEN POINT ID id xpos ypos zpos .. .. GEN ZONE (primitive) p0 POINT id p1 POINT id SIZE x y z GROUP material number .. .. SEL NODE INIT XPOS ADD 0.0 Figure 2 Data file generated by ANSYS+CivilFEM to export mesh into FLAC3D

The last line in Figure 2 is necessary to establish links to the grid when structural elements are generated. It is possible to create cables, beams and shells in ANSYS+CivilFEM and export them into FLAC3D. This option has not been tested extensively and has not been included here. Structural elements can be easily created on the faces of the FLAC3D grid after importing the grid from ANSYS+CivilFEM. The data files provided in CIVILFEM_DAT.ZIP have additional commands for saving and turning off informational messages echoed to the screen. These commands have been added externally for convenience and do not form a part of original FLAC3D script file generated by ANSYS+CivilFEM. CFTOFL3D.DAT is the default name of the data file exported by ANSYS+CivilFEM that contains grid generation data. The other data file FL3DRES.DAT created by ANSYS+CivilFEM is for exporting FLAC3D structural element results into an ASCII format file which can be input into ANSYS+CivilFEM for post-processing.

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Figure 3

Figure 3 shows the ANSYS+CivilFEM to FLAC3D export dialog window when Export Model option in ANSYS+CivilFEM window (Figure 1) is invoked. The size variable that determines the number of elements generated can be specified at the time of exporting of ANSYS+CivilFEM mesh into FLAC3D. When the ANSYS+CivilFEM model needs to be exported into FLAC3D, the user is presented with the dialog box shown in Figure 3. The first three edit boxes can be used to specify the size of zones along x, y and z directions: X Number of divisions corresponds to division of y size Y Number of divisions corresponds to division of z size Z Number of divisions corresponds to division of x size Thus, it is possible to have a coarsely meshed geometry in ANSYS+CivilFEM and finely meshed geometry in FLAC3D. Volumes that need to be grouped in FLAC3D can be meshed with different material names in ANSYS+CivilFEM. These different material names assigned to different meshed volumes in ANSYS+CivilFEM translate into different group names during the export process. When an exported mesh is plotted in FLAC3D and compared with the ANSYS+CivilFEM default plot, the plots are rotated because FLAC3D by convention plots the geometry on the X-Z plane while ANSYS+CivilFEM plots the geometry on the X-Y plane, even though both use a right-handed coordinate system. The radio buttons provided in the dialog box can be used to create irregular hexahedral zones out of tetrahedral elements generated by ANSYS+CivilFEM. The model should be meshed completely with tetrahedral elements for this option to work.

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1.4

FLAC3D has three basic tests built in to check the integrity of meshed models to make sure that the model is adequate for simulation purposes. For example, these tests can be used to check if there is improper mapping of node points during export of the model into FLAC3D, resulting in some zones being inside out and hence not suitable for simulation. It can also be used to check if a zone is degenerate or not. Degeneracy can occur if a primitive is created without satisfying the requirements of geometry conditions such as the number of vertices, edges and faces for that particular primitive. The geometry tests in FLAC3D are designed for hexahedral elements only. 1.4.1 Geometric Parameters: Orthogonality, Aspect Ratio, Face Planarity

The geometric aspects of a hexahedral element are evaluated using three quantities, orthogonality, and aspect ratio and face planarity. The quantities compare the hexahedrons to a perfect cube, which is the ideal shape for hexahedral meshes. The GEOM_TEST command invokes the test for all three of these geometric quantities. Orthogonality. For each grid point in each zone, the determinant of the matrix defined by the three edge vectors is computed and divided by the produce of their lengths. This gives 1.0 for a cube, and approaches zero as pairs of edges approach being coplanar or all three approach being coplanar. Each zone is measured by the worst orthogonality value of all grid points.

Figure 4

Orthogonality Test

-8Aspect ratio For each grid point, the ratio of the shortest edge length by the longest edge length is computed. This will be 1.0 for a cube. It will approach zero as the zone becomes stretched or flattened. Each zone is measured by the worst aspect ratio of all grid points.

Figure 5

Face Planarity Hexahedrons are composed of 6 quadrilateral faces, just like a cubes square faces, however geometrically it is possible that a quadrilateral polygon in 3D may not have all 4 vertices coplanar. FLAC3D allows faces to be non-planar, but the greater the deviation, the less accurate the solution process will be. There is no clear singular method of measuring planarity. A method which compares the volume of a tetrahedron filling the 4 vertices, and the area of the quadrilateral face, computing the area by adding a central point m=(A+B+C+D)/4, and computing the 4 triangle areas ABC, ABD, ACD, BCD is chosen. The ratio of the cube root of the volume to the square root of the area (to get a dimensionless value) is computed. This value is zero if planar, and positive if non-planar. This test can be scaled by a constant since there is no fundamental limit on how non-planar a face can be. (Values should be << 1.0 for a face to be good.). Each zone has its six faces tested and the worst value is reported.

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Figure 6

Reporting average values for these tests are meaningless since some meshes might be 90% good and 10% bad and give the same average as a mesh with all 80% test quality. Instead distribution of values for all the three parameters across all zones in the range specified is reported. The distribution ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 with a 0.1 interval. Thus all zones fall within these 20 intervals. This distribution will help identify how many bad zones there are, and how bad. Note that these tests are useful for relative comparisons between different grids for the same geometry. For a model to perform well with FLAC3D orthogonality and aspect ratio zone test values should be near 1.0 and planarity test values near 0.0. FISH functions can be written to group all zones that failed to meet minimum standards and thus visualize the bad zones. The following example illustrates how to use and interpret the defined geometric measures. A simple 3-by-3 FLAC3D grid is created (See Figure 7), and the geometric measures are reported.

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FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:02:48 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 1.500e+000 Y: 1.500e+000 Z: 1.500e+000 Dist: 9.795e+000 Rotation: X: 30.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 50.000 Mag.: 0.64 Ang.: 22.500

Surface

Magfac = 0.000e+000

Axes

Linestyle

Z Y X

Figure 7 A simple 3-by-3 FLAC3D grid to illustrate geometric aspects of zones The MS Excel histogram chart in Figure 8 shows the distribution of zones for the three geometry parameters described above. The range of all three parameters falls between 0.0 and 1.0 for any properly formed element suitable for simulation purposes. The zones are tested for each parameter and based on the value obtained for each parameter tested, added to the corresponding range of values. Geometry testing is done by issuing the GEOM_TEST command. Thus, we get a distribution of elements for each geometry parameter, and this distribution of elements is directed to a log file and plotted as a histogram using MS Excel software. (Other such graph plotting software can also be used.) For a simple regular 3-by-3 model, we find that the aspect ratio and orthogonality of all zones are equal to 1.0. The face planarity of all zones is also 0.0, as all faces are planar. (Even though the aspect ratio and orthogonality of all zones are identically equal to 1.0 and face planarity is identically 0.0 for all zones, they all fall within a range in the chart). Elements that are found outside of this range are bad elements and can cause errors during analysis.

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30

Number of eleme

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect ratio Face planarity

Figure 8 Distribution of zones for all the three geometric parameters 1.5 Grid generation using ratios

A simple 10 by 20 by 30 unit parallelepiped solid model geometry is generated using ANSYS+CivilFEM. It is then meshed with SOLID45 elements and exported into FLAC3D. The default size of each element edge is set to 2 units. A mapped mesh is created because the topology lends itself easily to this sort of meshing. Ratios can be specified by picking lines in the ANSYS+CivilFEM graphical user interface. It is also possible to specify ratios at the command line using the LESIZE command in ANSYS+CivilFEM The user should refer to ANSYS+CivilFEM documentation and create small examples like the ones illustrated here to understand the various options by which ratios can be specified to a solid model. The example shows the results of using ratios to generate grids in ANSYS+CivilFEM and exported into FLAC3D.

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FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:17:55 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 5.000e+000 Y: 1.000e+001 Z: 1.500e+001 Dist: 9.295e+001 Rotation: X: 30.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 220.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Surface

Magfac = 0.000e+000

Axes

Linestyle

Z

Figure 9

Figure 9 shows a uniform grid generated without using ratios in ANSYS+CivilFEM and exported into FLAC3D. In ANSYS+CivilFEM the parameters that can be controlled for obtaining a graded grid are SIZE (element edge length), NDIV (number of element divisions, used only when SIZE is blank or zero), SPACE (spacing ratio) and ANGSIZE (division of arc in degrees, used only if NDIV and SIZE are blank or zero). In Figure 10 a spacing ratio is applied along both x and y axes, so that the edge length of the last element is 4 times the length of the first element. Spacing ratio can also be specified between center element and the edge element by using a negative number for ratio values. Figure 11 shows the application of spacing ratio such that the boundary element lengths along x- and y-axes are 4 times the length of elements in the center. The user should consult the ANSYS+CivilFEM manual and try simple examples to become familiar with specifying ratios to generate graded grids. The user can also work with the ANSYS+CivilFEM save files and script files provided to regenerate these examples.

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FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:19:28 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 5.000e+000 Y: 1.000e+001 Z: 1.500e+001 Dist: 9.295e+001 Rotation: X: 30.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 210.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Surface

Magfac = 0.000e+000

Axes

Linestyle

Z

X Y

Figure 10

A 10 by 20 by 30 unit exported grid with a ratio of 4 (240 zones and 400 gps) ( end zone length is 4 times the start zone length)

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:20:59 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 5.000e+000 Y: 1.000e+001 Z: 1.500e+001 Dist: 9.295e+001 Rotation: X: 30.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 220.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Surface

Magfac = 0.000e+000

Axes

Linestyle

Z

Figure 11

A 10 by 20 by 30 exported grid with a ratio of 4 (375 zones and 576 gps) applied from center to end( end zone length is 4 times the center zone length)

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1.6

The following example gives an illustration of creating a graded grid in ANSYS+CivilFEM and exporting it into FLAC3D. The solid model is a 30 by 20 by 20 unit parallelepiped with a 5 by 20 by 5 unit parallelepiped in the center generated using ANSYS+CivilFEM solid modeler. The division of the ANSYS+CivilFEM solid model into different volumes to produce this graded grid is shown. A graded grid is produced when the number of element divisions is fixed (Number of element divisions is 4, see Figure 12) along the boundary of the volume and at its interior.

Figure 12

Division of ANSYS+CivilFEM volume for subsequent meshing. Center volume is given a different material ID to group it differently in FLAC3D

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Figure 13

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:23:54 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 1.500e+001 Y: 1.000e+001 Z: 1.000e+001 Dist: 9.295e+001 Rotation: X: 20.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 330.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00002

Axes

Linestyle

Z Y X

Figure 14

Graded grid exported into FLAC3D (160 zones and 267 gridpoints)

-16The geometric aspects of the FLAC3D grid are shown below. It can be seen that the aspect ratio is affected by the gradation of the grids.

160

Number of elements(160)

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 15

Geometric aspects

1.7

This series of examples show model geometries whose volumes are independently meshed in ANSYS+CivilFEM and attached using the ATTACH command in FLAC3D. ANSYS+CivilFEM does not allow the interface area between different volumes to have different meshing densities. FLAC3D allows meshes of different densities (refer to ATTACH command in the FLAC3D Command Reference volume for details) to be attached using the ATTACH command. The ATTACH command is useful only if the ratio of the number of divisions between the sub-grid and the main grid is an integral quantity. For very complex geometries, one should be careful in setting up the geometry, element sizes and ratios in ANSYS+CivilFEM so that meshes can be attached and satisfactorily used for simulation purposes. 1.7.1 Several sub-grids attached together

A parallelepiped model of dimensions 20 by 10 by 5 units is created in ANSYS+CivilFEM and divided into five separate volumes to be meshed with different densities. In this case, part of the mesh has a two to one ratio with other meshes and part of the mesh has a three to one

-17ratio with other meshes. The ratio is fixed by changing the number of element divisions along x- and y-directions and also specifying a spacing ratio before each volume is meshed. Users can regenerate the example by referring to the script files to generate the FLAC3D mesh and the ANSYS+CivilFEM save file (*.db). Please note that z size is increased by a factor of two when exporting from ANSYS+CivilFEM. (See Figure 3) After attaching the grids in FLAC3D using the ATTACH command, a y-velocity of -1.0e-2 is applied on the top of the grid and the resulting displacement contour is shown to be uniformly spread across attach boundaries.

Figure 16

ANSYS+CivilFEM model with different volumes for specifying different mesh densities

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FLAC3D 2.10

Step 3986 Model Perspective 10:25:59 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 1.000e+001 Y: 5.000e+000 Z: 2.500e+000 Dist: 6.030e+001 Rotation: X: 110.000 Y: 320.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500

Surface

Magfac = 0.000e+000

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 17

FLAC3D 2.10

Step 3986 Model Perspective 10:29:01 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 1.000e+001 Y: 5.000e+000 Z: 2.500e+000 Dist: 6.030e+001 Rotation: X: 110.000 Y: 330.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500

Sketch

Magfac = 0.000e+000 Linestyle

Attach

Figure 18

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FLAC3D 2.10

Step 3986 Model Perspective 10:33:40 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 1.000e+001 Y: 5.000e+000 Z: 2.500e+000 Dist: 6.030e+001 Rotation: X: 110.000 Y: 320.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500

Magfac = 0.000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 0.0000e+000 2.5000e+004 to 5.0000e+004 7.5000e+004 to 1.0000e+005 1.2500e+005 to 1.5000e+005 1.7500e+005 to 2.0000e+005 2.2500e+005 to 2.5000e+005 2.7500e+005 to 3.0000e+005 3.2500e+005 to 3.5000e+005 3.7500e+005 to 3.9860e+005 Interval = 2.5e+004

Y

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 19 1.7.2

This is another example to show how to create individual meshes with different densities in ANSYS+CivilFEM and use the FLAC3D ATTACH command to connect the meshes. Three tunnels with a radius of 2.5 units are embedded in a grid of dimensions 60 by 60 by 1 unit. Square sections of 10 by 10 units with finer mesh densities are attached to the main grid. The mesh density around the circular tunnel has a 2:1 ratio with the mesh density outside the square volumes. This is accomplished by specifying the exact number of element divisions for all the inner and outer edges (refer to the ANSYS+CivilFEM manual for specification of ratios). The outer dimensions have 30 element divisions and the inner dimensions have 5 element divisions. The three tunnels have 10 element divisions along the outer dimensions and the circular arc is composed of 20 element divisions (5 elements for each quarter of an arc). See the corresponding data file and ANSYS+CivilFEM save file to recreate the model and the meshed geometry. A similar mesh is also created directly in FLAC3D using GENERATE zone radcyl commands for comparison to the ANSYS+CivilFEM generated model. A stress field is applied to the FLAC3D grid and ANSYS+CivilFEM generated grid (refer to the data file). Comparisons are made between the resultant displacement contour plots for the two grids in Figure 20 and Figure 22. It can be seen that the displacement contour values are

-20similar. The results of geometric tests are also included in Figure 21 and Figure 23 for comparison purposes.

FLAC3D 2.10

Step 3664 Model Perspective 10:37:01 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 3.000e+001 Y: 3.000e+001 Z: -1.000e+000 Dist: 1.959e+002 Rotation: X: 90.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500

Magfac = 0.000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 5.0000e-004 5.0000e-004 to 1.0000e-003 1.0000e-003 to 1.5000e-003 1.5000e-003 to 2.0000e-003 2.0000e-003 to 2.5000e-003 2.5000e-003 to 3.0000e-003 3.0000e-003 to 3.5000e-003 3.5000e-003 to 4.0000e-003 4.0000e-003 to 4.5000e-003 4.5000e-003 to 5.0000e-003 5.0000e-003 to 5.5000e-003 5.5000e-003 to 6.0000e-003 6.0000e-003 to 6.5000e-003 6.5000e-003 to 6.7323e-003 Interval = 5.0e-004

Axes

Linestyle Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. Minneapolis, MN USA

Figure 20

Displacement contour plot of ANSYS+CivilFEM generated mesh with 2166 zones and 3603 gridpoints

2500

Number of elements(2166

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 21

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FLAC3D 2.10

Step 3887 Model Perspective 10:43:12 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 3.000e+001 Y: 3.000e+001 Z: 5.000e-001 Dist: 1.959e+002 Rotation: X: 90.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500

Magfac = 0.000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 5.0000e-004 5.0000e-004 to 1.0000e-003 1.0000e-003 to 1.5000e-003 1.5000e-003 to 2.0000e-003 2.0000e-003 to 2.5000e-003 2.5000e-003 to 3.0000e-003 3.0000e-003 to 3.5000e-003 3.5000e-003 to 4.0000e-003 4.0000e-003 to 4.5000e-003 4.5000e-003 to 5.0000e-003 5.0000e-003 to 5.5000e-003 5.5000e-003 to 6.0000e-003 6.0000e-003 to 6.5000e-003 6.5000e-003 to 6.8022e-003 Interval = 5.0e-004

Axes

Linestyle Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. Minneapolis, MN USA

Figure 22

1200

Number of elements(1185

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 23

-22This example is repeated without an attached boundary surrounding the tunnels. The circular tunnel length is divided into 20 elemental divisions (5 divisions for each quarter of the circular length) and the outer edges are specified an elemental division of 30. Both an ANSYS+CivilFEM generated model and a FLAC3D generated model are created as before. Meshing for the ANSYS+CivilFEM generated grid was accomplished by first meshing one section which was subsequently extruded to create volume elements. Refer to the ANSYS+CivilFEM documentation for details on meshing techniques. In the FLAC3D generated model, circular tunnels are created from square tunnels by remapping the gridpoints using FISH. A stress field is applied to the FLAC3D generated grid and the ANSYS+CivilFEM generated grid and comparisons are made between the resultant displacement contour plots for the two grids. Compare Figure 24 and Figure 26. It can be seen that the displacement contour values are similar. The results of geometric tests are also included for comparison purposes, in Figure 25 and Figure 27.

FLAC3D 2.10

Step 1987 Model Perspective 10:40:45 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 3.000e+001 Y: 3.000e+001 Z: -1.000e+000 Dist: 1.959e+002 Rotation: X: 90.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500

Magfac = 0.000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 5.0000e-004 5.0000e-004 to 1.0000e-003 1.0000e-003 to 1.5000e-003 1.5000e-003 to 2.0000e-003 2.0000e-003 to 2.5000e-003 2.5000e-003 to 3.0000e-003 3.0000e-003 to 3.5000e-003 3.5000e-003 to 4.0000e-003 4.0000e-003 to 4.5000e-003 4.5000e-003 to 5.0000e-003 5.0000e-003 to 5.5000e-003 5.5000e-003 to 6.0000e-003 6.0000e-003 to 6.5000e-003 6.5000e-003 to 6.5183e-003 Interval = 5.0e-004

Axes

Linestyle Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. Minneapolis, MN USA

Figure 24

-23-

900

Number of elements(882)

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 25

FLAC3D 2.10

Step 3590 Model Perspective 10:41:54 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 3.000e+001 Y: 3.000e+001 Z: 5.000e-001 Dist: 1.959e+002 Rotation: X: 90.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500

Magfac = 0.000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 5.0000e-004 5.0000e-004 to 1.0000e-003 1.0000e-003 to 1.5000e-003 1.5000e-003 to 2.0000e-003 2.0000e-003 to 2.5000e-003 2.5000e-003 to 3.0000e-003 3.0000e-003 to 3.5000e-003 3.5000e-003 to 4.0000e-003 4.0000e-003 to 4.5000e-003 4.5000e-003 to 5.0000e-003 5.0000e-003 to 5.3768e-003 Interval = 5.0e-004

Axes

Linestyle

Z X

Figure 26

-24-

900

Number of elements(873)

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 27

1.8

In this section a series of examples are shown that illustrate how to model and mesh tunnel intersections using ANSYS+CivilFEM. 1.8.1 Building and meshing an intersection between two perpendicular tunnels

This model consists of two tunnels: a smaller-diameter service tunnel, and a larger-diameter main tunnel intersecting at right angles to each other. The base of the model extends from -5 to 10 units along the x-axis, 0 to 8 units along the y-axis and 0 to 6 units along the z-axis. The radius of the main tunnel is 3 units and the radius of the service tunnel is 2 units. The ANSYS+CivilFEM solid model corresponding to the dimensions above is shown in Figure 28.

-25-

Figure 28 ANSYS+CivilFEM generated model volumes It can be seen that the tunnel volume and the base volume have been divided into many smaller volumes. This is done to facilitate the sweep meshing for all volumes. The volumes should also be grouped and appropriate material names given so that all volumes corresponding to one object, e.g., the main tunnel, have the same material name. The volumes with different material names will be assigned different group names when they are exported. The resultant ANSYS+CivilFEM mesh shown in Figure 29 and consists of 828 hexahedral elements and 1160 nodes.

-26-

Figure 29 ANSYS+CivilFEM generated mesh with 819 elements and 1150 nodes The exported FLAC3D model (See Figure 30) has 6624 zones, which is 8 times the number of elements generated by ANSYS+CivilFEM (828 elements). This zoning is achieved by specifying a size factor of two along all three axes when exporting to FLAC3D (See section 1.3).

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:45:10 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 2.500e+000 Y: 4.000e+000 Z: 3.000e+000 Dist: 4.548e+001 Rotation: X: 210.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 230.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00003 MAT00001 MAT00002

X Y

Axes

Linestyle

Z

Figure 30 Exported FLAC3D model with 6624 zones and 7887 gridpoints

-27-

600

Number of elements(6624

500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 31 Distribution of zones for geometric parameters. From Figure 31, it can be seen that the orthogonality values of many of the zones are close to 1.0, which usually will result in a better solution using FLAC3D. The aspect ratios vary with the specification of zoning ratios. It can also be seen that most of the faces are planar. 1.8.2 Building and meshing three tunnels perpendicular to each other

This model consists of a shaft that opens into a service tunnel, which, in turn, connects to a main tunnel perpendicular to the service tunnel. The base of the model extends from -16 to 16 units along the x-direction, 0 to 8 units along the y-direction and 0 to 6 units along the zdirection. The radius of the main tunnel is 4 units, the radius of the shaft is 3 units and the radius of the service tunnel is 2 units. The ANSYS+CivilFEM-generated solid model corresponding to these dimensions is shown in Figure 32.

-28-

Figure 32 ANSYS+CivilFEM generated solid model The solid model has been divided into many volumes to facilitate sweep meshing for all the volumes. The volumes should also be grouped appropriately so that all volumes that belong to a particular entity, say a tunnel, have the same material. This ensures that all these volumes are grouped together as one entity for FLAC3D during the export process. The ANSYS+CivilFEM generated mesh is shown in Figure 33. The model consists of 1330 elements and 1760 nodes.

-29-

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:47:09 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 1.028e+000 Y: 5.226e+000 Z: 3.000e+000 Dist: 9.248e+001 Rotation: X: 30.000 Y: 180.000 Z: 310.000 Mag.: 1.25 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00004 MAT00003 MAT00002

Y

Axes

Linestyle

X Z

Figure 34

-30-

600

Number of elements(13

500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 35

The geometric aspects of the resultant FLAC3D grid are shown in Figure 35 from which it can be seen that orthogonality values for most of the zones lie in the range 0.7 to 1.0. Face planarity values are low. 1.8.3 Building and meshing tunnel intersection with ratios

In many analyses, a fine mesh is desired only at particular areas of interest. In other areas, far removed from the problem domain, it is possible to have larger and, hence, fewer numbers of elements. This helps in reducing the time required to complete an analysis. In FLAC3D, this is achieved by using ratios. ANSYS+CivilFEM also provides the user with such capability. An example to illustrate the use of ratios for a complicated tunnel intersection model is illustrated below. This model consists of two tunnels of different radii intersecting at right angles to each other. The model extends from 0 to 20 units along the x-direction, 0 to 32 units along the ydirection and 0 to 20 units along the z-direction. The radius of the main tunnel is 3 units and the radius of the service tunnel is 2 units. All edges have been divided in such a way that the ratio between the last element division and the first division is 5.0. The ANSYS+CivilFEM model corresponding to the dimensions above is shown in Figure 36 and meshed model is shown in Figure 37.

-31-

Figure 37 ANSYS+CivilFEM mesh with all edges having a ratio of 5.0 (last division/first division) The exported FLAC3D mesh with a total of 1783 elements and 2250 nodes is shown in Figure 38. The geometric aspects of the exported FLAC3D mesh are shown in Figure 39.

-32-

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:48:38 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 1.069e+001 Y: 1.440e+001 Z: 1.135e+001 Dist: 7.130e+001 Rotation: X: 210.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 220.000 Mag.: 0.64 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00002 MAT00001 MAT00003

X Y

Axes

Linestyle

Z

1000

Number of elements(1783)

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect ratio Face planarity

Figure 39

From Figure 39, it is no surprise that the aspect ratio follows a distribution because we have specified ratios for edges while meshing.

-33-

1.8.4

This model consists of two horseshoe-shaped tunnels running perpendicular to each other and two other cylindrical shafts, as shown in Figure 40 and Figure 41. The important dimensions of the tunnel are given as follows. The lengths of tunnels are arbitrary. Main-tunnel diameter Rectangular cross-section of connection between main tunnel and the smaller tunnels Diameter of all the small tunnels, including the cylindrical portion of the horseshoe-shaped tunnel 34 units

14 units by 5units

8 units

Figure 40 ANSYS+CivilFEM model geometry showing all the tunnels and shafts

-34-

Figure 41 Tunnels and shafts embedded within the volume shown in detail

-35-

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:50:42 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 2.407e+001 Y: -2.462e+000 Z: 5.383e+001 Dist: 3.818e+002 Rotation: X: 220.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 140.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Y

X Z

Block Group

MAT00002 MAT00001

Axes

Linestyle

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:51:23 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 2.590e+001 Y: 6.248e+000 Z: 4.728e+001 Dist: 3.818e+002 Rotation: X: 220.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 140.000 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500

Y

X Z

Block Group

MAT00002

Axes

Linestyle

-36-

30000

Number of elements(2598

25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 45

The resulting meshed model has very good geometric properties, as seen by the values of orthogonality and face planarity. The aspect ratio varies with specification of ratios. 1.8.5 Building and meshing tunnel intersection at 45 angle

This example shows the capability of ANSYS+CivilFEM to create tunnel intersections at arbitrary angles, which can be meshed and used for analysis in FLAC3D. A 45 angle of intersection is chosen for illustration. The tunnels in the resultant exported model are excavated and the model is brought to equilibrium under gravity. The stress state of the resulting analysis is then shown and compared with an equivalent FLAC3D grid. The model extends from -15 to 15 units along x direction, 0 to 60 units along the y direction and -10 to 0 along the z direction. The radius of the intersecting tunnels is 4 units. Figure 46 shows the division of volumes for sweep meshing the model. The generated mesh in ANSYS+CivilFEM is shown in Figure 47.

-37-

Figure 46

Figure 47

A size factor of two (See Section 1.3) is applied along the x-, y- and z-directions before exporting to FLAC3D. This further refines the mesh and the resultant FLAC3D mesh is shown below.

-38-

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:55:06 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 3.107e+000 Y: 2.759e+001 Z: 1.468e+000 Dist: 1.130e+002 Rotation: X: 200.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 220.000 Mag.: 0.64 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00003 MAT00002 MAT00001

Axes

Linestyle

X Y

Figure 48

Exported FLAC3D mesh with 17920 zones and 19447 gridpoints as a result of specifying NDIV of 2.0

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 10:56:13 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 3.107e+000 Y: 2.759e+001 Z: 1.468e+000 Dist: 1.130e+002 Rotation: X: 200.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 220.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00003 MAT00002

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 49

-39-

Number of elements(1792

10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 50

From Figure 50, it can be seen that the orthogonality values of many of the zones are close to 0.7, and there is a distribution of orthogonality values. The aspect ratio can be varied with specification of ratios. It can also be seen that face planarity values are close to zero. The model is brought to equilibrium under gravity loading and the z-stress of the resulting grid is shown in Figure 51.

-40-

FLAC3D 2.10

Step 2497 Model Perspective 10:58:26 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 2.985e+000 Y: 2.750e+001 Z: 2.374e-008 Dist: 1.130e+002 Rotation: X: 200.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 220.000 Mag.: 0.64 Ang.: 22.500

Contour of SZZ

Magfac = 0.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -6.3465e+005 to -6.0000e+005 -6.0000e+005 to -5.5000e+005 -5.5000e+005 to -5.0000e+005 -5.0000e+005 to -4.5000e+005 -4.5000e+005 to -4.0000e+005 -4.0000e+005 to -3.5000e+005 -3.5000e+005 to -3.0000e+005 -3.0000e+005 to -2.5000e+005 -2.5000e+005 to -2.0000e+005 -2.0000e+005 to -1.5000e+005 -1.5000e+005 to -1.0000e+005 -1.0000e+005 to -5.0000e+004 -5.0000e+004 to 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 2.4355e+004 Interval = 5.0e+004

Axes

Linestyle Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. Minneapolis, MN USA

Figure 51

FLAC3D 2.10

Step 3479 Model Perspective 11:00:33 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 0.000e+000 Y: 3.000e+000 Z: 0.000e+000 Dist: 3.465e+001 Rotation: X: 30.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 320.000 Mag.: 0.64 Ang.: 22.500

Contour of SZZ

Magfac = 0.000e+000 Gradient Calculation -3.5029e+005 to -3.5000e+005 -3.2500e+005 to -3.0000e+005 -2.7500e+005 to -2.5000e+005 -2.2500e+005 to -2.0000e+005 -1.7500e+005 to -1.5000e+005 -1.2500e+005 to -1.0000e+005 -7.5000e+004 to -5.0000e+004 -2.5000e+004 to 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 to 6.3358e+003 Interval = 2.5e+004

Z Y

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 52

-41The stress state for an equivalent FLAC3D grid is shown in Figure 52. The model generation for this example can be found in Example Application 5 in the FLAC3D Example Applications volume. Data files are also provided to recreate this example. It can be seen that the stress profiles for both the grids are similar. The ANSYS+CivilFEM mesh can be further improved by extending the geometry to minimize boundary effects. Ratios can also be specified to speed up the analysis. 1.8.6 Building and meshing tunnel intersection at 45 with different radii

The following example shows the meshing for tunnels intersecting at 45, but with different radii. The model extends from -15 to 15 units along the x-direction, 0 to 60 units along the ydirection and -10 to 0 along the z-direction. The radius of the intersecting tunnels is 4 units and 3 units. Figure 53 shows the division of volumes for sweep meshing the model.

Figure 53

Division of volumes for meshing of tunnels intersecting at 45 and with different radii

-42-

Figure 54

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 11:02:11 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: -2.985e+000 Y: 3.250e+001 Z: 2.495e-008 Dist: 1.130e+002 Rotation: X: 200.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 40.000 Mag.: 0.64 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00003 MAT00002

Y X

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 55

-43-

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 11:03:11 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: -1.069e+000 Y: 3.090e+001 Z: 8.942e-009 Dist: 1.130e+002 Rotation: X: 200.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 40.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00002

Y X

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 56

1.9

Miscellaneous examples

In this section, examples are shown that illustrate additional and useful capabilities of ANSYS+CivilFEM. Solid model data from many of the solid modeling packages that conform to IGES, CATIA, Pro/E, UniGraphics, SAT (ASIC 7.0 and below), PARASOLID, IDEAS can be directly imported into ANSYS+CivilFEM and meshed using the ANSYS mesher. The meshed model can then be imported into FLAC3D. These formats specify how to store solid model data so that the model can be reconstructed at a later time from the data. IGES stores volumes as a set of faces that need to be reconstructed in ANSYS+CivilFEM. ANSYS+CivilFEM provides tools to import and cure (create solids from these faces and correct tolerance errors) IGES format files. Consult the ANSYS+CivilFEM manual for details. AutoCAD 3D models can be output in ASIC format (with extension *.SAT) that can be imported into ANSYS+CivilFEM, meshed and exported to FLAC3D. Consult the ANSYS+CivilFEM manual on the type and scope of formats that are supported. 1.9.1 Importing and using an IGES surface to extrude and mesh a volume

The following example shows a surface that is stored as an IGES file and imported into ANSYS+CivilFEM. It is then used to extrude a volume, subsequently meshed and exported

-44to FLAC3D. The surface geometry is a simplified topological surface. The surface is not governed by any equation.

Figure 57

Figure 58

-45-

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 11:05:03 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 4.857e+005 Y: 4.289e+006 Z: -2.342e+003 Dist: 6.388e+004 Rotation: X: 130.000 Y: 150.000 Z: 50.000 Mag.: 1 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00002

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 59

It can be noted that the surface topography is replicated through the depth of extrusion. Once a volume is generated, Boolean operations can also be performed to modify the volume to suit the users needs.

1200

Number of elements(11

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 60

-46From Figure 60, it can be seen that the orthogonality values of many of the zones are close to 1.0. The aspect ratio varies with specification of ratios. It can also be seen that most of the faces are planar. 1.9.2 Import of *.SAT format files (ASIC format) from AutoCAD

Solid models can be constructed in AutoCAD, and stored as an ASIC format file. ANSYS+CivilFEM can import and interpret this format and recreate the same model in its own solid modeling environment. This can then be meshed and exported to FLAC3D. Users should note that DXF files cannot be imported into ANSYS+CivilFEM. This example illustrates building a simple cube with an elliptical tunnel embedded in it. The model is created in AutoCAD and imported into ANSYS+CivilFEM, meshed and exported to FLAC3D. The example shows the capability of ANSYS+CivilFEM to read in a AutoCAD model.

Figure 61

-47-

Figure 62

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 11:06:30 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 1.000e+001 Y: 1.000e+001 Z: 1.000e+001 Dist: 6.530e+001 Rotation: X: 110.000 Y: 330.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 0.64 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00002

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 63

-48-

700

Number of elements(690)

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 64

From Figure 64, it can be seen that the orthogonality values of many of the zones are close to 1.0. It can also be seen that most of the faces are planar. 1.9.3 A quarter ellipse model

This example illustrates that the symmetric nature of the model can be used to create a simpler ANSYS+CivilFEM model, which is then meshed and exported to FLAC3D. The model can then be further manipulated using FLAC3D mesh generation facilities. One quarter of an ellipse is embedded in a square block and both the block and ellipse are meshed and grouped separately. The dimensions are chosen arbitrarily.

-49-

Figure 65

Figure 66

ANSYS+CivilFEM mesh

-50-

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 11:07:56 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 2.500e+000 Y: -2.500e+000 Z: -2.500e+000 Dist: 1.633e+001 Rotation: X: 120.000 Y: 40.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 0.64 Ang.: 22.500

Y X Z

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00002

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 67

120

Number of elements(28

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 68

From Figure 68, it can be seen that the orthogonality values of many of the zones are close to 0.8, and there are a few zones that have a value close to 0.0 at the center of the ellipse. It can also be seen that most of the faces are planar.

-51It is now possible to complete the model using FLAC3D mesh generation capabilities to extend the ANSYS+CivilFEM created mesh. Care should be taken so that the boundary faces of the model generated by ANSYS+CivilFEM and exported to FLAC3D coincide with the FLAC3D generated faces. Figure 69 shows the exported ANSYS+CivilFEM grid reflected about the x- and y-axis to generate the full scale model.

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 11:09:53 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 0.000e+000 Y: 0.000e+000 Z: -2.500e+000 Dist: 3.265e+001 Rotation: X: 30.000 Y: 0.000 Z: 50.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Y

Z X

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00002

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 69 1.9.4

Surfaces can be generated in ANSYS+CivilFEM using some of the tools provided for modeling purposes and used to create topography inside a solid model. This example shows the creation of a surface and a solid model cut by the surface. The solid model is then grouped into two different parts with the surface topography forming a boundary between the two groups of elements.

-52-

Figure 70

Figure 71

-53-

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 11:12:35 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: 3.142e+001 Y: 0.000e+000 Z: 2.850e+001 Dist: 1.937e+002 Rotation: X: 300.000 Y: 130.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

X Y Z

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00002

Axes

Linestyle

Figure 72

1200

Number of elements(2000

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 73

From Figure 73, it can be seen that the orthogonality values of many of the zones are close to 1.0. It can also be seen that most of the faces are planar with values close to 0.1.

-54-

1.9.5

In this example, a cylindrical half area is extruded along a line in the shape of a question mark. This extrusion of volumes is accomplished by using solid modeling tools provided by ANSYS+CivilFEM. The base extends from -15 to 15 units in the x-direction, 0 to 7 units in the y-direction, 0 to 40 units in the z-direction, and the radius of the cylindrical half area is 1 unit.

Figure 74

-55-

Figure 75

ANSYS+CivilFEM mesh

FLAC3D 2.10

Settings: Model Perspective 11:15:47 Wed Oct 30 2002 Center: X: -1.732e+000 Y: 3.500e+000 Z: 1.900e+001 Dist: 1.141e+002 Rotation: X: 310.000 Y: 40.000 Z: 0.000 Mag.: 0.8 Ang.: 22.500

Block Group

MAT00001 MAT00002

Axes

Linestyle

Z

X Y

Figure 76

-56-

8000

Number of elements(8059

7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Range 0 to 1

Orthogonality Aspect Ratio Face Planarity

Figure 77

From Figure 77, it can be seen that the orthogonality values of many of the zones are close to 1.0. It can also be seen that most of the faces are planar.

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