You are on page 1of 28

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

NAME:: SUBHRADIP ROY ROLL NUMBER:: 099013 SESSION:: 2009 TO 2013 BRANCH:: EIE DEPARTMENT COLLEGE:: DR.B.C.ROY ENGINEERING COLLEGE, DURGAPUR TRAINING DATE:: 9/1/2012 TO 20/1/2012

TRAINING LOCATION::

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST


BENGAL
DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL Page 1

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

I would like to remember the contributions made by our college professors & lecturers, specially prof. S.S. Thakur, the head of department of Electrical engineering, at National institute of Technology, Durgapur for allowing me to take the prestigious training in Durgapur Steel Plant during vacation & helping me build up a strong & profound engineering career, by providing the right academic environment in the classroom & in the college campus. I also humbly acknowledge the contribution of my college teachers & friends who have given me constant encouragement for taking training in this company. I am also indebted to my training faculties, teachers, people working there, engineers who have valuable & priceless knowledge & precious experience about how the backbone of Indian economy is totally dependent on production. I would also like to give special thanks to Mr. anup Bhattacharjee (coke ovens{E/M}), Mr. Lalit Sahani(blast furnace{E/M} ), Mr. K Majhi(BOF & CCP{E/M}), Mr. S.K.Behra(wheel & axle plant{E/}), Mr. D Mohanti(billets & bloom mill{E/M}), Mr. S Roy(ETL), Mr. T K Nag(PMD/MRS), Mr. Y Ramesh(merchant mill{E/M}), Mr. Pradipta Kr. Singh(power plant), Mr. S K Biswal(section mill{E/M}), Mr. P K Singh(skelp mill{E/M I would also thank my respected parents without whose constant care, guidance, love, affection & enthusiasm & blessings I would have been what I am today. PLACE:: DURGAPUR DATE:: 04/01/2011

signature of the student (GOURAV BHATTACHARJEE)

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 2

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

SL NO. TOPICS
1. Introduction to SAIL & its units 2. Introduction to DSP(Durgapur steel plant) 3. Main Products of the plant 4. Process flow chart of DSP 5. Steel melting shop(SMS) 6. Continuous casting plant(CCP) 7. Billets & bloom mills 8. Raw materials handling department(RMHP) 9. Merchant mill 10. DSP power plant 11. Wheel & axle plant 12. Coke oven & coke chemicals 13. Sinter plant 14. Blast furnace 15. Electrical repair shop(ERS) 16. Skelp mill & section mill 17. Power management department(PMD) 18. ETL(electrical technical lab)

PAGE NOS.
4 6 8 11 12 14 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 28 29 30 31

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 3

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

INTODUCTION Steel Authority of India Limited - A Maharatna


Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is the leading steel-making company in India. It is a fully integrated iron and steel maker, producing both basic and special steels for domestic construction, engineering, power, railway, automotive and defence industries and for sale in export markets. SAIL is also among the four Maharatnas of the country's Central Public Sector Enterprises. SAIL manufactures and sells a broad range of steel products, including hot and cold rolled sheets and coils, galvanised sheets, electrical sheets, structurals, railway products, plates, bars and rods, stainless steel and other alloy steels. SAIL produces iron and steel at five integrated plants and three special steel plants, located principally in the eastern and central regions of India and situated close to domestic sources of raw materials, including the Company's iron ore, limestone and dolomite mines. SAIL's wide range of long and flat steel products are of much in demand in the domestic as well as the international market. This vital responsibility is carried out by SAIL's own Central Marketing Organization (CMO) that transacts business through its network of 37 Branch Sales Offices spread across the four regions, 25 Departmental Warehouses, 42 Consignment Agents and 27 Customer Contact Offices. SAIL's International Trade Division ( ITD), in New Delhi- an ISO 9001:2000 accredited unit of CMO, undertakes exports of Mild Steel products and Pig Iron from SAILs five integrated steel plants. SAIL has a well-equipped Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel (RDCIS) at Ranchi which helps to produce quality steel and develop new technologies for the steel industry. Besides, SAIL has its own in-house Centre for Engineering and Technology (CET), Management Training Institute (MTI) and Safety Organization at Ranchi.

Major Units
Integrated Steel Plants

Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) in Chhattisgarh Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) in West Bengal Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Orissa Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) in Jharkhand

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 4

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) in West Bengal

Special Steel Plants


Alloy Steels Plants (ASP) in West Bengal Salem Steel Plant (SSP) in Tamil Nadu Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant (VISL) in Karnataka

Subsidiary Maharashtra Elektrosmelt Limited (MEL) in Maharashtra Joint Ventures NTPC SAIL Power Company Pvt. Ltd (NSPCL) A 50:50 joint venture between Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) and National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. (NTPC Ltd.); manages the captive power plants at Rourkela, Durgapur and Bhilai with a combined capacity of 314 megawatts (MW). Bokaro Power Supply Company Pvt. Limited (BPSCL) This 50:50 joint venture between SAIL and the Damodar Valley Corporation formed in January 2002 is managing the 302-MW power generating station and 660 tonnes per hour steam generation facilities at Bokaro Steel Plant

Mjunction Services Limited A 50:50 joint venture between SAIL and Tata Steel formed in 2001. This company promotes e-commerce activities in steel and related areas. SAIL-Bansal Service Center Ltd. SAIL has formed a joint venture with BMW industries Ltd. on 40:60 basis to promote a service centre at Bokaro with the objective of adding value to steel. Bhilai JP Cement Ltd SAIL has incorporated a joint venture company with M/s Jaiprakash Associates Ltd on a 24:76 basis to set up a 2.2 MT slag based cement plant at Bhilai. Bokaro JP Cement Ltd SAIL has incorporated another joint venture company with M/s Jaiprakash Associates Ltd on a 24:76 basis to set up a 2.1 MT cement plant at Bokaro utilizing slag from BSL. SAIL&MOIL Ferro Alloys (Pvt.) Limited SAIL has a joint venture company with M/s Manganese Ore (India) Ltd on 50:50 basis to produce ferro-manganese and silico-manganese required for steel production .

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 5

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

S&T Mining Company Pvt. Ltd SAIL has incorporated a 50:50 joint venture company with Tata Steel for joint acquisition & development of coal blocks/mines.

INTRODUCTION Durgapur Steel Plant is one of the integrated steel plants of Steel Authority of India Limited, located in Durgapur, in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal. It is one of the plants that have played a historically important part in the industrial development of India. Although not a separate company, it is the largest industrial unit in the state of West Bengal.

Historical background
Set up in the late 1950s with an initial annual capacity of one million tonnes of crude steel per year, the capacity of Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) was later expanded to 1.6 million tonnes in the 1970s. A massive modernisation programme was undertaken in the plant in

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 6

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

early '90s, which, while bringing numerous technological developments in the plant, enhanced the capacity of the plant to 2.088 million tonnes of [hot metal], 1.8 million tonnes crude steel and 1.586 million tonnes saleable steel. The entire plant is covered under ISO 9001: 2000 quality management system.The modernized Durgapur Steel Plant now has state-ofthe-art technology for quality steel making. The modernized units have brought about improved productivity, substantial improvement in energy conservation and better quality products. DSPs Steel Making complex and the entire mills zone, comprising its Blooming & Billet Mill, Merchant Mill, Skelp Mill, Section Mill and Wheel & Axle Plant, are covered under ISO: 9002 quality assurance certification.After the commissioning of the modernized units, DSP is all set to produce 2.088 million tonnes of hot metal, 1.8 million tonnes of crude steel and 1.586 million tonnes of saleable steel annually.

Location
Situated at a distance of 158 km from Calcutta (now Kolkata), its geographical location is 23 27' North and 88 29' East. It is situated on the banks of the Damodar river. The Grand Trunk Road and the main Calcutta-Delhi railway line pass through Durgapur. Product mix of Durgapur Steel Plant product mix Merchant products Structural Skelp Wheels & axles Semi-finished Total saleable steel tonnes per annum 280,000 207,000 180,000 58,000 861,000 1,586,000

Achievements
1. SAIL was featured in the 2008 list of Forbes Global 2000 companies at position 647 . 2. National Institute of Personnel Management conferred the National Award on SAIL for Best HR Practices 2008. 3. SAIL was adjudged as the top Indian company under the Iron and Steel Sector for the Dun & Bradstreet Rolta Corporate Awards 2008,Golden Peacock Award for Combating Climate Change 2008 for BSP, Occupational Health and Safety 2008 for BSL.

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 7

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

MAIN PRODUCTS OF DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT 1. Hot Rolled Coils, Sheets and Skelp
Hot rolled coils, sheets and skelp (narrow coil), are the largest product category of the company in terms of both sales volume and revenue. Hot rolled coils are primarily used for making pipes and have many direct industrial and manufacturing applications, including the construction of tanks, railway cars, bicycle frames, ships, engineering and military equip-ment and automobile and truck wheels, frames and body parts. Hot rolled coils are also used as feedstock for cold rolling mills where they undergo further process-ing.Hot rolled coils are also delivered to the company's own cold rolling mills and silicon sheet mill and pipe plant in a wide range of widths and thicknesses as the feedstock for higher value-added steel products. The company is the largest producer of hot rolled coils, sheets and skelp in India.

2. Semi-Finished Products
The company produces semi-finished products, including blooms, billets and slabs, which are converted into finished products in the company's processing plant and, to a lesser extent, sold to rerollers for conversion to finished products.

3. Plates
DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL Page 8

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

Steel plates are used mainly for the manufacture of bridges, steel structures, ships, large diameter pipes, storage tanks, boilers, railway wagons and pressure vessels. The company also produces weatherproof steel plates for the construction of railcars. The company is currently the largest producer of steel plates in India with a domestic market share of more than 80 per cent for these products. The company is the only producer of wide and heavy plate products in India.

4. Cold Rolled Products


Cold rolling of hot rolled products produces a superior surface finish, improves the physical properties of the steel, such as tensile strength, and reduces its thickness to precise gauges. As a result, cold rolled products generally command higher prices than hot rolled products. The products of the cold rolling mill include cold rolled sheets and coils, which are used primarily for precision tubes, containers, bicycles, furniture and for use by the automobile industry to produce car body panels. Cold rolled products are also used for further processing, including for colour coating, galvanising and tinning. The company also produces further processed cold rolled products, including galvanised sheets and tin plates. 5. Railway Products::Railway products, including rails, wheels and axles, sleeper and fish plates (which are used to connect and strengthen rails), are produced through a process of hot rolling blooms in the finishing mills and forging ingots and blooms in the forging press or hammer. Railway products are used primarily to upgrade and expand the existing railway network in India. 6. Structurals Structural steel products are produced through a process of hot rolling in the section or structural mills. They are long steel products with cross sections of various shapes. I-beams, channels and angle steel are used in mining, the construction of tunnels, factory structures, transmission towers, bridges, ships railways and other infrastructure projects.

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 9

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

7. Bars and Rods


The company produces steel bars and rods through a process of hot rolling billets in the finishing mills. Reinforcement steel and wire rods are primarily used by the construction industry. The company is one of the largest producers of reinforcement bars in India which are primarily sold to the construction industry.

8. Speciality Products
Speciality products, include electrical sheets, tin plates and pipes. Electrical sheets are cold rolled products of silicon steel for electrical machinery. Tin plates are cold rolled steel electrolytically coated with tin for food packaging.Pipes are longitudinally or spirally welded from hot rolled coils for conveying such things as water, oil and gas.

9. Alloy and Stainless Products


In addition to the steel products indicated above, SAIL produces a wide range of alloy steel products at ASP,SSP and VISL. Elements including chromium, nickel, vanadium and molybdenum are used in the alloy mixture to impart special properties to steel. These alloy steels are primarily used for sophisticated applications, including in the automobile, railway and defence industries.

VARIOUS SECTORS OF DSP


1. PRIMARY ZONE:: a)RMHP(raw materials handling department) b) sinter plant. c) blast furnace. d) coke ovens & coke chemicals. e) BOF/SMS. 2. SECONDARY ZONE:: a) wheel & axle plant. mill. b) section mill. c) merchant mill. d) skelp

3. SERVICES ZONE:: a) electrical repair shop(ERS). b) central electrical maintainence dept.(CEM) c) foundry shop. d) power management dept.(PMD) e) Electrical technical lab(ETL).

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 10

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 11

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

THE CONVERTER IN BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE(BOF)

BASIC OXYGEN HOLDER

Mixers - 2 x 1, 300 t Converters - 3 x 110 t (nominal heat size) Molten iron is refined at the steel melting shop (SMS) to produce steel, which is hard and malleable. At DSP, there are 3 converters (basic oxygen furnace) of 110130 tonnes each. The SMS also has a vacuum arc degassing (VAD) unit for making special grades of steel and two ladle refining furnaces of the same capacity (supplied by Danieli India Ltd).A major portion of the steel is routed through the continuous casting plant. Another major portion of the steel is taken to the teeming bay, where it is top poured into 8 tonnes ingot moulds for making ingot steel. A portion of highly controlled steel is cast at the Special Casting Bay into fluted ingots and special quality blooms. Fluted ingots are bottom poured and are used for making wheel steel for DSPs wheel and axle Plant. A portion of the liquid steel is also bottom poured to make axle ingots. The 'heat' begins with the addition of scrap into the slightly tilted convertor, hot metal is then added after straightening the convertor, Oxygen is blown into the bath through the lance .The necessary fluxes are added during blowing .Flux addition is done automatically and precisely through bunkers situated above the convereters. A sample is taken after blowing for 16-18 minutes and temperature is measured using a thermocouple.The steel is tapped by tilting the convertor to the tapping side and alloying elements are added via chutes while metal is being tapped The convertor is tilted to the charging side in order to remove the floating slag .

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 12

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

Reaction During blowing operation, oxygen oxidises iron into iron oxide and carbon into carbon monoxide. The iron oxide immediately transfers the oxygen to the tramp elements. The center of the reaction has temperatures of around 2000o-2500oC .The development of carbon monoxide during refining process promotes agitation within the molten bath. The reaction of the tramp elements with the oxygen and the iron oxide developed in the center of reaction leads to formation of reactive slag. As blowing continues, there is a continuous decrease of carbon, phosphorous, manganese and silicon within the melt. Phosphorous is removed by inducing early slag formation by adding powder lime with oxygen. The refining process is completed when the desired carbon content is attained. Various other blowing process in practice are : Oxygen bottom blowing process : In this process, pure oxygen is blown into the bath from below through a cooled nozzle. It results in a lower tap to tap time and greater output due to more intensive mixture Combined blowing process

Combined blowing process consists of oxygen blowing from top and oxygen blowing from bottom or inert gas( nitrogen or Argon) bottom stirring. The advantages over the above processes are - acceleration of blowing cycle by 25 % - higher yield - less slag - improved convertor lining life - increased accuracy in achieving specific composition - reduced splashing The steel produced in the basic oxygen furnace is sent to continuous casting or for ingot teeming.

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 13

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

The state of the art CCP has 2 Numbers of machines having 6 strands each. The other basic details are as follows: Design limits- 80-150 sq .mm, casting radius- 6 metres, Casting time 85 minutes, Cutoff lengths- 6 / 9 / 12 metre, No of ladle treatment stations-2, Mould level controller - Automatic (Radio-active Co-60)

The billets are gradually shifted to the cooling beds and then stacked orderly at the despatch end for outside despatch. The details about the cast number and quality of the billets are marked on the billet stack. The Merchant Mill of Durgapur Steel Plant utilises billets for rolling TMT bars and other merchant rounds, while a sizeable portion is sold in the domestic and foreign markets.

Rolling Mills:: Ingots weighing 8 tonnes each are heated in the soaking pits (numbering 20) for
about 7 to 12 hours at around 1, 200 degrees centigrade and thereafter rolled in the 42 primary and the 32 secondary blooming mills. These are rolled further into different shapes and sizes in different finishing mills.

Blooming mill:: Installed Mill capacity - 1.47 million tonnes/year, Ingot weight - 8 tonnes
42" Mill:: 42" x 102" reversible Blooming Mill, Output bloom size (min) - 300 mm x 250 mm 32" Mill:: 32" x 84" reversible Intermediate Mill, Output bloom size (min) - 180 mm x 180 mm Billet Mill:: Installed Mill capacity - 0.957 tonnes / yr. Type - Continuous Morgan design, Horizontal stands - 6, Vertical stands 2

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 14

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

Product Range
Billets - 100 mm square to 125 mm square Sleeper bars - 352 mm x 12.5 mm Skelp slabs - 140 mm x 75 mm to 240 mm x 90 mm

The ingots after heating are rolled in the Blooming Mill to make blooms of the sizes mentioned in the table and then a part of the same are then further rolled in the Billet Mill for making rolled billets or slabs as per the above details. Continuous casting technique accounts for more than 60% of total liquid steel in the world. The main advantages of steel processing through CC route are higher yield, lower energy consumption, elimination of primary mills. THE PRODUCTION STAGES

During continuous casting, the liquid steel passes from the pouring ladle, with the exclusion of air, via a tundish with an adjustable discharge device into the short, water-cooled copper mould. The shape of the mould defines the shape of the steel. Before casting, the bottom of the mould is sealed with a so-called dummy bar. As soon as the bath reaches its intended steel level, the mould starts to oscillate vertically in order to prevent the strand adhering to its walls. The red-hot strand, solidified at the surface zones, is drawnfrom the mould, first with the aid of a dummy bar, and later by driving rolls. Because of its liquid core, the strand must be carefully sprayed and cooled down with water. Rolls on all sides must also support it until it has completely solidified. This prevents the still thin rim zone from disintegrating.

Once it has completely solidified, the strand can be divided by mobile cutting torches or shears. Intensive cooling leads to a homogeneous solidification microstructure with favourable technological properties. High casting speeds are achievable nowadays; depending on

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 15

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

dimensions and the number of strands that are simultaneously cast, speeds of about 0.6 to 3.5 m/min are possible for slabs.

The primary features of continuous casting now-a-days are:

Sequence casting and composite casting with the aid of turrets, which take up two ladles, and swivelling devices for the wear-exposed tundishes. This allows dissimilar grades of steel to be cast directly after each other. Some kind of protection for the pouring stream between the ladle and tundish as well as between the tundish and the mould, with the aid of inert gases for improving the cleanness (preventing reoxidation). Oscillating moulds and fully automated addition of casting fluxes for improving the strand surface, as well as adjustable moulds for changing strand dimensions during casting. Mould level control. Constant casting temperature. Precise strand guidance and consistent strand cross-section by means of matching roll design of high precision and/or split rolls. Intensive secondary colling of the strand with the aid of uniform and metered spraying. Electromagnetic stirring in the mould to improve surface quality (no surface shrinkage cavities or inclusions close to the surface). Electromagnetic stirring of the partly solidified strand to obtain a globular - nondirectional - solidification microstructure with no segregation zones in the centre of the strand. Strand backup and matching straightening and driving rolls for forming the straight and straightened strands in order to prevent surface tension and cracks, as well as internal crack

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 16

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

The mill contains one of the biggest motors in Asia. There are a lot of electrical applications in these mills. This is a old version of continuous casting plant. The whole lot of machines work on the basis of principle of automation. Starting from reheating furnace to controlling of rolling mills every machine is controlled by PLC & other types of machines. The largest motor supplies about 7000 horse power of energy to this mill.

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 17

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

The merchant mill produces plain round and thermo-mechanically treated (TMT) bars in the range of 16 mm to 28 mm. The entire product range of TMT bars and rods at DSP is branded and has been able to create a niche market.

Capacity - 0.28 million tonnes per year, Type of mill - continuous Morgan design, Horizontal stands - 13Repeaters 4 Product range:: Plain rounds - 1232 mm dia, TMT bars - 1225 mm dia MERCHANT MILL PROFILE
1. 4-repeater continuous bar & rod mill 2. Consists of 13 numbers of stands. 3. Installed capacity: 280,000T. 4. Two zone fired pusher type re-heating. 5. Furnace-70 T/Hr capacity. 6. Products: plain rounds & TMT bars. 7. Size: 16MM to 28MM dia. 8. Grades: IS: 2062 for plain round & IS:1786-2008 for TMT bars. 9. Special products:: TMT-EQR, TMT-HCR, roof bolts. 10. Identification:: branding of TMT bars. 11. Packaging:: strapping of finished bar bundles.

UNIQUE FEATURES OF MERCHANT MILL::


1. Pioneer in production of TMT bars. 2. Renowned Thermex technology from H & K Germany. 3. Slit-rolling process unique in India. 4. Computerized furnace control. DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL Page 18

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

5. Bundling & binding of finished bundles by strapping M/C. 6. Electronic weighing machine & computerized test certificate. 7. ISO-9001,ISO-14001 & ISO-18001 certification by TUV.

Annual production of finished wheels - 100,000Production rate in rolling/forging - 25/h, Production rate in machining - 22/h Railway products Durgapur Steel Plant is the only major indigenous supplier of wheel sets, loco wheels, carriage and wagon wheels, and axles to the Indian Railways. As per demand of the Railways, the plant has developed loco wheels, which were imported earlier. The wheel and axle plant is producing wheels manufactured as per the latest Indian Railways specifications, i.e. R-19/93 for carriage and wagon wheels, R-34/99 for loco wheels and R-16/95 for axles. Machining of these forged rolled and heat-treated wheel blanks are carried out in the 15 CNC(computerized numerical control) machines. All the wheels are ultrasonically tested and inspected by RITES on behalf of the Indian Railways. A number of sophisticated and modern online testing facilities are there to conform to the stringent testing requirements of the Indian Railways.

WHEEL & AXLE PLANT


DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL Page 19

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

MATERIAL FLOW DIAGRAM FOR WHEELS

SOME FEATURES
1. Supplying wheels & axles to Indian railways since 1962. 2. Modernised in 1993. 3. main facilities available:: a) new band saw machines:: 8 in numbers & 63/12 MN oil hydraulic press with computerized wheel mill. b) hot metal stamping press & CNC machines:: 15 in numbers. c) wheel heat treatment furnace & rim spray machines. d) drop testing & residual testing machines. e) online ultrasonic, hardness & magnetic particle testing. f) 7T pneumatic hammer for axle forge. Total number of wheel supplied to Indian railways 15,41,485 & axles supplied is 4,50,949 till march 2010.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 20

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

In the Coke ovens and coal chemicals department, No. of batteries 6, of which one battery is currently waiting for rebuilding, No. of ovens per battery 78. The coke ovens and coal chemicals zone is divided into four basic sections namely coal preparation plant, coal carbonization plant, coke handling plant and coal chemicals. Presently, DSP is operating only three batteries. The blast furnace grade coke produced in coke ovens is directly used in blast furnaces as coke rises the temperature required there while the undersized coke is used for sinter-making. The volatile matters, which emanate during the process of coke making subsequently produce a variety of by-products like naphthalene oil, heavy creosote oil, light oil, crude tar partially distilled tar, Raja brand fertilizer, nitration grade benzene, nitration grade toluene, industrial grade toluene, light solvent naphtha.

In order to enhance the productivity of blast furnaces, a high percentage of sinter charge is a prerequisite. Sinter is an agglomeration of iron ore fines, coke and limestone in the form of cakes. To ensure sinter burden in the blast furnaces at 75 per cent, a total of 3 million tonnes of sinter was envisaged for a production of about 2 million tonnes of hot metal. A technologically modern and fuel efficient sintering machine having 198 square metres sintering area has been added as part of the modernisation scheme to produce 1.7 million tonnes of sinter. The balance requirement will be met from the revamped old sinter plant. Sinter mix, a mixture of fines of iron ore, limestone, coke, dolomite and flue dust, blended proportionally at the RMHC, is a prepared material which is self fluxing. In ignition strands it is burnt under controlled conditions to form a porous cake type substance called sinter, which used in blast furnaces enhances productivity and reduces coke rate. Iron ore fines, coke breeze, limestone and dolomite along with recycled metallurgical wastes are converted into agglomerated mass at the Sinter Plant, which forms 80% of iron bearing charge in the Blast Furnace. The Sinter Plant comprises of two sinter machines each having 312 square metres of grate area with a total production capacity of 5.256 million tonnes per annum. SINTERING Sintering is a technology for agglomeration of iron ore fines into useful Blast Furnace burden material. This technology was developed for the treatment of the waste fines in the early 20th century. Since then sinter has become the widely accepted and preferred Blast Furnace burden material. Presently more than 70% of hot metal in the world is produced through the sinter. In India, approximately 50% of hot metal is produced using sinter feed in Blast Furnaces. The major advantages of using sinter in BFs are :

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 21

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

Use of iron ore fines, coke breeze, metallurgical wastes, lime, dolomite for hot metal production & Better reducibility and other high temperature properties Increased BF productivity & Improved quality of hot metal. Reduction in coke rate in blast furnaces.

SINTERING PROCESS A Sinter Plant typically comprise the following sub-units as shown below.

The raw materials used are as follows - Iron ore fines (-10 mm), coke breeze (-3 mm), Lime stone & dolomite fines (-3mm) and other metallurgical wastes. The proportioned raw materials are mixed and moistened in a mixing drum. The mix is loaded on sinter machine through a feeder onto a moving grate (pallet) and then the mix is rolled through segregation plate so that the coarse materials settle at the bottom and fines onto the top. o The top surface of the mix is ignited through stationary burners at 1200 C. As the pallet moves forward, the air is sucked through wind box situated under the grate. A high temperature combustion zone is created in the charge -bed due to combustion of solid fuel of the mix and regeneration of heat of incandescent sinter and outgoing gases. Due to forward movement of pallet , the sintering process travels vertically down. The different zones created on a sinter-bed are shown in the adjoining figure. Sinter is produced as a combined result of locally limited melting , grain boundary diffusion and recrystallisation of iron oxides.On the completion of sintering process, finished sinter cake is crushed and cooled. The cooled sinter is screened and + 6 mm fraction is despatched to blast furnace and -6 mm is recirculated as return sinter.

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 22

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

blast furnace diagram DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL Page 23

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

1. Hot blast from Cowper stoves 4. Reduction zone of ferric oxide 6. Feed of ore, limestone and coke

2. Melting zone.

3. Reduction zone of ferrous oxide 5. Pre-heating zone 7. Exhaust gases 9. Removal of slag

8. Column of ore, coke and limestone 10. Tapping of molten pig iron

11. Collection of waste gases

Blast furnaces are referred to as the mother unit of an integrated steel plant. Iron ore as available in nature is basically an oxide. It is charged into a blast furnace either as lump ore or in the form of sinter and reduced to molten iron by the coke at temperatures ranging from 1,200 to 1,400 degrees Celsius. The limestone, acting as flux, absorbs the impurities in the molten iron and goes out as slag. The major portion of liquid hot metal is transferred to steel melting shop for conversion to steel and the rest portion is cast into pig iron in pig casting machines. Blast furnace slag high in lime-content is used for cement making. There are four numbers of blast furnaces operating presently at DSP( kasturba, kamala, durga, sarada). The useful volume of two furnaces is 1,400 cubic meters each and that of the other one is 1,800 cubic meters. The furnaces are presently operating at a productivity level of 1.3 1.4 tonnes per cubic meter per day. The furnaces are equipped with sophisticated and modern computerised control system and are operated with high blast temperatures (1,100 degrees Celsius) and high top pressure (0.7 kgf/cm or 70 KPa). The cast houses are provided with facilities like twin tap holes, rocking runners etc. There are also two slag granulation plants, which convert molten blast furnace slag into granulated forms for ready use in the cement industry. There are three pig casting machines, with a total capacity of 212,000 tonnes per year. Blast furnaces Capacity (t/day) Useful volume (m) Stoves Productivity ((t/m)/day) No. 1 1,250 1,323 3 1.0 No 2. 1,820 1,400 3 1.3 No. 3 1,820 1,400 3 1.3 (being modernized)No. 4 2,340 1,800 3 1.3

The various sections of blast furnace are:: 1. stock house & high line. 3. hot stove & cast house. 5. slag granulation plant. 7. coal dust injection system. 2. Blast furnace proper. 4. Gas cleaning plant. 6. Pig casting machine. 8. Ladle repairing shop.

The stock house is to store raw materials from different industries in bunkers or silos & are transported through highline area. The raw materials of blast furnace consists of sinter, iron ore(from RMHP), coke(from coke ovens). It is controlled by PLC(programmable logic control) or DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL Page 24

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

DDC(digital device control). The Blast furnace iron making process basically consists of the conversion of iron oxide to iron in liquid form. This requires reductant for reduction of iron oxide and heat for the above reduction reaction to take place and for melting the products of smelting. The primary source to fulfill both these requirements is carbon (in the form of coke), which shares major portion of cost of hot metal production. The blast furnace is a vertical counter-current heat exchanger as well as a chemical reactor in which burden material charged from the top descend downward and the gasses generated at the tuyere level ascend upward. The inside profile of the furnace from top to bottom is termed furnace throat, shaft, belly , bosh and hearth. The throat is the top part of the furnace and includes the installation necessary for charging coke and burden materials and drawing off the top gasses . The top gas containing the flue dust is routed from the furnace top to the gas purifiers and then to the consumption zones. The profile of the furnace widens in the shaft that follows. The widening of the furnace chamber from top to bottom is necessary to avoid hanging and scaffolding of the burden in the blast furnace when they expand during heating. The height of the shaft is about 3/5 of the total height of the furnace. The shaft is followed by the belly, in the bosh below this , the profile again narrows, as this is the part of the furnace where the stock column starts to melt and volume of the furnace can be reduced. The hearth is the lower cylindrical part of the furnace where the fluid slag and the hot metal accumulate. Arranged in the upper part of the hearth are watercooled tuyers made of copper. The hot air for combustion is injected through these into the blast furnace. Hot metal is tapped through the tap hole, which is opened by power driven drills into a train of ladles kept below the runner of the cast house. Slag comes along with the metal and is skimmed off with the help of skimmer plate towards slag runner and is collected in slag thimbles. The tap hole is tightly sealed with a mud gun after tapping process is complete. Raw material ( ore, sinter , coke ) are screened before being charged into the blast furnace through conveyors or skip. Air for combustion in the blast furnace is blown from turbo blowers which are preheated in hot blast stoves to temperatures around 1300oC , which is then blown through tuyers into the blast furnace. Each blast furnace is equipped with three stoves which operate alternatively. Preheating of air helps in reducing fuel consumption in the furnace. Reaction From top to bottom of the furnace the following process occurs : -Drying , preheating, ejection of hydrate water -Indirect reduction -Direct reduction -Melting In the top third of the shaft, gas delivers its heat so that the charging materials are preheated and dried . When a temperature of 400o to 500oC is reached , the water which was fixed with the burden is ejected. Indirect reduction by carbon monoxide occurs below 1000 oC . At temperatures above 1000 oC, iron oxide not yet reduced into iron is directly reduced. After melting, the reduction process is completed as hot metal flows through layers of coke. Hot metal produced in the blast furnace is sent to Basic oxygen Furnace for steel making or to Pig casting machines for pig iron casting in ladles.

Pre-treatment of Hot metal DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL Page 25

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

Hot metal from blast furnaces is treated to remove undesired elements like sulphur , silicon or phosphorous before being transformed to steel.

The Skelp Mill produces skelp in the range of 146 to 235 mm primarily for tubes and pipes making industry. Capacity Type of Mill Horizontal stands Vertical stands Product range Strips & Skelps - 75-242 mm wide to 1.47-2.34 mm thick - 0.25 million tonnes / year - Continuous Loewy design - 11 -6

The Section Mill rolls out light and medium structural like joists, channels and angles. Mill capacity Re-heating furnaces Roughing Mill - 0.2 million tonnes / year - 2 x 40 t/hr - 2 high reversible DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL Page 26

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

Intermediate Mill Finishing Stand

- 2 stands of 3 high non-reversible - 2 high non-reversible

Product range:
Joists Channels Angels 200 mm x 100 mm, 175 mm x 85 mm 150 mm x 75 mm, 116 mm x 100 mm 200 mm x 75 mm, 175 mm x 75 mm 150 mm x 75 mm, 125 mm x 65 mm 150 x 150 mm, 130 x 130 mm 110 x 110 mm, 100 x 100 mm

Fish plate bars for 52 kg rails.

This is one of the sophisticated labs in DSP. This department handles all types of programmable logic control devices. They handles all types of programs working on PLC which help in handling the equipments in different departments through the control rooms.

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 27

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

2011

DURGAPUR STEEL PLANT, WEST BENGAL

Page 28