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BPO that is contracted to a companys neighbouring country is termed near-shore outsourcing.

South Africa is a popular destination for call centre BPO by many other countries, and this has led to unprecedented growth and expansion indicative of this considerable foreign interest. The call centre industry has grown and progressed remarkably since the mid 90s. The industry has been in existence internationally for around 20 years. Advancements in IT and technology and the raised expectations of customers has led to a sophisticated and competitive industry that trains and employs skilled, professional consultants and provides customers with a variety of options aimed at solving their problem immediately and ensuring a high level of customer satisfaction. Modern call centres provide a service-driven, one-stop client customer relationship management business.

SA Market Summaries

Call centres
SAMS # 016 March 2010

Description of the industry Introduction

This report details the business and operation of call centres in South Africa, both as direct, internal services to companies as well as part of the burgeoning Business Process Outsourcing and Off-shoring (BPO&O) trend that sees call centres work as outsourced suppliers to national and international companies. A call centre is a centralised office used to receive and transmit large numbers of telephone call requests. It is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information enquiries from consumers. Outgoing calls are made for tele-marketing, sales and debt collection. In addition to a call centre, the collective handling of letters, faxes and e-mails in one location is known as a contact centre. A call centre is often operated as an extensive open workspace for call centre agents or consultants (the term consultants will be used for the purpose of this report); each consultant working at a work station with a computer, telephone / headset connected to a telecom switch and one or several supervisor stations. This set-up can be independently operated or networked to other centres and often linked to a corporate computer network. Voice and data pathways into a centre are increasingly linked through new technologies called computer telephony integration. Call centres in South Africa vary in size from around ten agents to over 1 500 consultants. An in-house or internal client contact centre can also be defined as a captive call centre. Most major businesses use call centres to interact with their customers and stay competitive in the arena of customer care, to receive customer feedback and generally stay on the pulse of what people say, feel and think of their product or service. Examples are utility companies, mail order companies, customer support for computer hardware and software and even internal business functions such as help desks and sales support. In South Africa, the industries that rely heavily on call centre support are financial, medical and health and IT. BPO involves the handing over of responsibility for processes and associated operational activities to a third party, guaranteed to provide at least an equal if not higher service level than could be provided internally. This is done in order to create an environment for mutual, long term success for both operations. BPO is positively related to the search for more efficient organisational designs; cost reduction, productivity growth and innovation capability. It is, ultimately, a resource for strategic advantage. BPO contracted outside a companys own country is called offshore outsourcing or off-shoring. The call centre industry in South Africa, and particularly the BPO&O industry, is growing rapidly. The majority of call centres in South Africa are situated in Gauteng. There is a tendency toward fairly small call centres in South Africa, with a large number of the centres holding less than 20 seats. Most call centres are captiveowned and operated by companies using them for their own purposes. Call centres that provide outsourced services are fewer but tend to be far larger than the captive call centres. The most important function is inbound customer care, and the industries that make the most use of this are the financial, health and IT industries. The most widely spoken language across all call centres in South Africa is English, with most offering Afrikaans as well. The most widely spoken African languages used in call centres are Xhosa and Zulu, the prevalence of which is regionally determined. A call centre can be seen from an operational point of view as a queuing network, from the simplest a single type of customer and statistically identical servers - to highly complex models. Queuing theory is a branch of mathematics that has been developed through models of these queuing systems. These models are used to support work force planning and management. An example would be: given a management-determined service level, what would be the least number of telephone consultants or agents needed to achieve the service level? Queuing models can also provide qualitative insight, e.g. identifying the circumstances under which economies of scale prevail. The models are used to identify when crossselling is beneficial, or whether a call centre is quality or efficiency driven or quality and efficiency driven (QED). More recently, queuing models have been used for planning and operating skills-based routing of calls within a call centre this entails the analysis of systems with multitype customers and multi-skilled consultants. Call centre staff can be monitored for quality control, level of proficiency and customer service using technologies that manage, monitor and measure the performance and activities of the workers. A multi-tier support system is often used to organise call centre staff. The first tier consists of operators, who direct enquiries to the appropriate department and provide general directory information. If a caller requires more assistance, the caller is forwarded to the second tier, where most issues can be resolved. If not, then the caller is forwarded on to a third tier, typically formed by product engineers or developers and highly skilled technical support staff.

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Call centres can make processes efficient and automated, but the human element cannot be underestimated. The person on the other end of the line and their attitude, manner and way of dealing with problems ultimately creates the success or otherwise of the call and the customers impression and feeling about the business which the consultant is representing. Call centres in South Africa predominantly handle voice or analogue telephone calls, but many call centre operators want to offer their clients the choice of interaction via phone, fax, e-mail, SMS or an online web chat. Walk-in local service centres providing all the functions of a call centre are also in existence in metropolitan areas, offering client face-to-face contact with contact or service agents, as many clients still prefer personal interaction. Call centres were traditionally considered to be geared towards the softer side of business and were mainly used to placate irate clients or provide basic client services. Call centres have become mainstream business components, and many call centres report directly to director level management, proving the importance and value of an effective call centre operation in increasing and maintaining customer loyalty and satisfaction levels. Interactive voice response systems are also entering into the call centre technology arena, a result of the steady improvement of speech recognition technology capabilities over the last four years. The primary business sectors that use call centres are: Automotive transport Government utilities Hospitality - travel and tourism, leisure and entertainment Telecommunications cellular Consumer electronics, telesales Mining/Industrial mining, petrochemicals, construction, manufacturing IT support, office automation, business machinery Education healthcare and legal Marketing media publishing and research Financial Retail FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) Security Emergency services The financial sector is the largest market for Call Centre services, and the most widely spread across the regions. The financial sector also uses the highest number of outsourced services. The types of financial services that call centres deal with are: Insurance short term / general Insurance life and investment Consumer credit Commercial banking Debt collection Merchant / Investment banking Home loans Short term and general insurance are the largest users of contact centres and the most likely to outsource their contact centre function. Commercial banking remains heavily captive in its call centre function. The highest amount of financial service call centres are found in

KwaZulu-Natal (47.7%). The KwaZulu-Natal contact centres have established themselves as highly proficient in the debt collection skill set. The captive call centre industry is dispersed across all the other various industries. The Eastern Cape holds 20% of the retail segment with the Western Cape just behind. The Western Cape holds the highest number of call centres and agents dealing with the leisure and entertainment sector. 60% of Eastern Cape contact centres are focused on the public sector and Government. Types of Call Centre activity: Inbound customer services Outbound sales / telemarketing Inbound sales Technical / helpdesk Data capturing and processing Outsource service provider Back office processing Email support Accounts processing Market research Emergency services Policy administration Web chat / support Disaster recovery Research Security Transcriptions

State of the local and regional industry

There is an increase in call centres globally as a result of stronger focus on service and customer satisfaction in a very competitive market. Call centres began to mushroom in their 100s in early 1997 in the USA, Canada, The Netherlands, Ireland, Scotland and the UK. In the late 90s there was little information available about the South African call centre industry, and two industry bodies The Direct Marketing Association Telebusiness Forum and the Call Centre Networking Group. In the late 1990s there were fewer than 200 call centres and around 12 000 consultants in South Africa. By comparison, South Africa currently enjoys a well developed and consistently growing BPO and call centre industry comprising approximately 1 500 operational call centres and employing an estimated 150 000 175 000 consultants and a further 30 000 management and support staff. According to Business Day, the local call centre industry has grown by about 8% per year since 2003, and contributes a total of around 0.92% to South Africas GDP. South Africas second network operator, Neotel, has launched a nationwide next generation infrastructure across South Africa. This network is deployed independently of Telkoms network ensuring a true choice of infrastructure for the first time. The first Neotel Enterprise customers were connected in 2007, and consumer services commenced in May 2008. It is South Africas first converged network, offering voice and data on one network. Neotel offers wholesale voice and data options to Call Centres.

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Number portability has also been developed between Neotel and Telkom, adding to the first-time freedom of South African businesses and consumers to choose their telecommunications service. There have been many different predictions about the industry in terms of number of centres and consultants. In early 2002, Trade and Investment South Africa (TISA) conducted a quantification study and reported that the industry in South Africa consisted of 410 call centre sites and 80 000 agents. The projection was that there would be 100 000 consultants by 2005 and the reality is that is 2008 there are between 150 000 and 175 000 consultants in South Africa. Despite the fact that some critics have mentioned that the aspirations of the industry outstripped the actual potential for substantial outsourced contracts, the industry has done well and fulfilled a major role in supplying training and employment to previously unskilled people in South Africa. The industry contributes significantly to the countrys GDP. This is a positive trend that bucks the 2001 prediction that the industry lacked the expertise and real knowledge to back the fact-based value propositions supplied to the international outsourcing and offshoring community. In September 2004, the de-regulation of the telecommunications industry and Telkom in South Africa was heralded as a new era of growth for the call centre industry. The amendment to end the Telkom monopoly came into effect on 1 February 2005. The impact of the deregulation included the effective lowering of the cost of telephone calls and removal of the historical Telkom monopoly on telecommunication infrastructure. The rules and regulations that prevented private companies from offering open market communications services were disbanded. This resulted in significant growth in the call centre industry between 2004 and 2005. The South African target was to become the third largest call centre or BPO centre in the world after India and the Philippines, with a projection of consistently contributing over R1.2bn or 0.5% of foreign investment income to the South African GDP by 2008. The public sector and municipal services are also considered to have significant call centre growth potential. Worldwide, these services are successfully provided via call centres. An example would be the co-operation between call centre service provider e-Centric and the South African Revenue Service (SARS) to build a world class call centre in order to assist SARS with their customer contact mandate. Deloitte, with research input from local Cape Town Universities, has published the following predictions and figures regarding Cape Towns call centre industry: Companies serving overseas clients have grown from 12 in 2004, to 26 today. There are nearly 2 500 call centre consultants that are doing exclusively offshore work. The report concludes that the call centre industry is a significant contributor to the provincial economy with an economic impact of between R2.5bn R3.3bn per annum. The 200 plus companies in the industry account for 2.4% of the Gross Regional Product for the Western Cape and 3% of the total formal employment in the central metropolitan area of Cape Town. CallingtheCape Executive Director, Luke Mills, has commented that since 2003 the sector promotion body has facilitated a capital investment totaling nearly R500m by the mainly overseas, investors. These investors are also spending R830m per annum on local operations, which is a massive injection of income into the local economy. Many regions in South Africa have actively encouraging call centre investment in their regions since 2000, recognising them as a growth industry with the potential to

alleviate unemployment and increase labour skills locally, as well as generating substantial foreign investment for the development of their respective regions. Gauteng, Coega Industrial Zone near Port Elizabeth and the Western Cape region are all active growth regions of the call centre industry in South Africa.

Section 32 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 prohibits any person from providing a telecommunications service except under and in accordance with a telecommunications service licence. These are issued only by ICASA the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa. ICASA make regulations and policies that govern the broadcasting and telecommunications industries. The September 2004 Telecommunications South African Ministerial determinations took effect in February 2005, effectively removing Telkoms monopoly and exclusivity that had made it difficult for call centre operators to supply competitive cost offerings. One of the Ministerial provisions has also provided for VANS operators to provide voice over any protocol (VoIP) to call centre companies, thus releasing them from using the Telkom infrastructure exclusively. VANS are the "Value Added Network Suppliers" e.g. UUNET, MWEB that use their own telecoms infrastructure to connect their subscribers to the internet. The subscriber is routed through the VANS network onto the Telkom telecoms infrastructure. The prohibition of self-provisioning of the VANS means that these VANS providers are still tied to the Telkom telecoms infrastructure and they are not allowed to build or operate their own national telecoms infrastructure independently. VoIP or Voice over Internet Protocol means that analogue or voice information can now be routed through digital lines that are much cheaper to work on and faster than traditional analogue lines. The analogue data is interpreted into a digital signal using internet protocols and transmitted through digital mediums. These determinations positively impacted the costing of local call centres, making calls cheaper. This has also meant improved call quality to the call centre industry in South Africa. Deregulation of the Telecoms industry increased the interest in South Africa as a potential foreign call centre investment hub. The liberalisation of the telecoms industry has been equally important in providing foreign companies more freedom and choice as to how they manage their operations in South Africa. Vox Telecoms is an alternative independent telecom operator providing voice and data services to the South African market. The brands that have been created under this umbrella are Datapro, Vox Telecom, Orion Telecom and @lantic. BPeSA is the national co-ordinating body of the business process industry (previously SACCOM South African Call Centre Communication). The aim of the organisation is to enable policy advocacy, to encourage and negotiate affordable telecommunications pricing, the roll out of a quality assurance framework, the promotion of partnerships and the broadening of the talent pool. A roadshow touring the country was conducted in 2007 to present the final draft of the National Quality Assurance Framework, in partnership with the SABS.

Black economic empowerment

The South African Governments requires Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) compliance amongst all industries, and a number of the large call

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centre industry players are in the process of finding BEE partners or integrating BEE partners into their businesses. The call centre industry has virtually unlimited potential to alleviate unemployment levels of relatively unskilled labour in South Africa, as the nature of many call centre positions makes training a previously disadvantaged or relatively unskilled person to do call centre work fairly easy. Many call centre agents exclusively use scripted prompts to make marketing or sales calls or to answer client inquiries. The Merchants division of Dimension Data boasts 95% black and 65% female call centre consultants, these trends not only help to alleviate unemployment but also raise skills levels in previously disadvantaged labour groups, a big part of the reason behind the South African Government supporting the call centre and BPO industries so actively. Dimension Data has 25.01% of the equity ownership of the company in a Broad Based BEE consortium. They also have 50% black representation at board and 57% at executive level. The Dialogue Group, another large call centre industry player, also reports a large percentage of their workforce and 80% of management coming from previously disadvantaged backgrounds. The spotlight on skills development means that the group as achieved an independent BBB level 5 rating. The Dialogue Group created Tlhalefeng Placements, a wholly owned black company that established a joint-venture agreement to create the Interaction Call Centres group. The Interaction Call Centres group was awarded a R106m MTN call centre outsourcing deal to service MTN call centres in KwaZulu-Natal, creating 400 further call centre jobs in the province. Tlhalefang Placements supply and administer all call centre consultants to the Dialogue Group. Direct Channel has a business vision that involves giving employment and career opportunities to previously disadvantaged people. The Direct Channel Academy is a training and development enterprise that provides skills and training to an unskilled workforce. Call Centre Nucleus has a top level acquisition of 26% of the company by a consortium called Ziphathi Empowerment Network. This company utilises the existing infrastructure in communities to collate, analyse and interpret research data. The second level is an entrepreneurial development programme focused on developing a self-sustaining society.

Gauteng is the hub of the call centre industry with the highest concentration of call centres and BPO operations in the country. There are several major players on the industry in South Africa: Direct Channel was started in August 2001 with 6 seats and one client. The organisation now has 5 sites nationally, 2 in Gauteng including the Head Office, and one each in Durban, Cape Town and Worcester. The company has a total capacity of just under 3000 seats. Call Centre Nucleus has many major clients i.e. Virgin Mobile UK, Pfizer, Toyota, the Southern Sun Group, South African Department of Home Affairs, General Motors, Isuzu, Opel, Gedoni, Chevrolet, Lexmark, Suzuki, Cadillac, South African Tourism, Samsung Europe, DaimlerChrysler and SAAB. Merchants are the call centre section of Dimension Data, a specialist IT services and solutions provider. The company was founded in 1983 and is listed on the London Stock Exchange and the Johannesburg Securities Exchange. Dimension Data operate in over 40 countries on 6 contienents. Merchants are the bespoke outsource contact centre solutions provider. The Dialogue Group was previously privately owned but is now listed on the alternative exchange of the JSE AltX. The company debuted on the exchange in September 2006 with a market capitalisation of R294m. They own three facilities in Cape Town, Gauteng and Durban and have a combined capacity of over 3 000 seats. The Dialogue Group has been in partnership with Telecom Service Centres Ltd (one of the largest UK outsourcers) in a global alliance that offers close to 6 000 seats worldwide. The sectors their call centres specialise in are financial services, telecoms, utilities and Government, FMCG, hospitality and media. The Dialogue Group handles an annual call volume of around 48 million calls, employs 1 790 people full-time, has 4 FTSE 100 clients, 1 Fortune 500 client and 5 JSE Top40 clients. Other names prominent in the South African call centre industry are: SmartXchange, NT Ngidi Consulting, the UK company, Talking Shop, Velocity, One Call Solutions, Syntell Business Solutions, Bizcall Datapro, Direct Channel, Swordfish Call Centres, Lithatha Contact Services, IBM, Phonehouse, Teletech Holdings, Aspect Software, iiNet, Talk Talk, Bizworks, Stategy Threesixty, MindPearl, Fusion Outsourcing, Datacall Europe and Ambition 24.

Size of the industry

The four regional bodies are discussed below: CallingtheCape: This regional trade association and networking body was founded in 2001 to promote and develop IT enabled services in the Cape. The focus of the organisation is contact centres, especially foreigninvestment BPO. Coega Industrial Development Zone (IDZ): This is a premier location of new individual business developments, covering 11 hectares of land. The development is phased around industry clusters, and call centre BPO cover 4 hectares of space. KZNonSource: The organisation was created to create a positive environment to the establishment of call centres in KwaZulu-Natal, as well as to market KwaZulu-Natal as a preferred destination and one-stop facilitation service. ContactinGauteng this is the official BPO&O sector for the region with two mandates, to develop the BPO sector including call centres and facilitate best practice by providing members with strategic support, networking and training. The organisation identifies needs within the sector regarding standards, skills and resource challenges.

Key success factors

South Africas geographic location is ideal to service the major European and Asian markets, both in terms of time zone correspondence and physical proximity. South Africa slots in between near-shore locations e.g. Canada, Mexico and Eastern Europe in terms of proximity and cultural affinity to the domestic markets it serves. However, there is also a cheap labour force such as that in India and the Philippines. In addition, strong Western cultural ties exist between Europe and South Africa. The South African call centre labour pool is world renowned for its diligent nature and relatively low staff turnover, due to the high level of staff loyalty. The service levels supplied by South Africans are also highly regarded. The South African English accent is relatively neutral and easily understood in Western markets. There is a broad base of management and service provider expertise to back up the call centre operations as well. South Africa holds extensive financial sector

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expertise, particularly in areas of insurance, mortgages and loan processing and collection. The favourable exchange rate is also an attraction for foreign investors. Strong and growing Government support means that investors benefit from state-backed incentives such as start up and expansion grants and discounted telecoms prices. The advanced and growing telecoms industry provides improved conditions all the time. The Government is taking steps to enable cheaper and more widely available bandwidth capacity, allowing cheaper international phone calls. The Government-backed BPO&O support programme was launched in 2007 and aims to enhance these competitive edges. The programme includes backing of R1.1bn in investment incentives. The plan focuses on a Broad Based marketing strategy, investment grants and training subsidies and a developmental pricing framework for telecoms. There are currently projects underway to lay submarine fibre optic cables on the East and West coasts of Africa to boost the continents connection with the rest of the world. International businesses that have already chosen South Africa as their preferred BPO call centre destination are IBM, Fujitsu, Siemens, Lufthansa, Virgin, Sykes, Avis and Car Phone Warehouse.

With respect to the threat of the emergent African call centre industry, research has found that the US and UK customers are increasingly becoming more use to cosmopolitan accents when talking to call centre agents, opening up this industry to African language speaking people. African countries showing interest in the call centre industry include Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Criticisms of call centres in general on a global level follow a number of common themes, from callers and centre staff. Common criticisms from callers can include the fact that operators work from a script and that there are nonexpert operators that are unable to process customers requests efficiently. Other problems include the fact that language and accents can become an issue with overseas call centre locations, automated queuing systems resulting in excessive queuing times on occasions, complaints that there is little inter-departmental communication within a company and the possible deceit over the location of the call centre e.g. giving overseas workers false English names. Common criticisms from staff include the very close scrutiny by management (e.g. frequent random call monitoring), low compensation, restrictive working practices i.e. following a script, high stress in dealing directly with customers, repetitive job tasks and poor working conditions (facilities, maintenance, cramped conditions, management interference and lack of privacy). Some consultants have also reported impaired vision and hearing problems.

Key risks
Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP), with all its related benefits could pose a potential threat to the unskilled call centre staff group who handle routine menu driven inquiries, as customers will be able to perform their transactions via a voice prompt or menu prompt system. Another major risk to the call centre industry is related to the skilled and unskilled call centre workforce, namely the pandemic influence and spread of the HIV/AIDS virus. Many of the larger companies working in unrelated industries in South Africa have an active HIV/AIDS information and support system in place to educate uninfected workers and to provide medical treatment for infected workers. This is an important current and future consideration for local call centre providers as well as for international companies relocating or outsourcing their call centres to South Africa. The current trend of copper cable theft in South Africa causes downtime and service hour loss to call centres, necessitating the replacement of old copper cable telephone networks with optical fibre networks; these cable replacement operations take time and cause service interruptions to providers. Fluctuating currency exchange rates and a strong local currency are a threat to foreign call centre establishments in South Africa, as revenue is generated in foreign currency and outsourcing costs are paid in Rands. Emergent African call centres pose a significant risk to the call centre industry in South Africa. Three key trends are being tracked by local industry: Firstly, substantial expansion of the African GSM market effectively ties Africa in to the telecommunications infrastructure loop. Secondly, African markets are deregulating their telecoms industries to allow major foreign private telecoms providers to expand and manage telecoms in their countries. Thirdly, African leaders are actively lowering barriers to entry into their markets to encourage foreign investment.

Barriers to entry
Barriers to entry are not high at the start up level although capital is needed for space, IT and telephone technology and consultants and their training. This can start out really small. The industry is operating at a high and competitive level globally and in local South African markets, as well as BPO investment. In order to remain competitive an organisation needs to run an efficient and cost-effective ship.

Call centre technology is constantly subject to improvements and innovations, especially when it comes to IT solutions. Some of these technologies include speech recognition and synthesis that allows software to handle the first level of customer support, text mining and natural language processing to allow better customer handling and more specific consultant training by automatic mining of best practices from past interactions and many other technologies to improve consultant productivity and customer satisfaction. Automatic lead steering or lead selection is a technology that allows inbound calls to land with the appropriate consultant quickly, minimising waiting times and long lists of irrelevant options. This also assists management to designate what type of tasks go to which consultant based on skill, socio-economic factors and past performance and percentage likelihood of closing a sale per lead. One of the most recent advances in call centre technology is the Universal Queue, which standardises the process of communication across multiple technologies such as fax, phone and e-mail. There are a large number of patents covering various aspects of call centre operation, automation and technology. One of the early inventors in the field, Ronald A. Katz personally holds over 50 patents covering inventions related to toll free numbers, automated

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attendant, automated call distribution, voice response unit, computer telephone integration and speech recognition. These innovations all serve to make the customer experience a pleasant and efficient one.

1st Floor, GEP House, 22 Hertz Boulevard, Vanderbijlpark Tel: 016 910-1200


Future outlook
The prospects and future outlook of this industry are bright. With a global growth predicted at 50% per annum for the next five years, South Africa has positioned itself neatly to remain at the forefront of choice for BPO. The Governments support to the industry, specifically in addressing skills and training also bodes well for the industry to grow and reach its full potential. At the Inaugural Contact Centre Global Forum in Cannes in April 2007, Roland Witham, General Manager of Quest Connect stated: South Africa is currently improving its already promising position in the global market. Fragmentation between provinces and major companies has finally given way to a more coherent strategic focus in our local industry. The strategy hinges on our strengths in certain business verticals, including financial services, telecommunications and IT. We are now developing a name for ourselves in providing low-cost, high quality BPO solutions in these sectors. We have a Government that is strongly committed to skills development and increasing the availability of suitable human resources. All major centres including Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban have excellent skills programmes. If the country remains politically and economically stable over the next decade, South Africa can look forward to a profitable and mature call centre BPO industry that provides employment to many thousands who do not have a wide variety of other opportunities.

4th Floor, 221 City Towers Building, 227 van der Walt Street, Pretoria Central Tel: 012 323 4203

West Rand
23 Eloff Street, Krugersdorp Tel: 011 950-9870

Further information
Business Process enabling South Africa (BPeSA) is the national coordinating body of the business process industry (previously SACCOM South African Call Centre Communication.) The aim of the organisation is to enable policy advocacy, to encourage and negotiate affordable telecommunications pricing, the roll out of a quality assurance framework, the promotion of partnerships and the broadening of the talent pool. It also launched awards and regional awards to the industry. Tel: +27 11 783 3177 Fax: +27 11 783 5347 E-mail: Website:

Gauteng Enterprise Propeller: Branches

Ground Floor, Victoria Street, Germiston Tel: 011 821-2870

29 Rissik Street, Marshaltown, Johannesburg Tel: 011 833-2542

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