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ABSTRACT Int ern et Pro to col versi on 4 u ses a 32 bit IP ad d ress.

In th eo ry , a 3 2 bi t ad d ress sp ace sho ul d p ro vi de ad d resses fo r mo re t han fo u r b il li o n co mp ut ers, bu t in effi ci encies i n add ress al lo cat io n mean t hat l ess th an h al f o f t h e ad d resses are u sed . Th e result i s so call ed -'M nt ern et ad d ress cri si s"-t here! are mo re co m pu t ers t han u sab le add resses Th erefo re p erman ent IP add resses h av e beco me ex pen siv e. Th ere ar e t w o so lu ti o n s t o t he p ro bl em .O ne i s a l on g t erm sol uti o n o f u sin g IPv 6 ,an d th e ot her i s a sh o rt -t i me p racti cal sol uti o n cal l ed N A T w hi ch i s hi g hl y u sed . Th i s semi n ar t ri es to b rin g o ut th e [d et ail s o f N A T an d fin all y ho w it h el p s to i mp l ement t h e IPv 4 to IPv 6 t ran siti o n s . N et w o rk Ad d ress Tran sl at io n i s a meth o d by w hi ch IP ad d resses are map p ed fro m on e real m t o ano th er, in an att emp t t o p rov id e t ran sp arent ro ut in g to h o st s. Trad i tio n al ly , N A T dev ices) are u sed t o con n ect an i so lat ed ad d ress real m wi th p riv ate u n regi st ered add resses t o an ex t ernal real m w it h gl ob all y un iq u e regi stered add resses.

12. l.INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

Th e n eed fo r IP Ad d ress t ran sl at io n ari ses w hen a n et w o rk's i nt ern al IP add resses can n ot b e u sed o ut sid e th e net wo rk eit h er becau se t h ey are i n v ali d fo r u se ou t si d e, o r b ecau se t h e int ern al ad d ressin g mu st b e k ep t p ri v at e fro m th e ext ern al net wo rk . A dd ress t ran sl at io n al lo w s h o st s in a p ri v at e net wo rk to t ran sp arent ly co mmu n i cat e wi th desti n at io n s on an ext ern al n et w o rk an d vi ce v ersa . There are a v ari et y o f flav o rs o f N A T an d terms t o mat ch t hem. Th i s d ocu men t att emp t s t o d efin e t he t ermi no lo g y u sed an d to i den ti fy v ario u s flav o rs o f N A T. Th e d o cu men t al so at temp t s t o d escri b e ot h er co n si d erat io n s ap pli cab l e to NA T dev ices i n g en eral . N A T d evi ces at t empt t o p rov id e a t ran sp arent ro ut in g so l uti o n to t he en d h o st s t ryi ng to co mmu n i cat e fro m d i sp arate add ress real ms .Thi s i s ach iev ed b y mo di fyi n g en d n o d e ad d resses en ro ut e an d mai nt ai n in g st at e fo r t hese up d at es so t h at dat ag rams p ertain i ng t o a sessi o n are rou ted t o h e rig ht -en d n o de in ei th er real m. Th i s so lu ti o n o nl y wo rk s wh en t h e ap pli cat io n s do no t u se t h e IP ad d resses as p art o f t he p ro t oco l i t sel f. Fo r eg :i d en ti fyi n g end p oi nt s u si ng DN S n am es rath er t h an ad d resses mak es app li cati o n s l ess d ep end ent o f t h e act ual add resses th at N A T ch oo ses an d av oi d s th e need to al so t ran sl at e p ay l oad co nt ent s w h en N A T chan g es an IP ad d ress. Th e N A T fu ncti on can no t b y it sel f su pp o rt all ap pli cat io n s t ran sparen tl y an d o ft en mu st co -ex i st w it h app l icat i on l ev el g atew ay s (A LG s) fo r t hi s reaso n. Peop le l oo ki ng t o dep lo y N A T b ased sol uti o n s n eed t o d et ermi n e t h ei r ap pl i cati o n requ i rement s fi rst an d assess th e NA T ex t en sio n s (i e,A LG s) necessary t o p rov id e ap pli cat io n t ran sp aren cy fo r t h ei r en vi ro n men t . IPsec t ech ni q ues w hi ch are int en ded to p reserv e t he En d p oi n t ad d resses o f an IP pack et wi ll n ot w o rk wi th N A T en -ro ut e fo r mo st ap pl icatio n s i n p ract ice. Tech ni qu es su ch as A H and ESP p rot ect t h e co nt ent s o f th e IP h ead ers (i n cl ud in g t he so u rce and desti n at io n add resses) fro m mo di fi cat io n. Y et.N A T's fu n damen t al ro l e i s t o alt er t he add resses i n t h e IP h ead er o f a pack et .

Internet Address Crisis-Solutions in 1PV4

2.WHAT IS NAT? Short for Network Address Translation, an Internet standard that enables a local-area network (LAN) to use one set of IP addresses for internal traffic and a second set of addresses for external traffic. A NAT box located where the LAN meets the Internet makes all necessary IP address translations. In computer networking, the process of network address translation (NAT, also known as network masquerading or IPmasquerading) involves re-writing the source and/or destination addresses of IP packets as they pass through a router or firewall. Most systems using NAT do so in order to enable multiple hosts on a private network to access the Internet using a single public IP address (see gateway). According to specifications, routers should not act in this way. but many network administrators find NAT a convenient technique and use it widely. Nonetheless, NAT can introduce complications in communication between hosts.

The NAT router translates traffic coming into and leaving the private network.

Network Address Translation allows a single device, such as a router, to act as an agent between the Internet (or "public network") and a local (or "private") network. This means that only a single, unique IP address is required to represent an entire group of computers. 3.OPERATIONS OF NAT

A ty pi cal IP masq u erad e co n fig u rat io n

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W e h av e a small Eth ern et n et w o rk u sin g o n e o f t h e reserv ed net wo rk ad d resses. Th e net wo rk has a masq u erad e rou t er p rov id i ng access to t h e Int ern et . O n e o f th e wo rk stati o n s on t h ej | net wo rk (19 2 .1 6 8.1.3 ) wi shes t o est abl i sh a co n necti on to t h e remot e ho st 2 0 9.1.1 06 .17 8 o n p o rt 8 88 8 Th e wo rk st at io n rou t es it s d at ag ram t o th e masq u erad e ro u ter, w hi ch id en ti fi es t h i s co n n ecti on req u est | as req ui rin g masq u erade servi ces. It accept s th e d at ag ram an d all o cat es a p o rt n u mb er to u se (1 03 5 ) sub sti tu t es i t s o wn IP ad d ress and p o rt nu m ber fo r t ho se o f t he o ri gi n ati ng ho s t, an d t ran smi t s th e d atag ram t o th e d est in ati on h o st . Th e desti n at io n h o st b el ieves i t h as recei ved a co nn ectio n requ est fro m th e masq u erad e ho st and g en erat es a rep ly d at ag ram. The masq u erade ho st , u p on recei vi n g th i s d atag ram, fin d s t h e asso ci at io n i n it s masq u erad e t abl e an d rev erses t he su b sti t uti o n it perfo r med on t h e ou tg oi n g d at ag ram. It th en t ran smit s t h e rep l y d atag ram t o t h e o ri gi n at in g ho st. Th e lo cal ho st b el i ev es i t i s speaki n g di rectl y to t h e remot e h o st . Th e remo te ho st k n ow s n ot hi n g ab ou t Ihe l o cal h o st at al l an d beli ev es it h as recei v ed a co nn ect io n fro m t h e mas qu erad e h o st. Th e masq u erad e ho st k n o w s t h ese t w o h o st s are sp eaki n g to each ot h er, an d on w hat p o rt s, and p erfo rms [he ad d ress an d p o rt t ran sl at io n s n ecessary t o all o w co m mu n i cati o n .

4. FORMS OF NAT
NAT has many forms and can work in several ways: Static NAT - A type of NAT in which a private IP address is mapped to a public IP address, where the public address is always the same IP address (i.e., it has a static address). This allows an internal host, such as a Web server, to have an unregistered (private) IP address and still be reachable over the Internet.

In static NAT, the computer with the IP address of 192.168.32 10 will always translate to 213.18.123.110.

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Overloading - A form of dynamic NAT that maps multiple unregistered IP addresses to a single registered IP address by using different ports. This is known also as PAT (Port Address Translation), single

In overloading, each computer on the private network is translated to the same IP address (213.18.123.100), but with a different port number assignment.

address NAT or port-level multiplexed NAT. Dynamic NAT - A type of NAT in which a private IP address is mapped to a public IP address drawing from a pool of registered (public) IP addresses. Typically, the NAT router in a network will keep a table of registered IP addresses, and when a private IP address requests access to the Internet, the router chooses an IP address from the table that is not at the time being used by another private IP address. Dynamic NAT helps to secure a network as it masks the internal configuration of a private network and makes it difficult for someone outside the network to monitor individual usage patterns. Another advantage of dynamic NAT is that it allows a private network to use private IP addresses that are invalid on the Internet but useful as internal addresses Overlapping - When the IP addresses used on your internal network are registered IP addresses in use on

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In dynamic NAT, the computer with the IP address 192.168.32.10 will translate to the first available address in the range from 213.18.123.100 to 213.18.123.150. The internal IP range (237.16.32.xx) is also a registered range used by another network. Therefore the router is translating the addresses to avoid a potential conflict with another network. It will also translate the registered global IP addresses back to the unregistered local IP addresses when information is sent

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another network, the router must maintain a lookup table of these addresses so that it can intercept them and replace them with registered unique IP addresses. It is important to note that the NAT router must translate the "internal" addresses to registered unique addresses as well as translate the "external" registered addresses to addresses that are unique to the private network. This can be done either through static NAT or by using DNS and implementing dynamic NAT.

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Int ern et A d d ress Cri si s -So l u tio n in IPV4

5.BASIC NAT VS PORT NUMBER TRANSLATION

Tw o k in d s o f n et wo rk add ress t ran slati on exi st. Th e t yp e o ft en p op ul arly cal l ed si mpl y "N A T " (al so so met i mes n amed "N e tw o rk A dd ress Po rt Tran sl atio n " o r "N A PT" ) refers t o net wo rk ad d ress t ran sl at io n in vo lv i ng th e map pi n g o f p o rt n u mb ers, all o wi ng mu l ti pl e machi n es t o sh are a si ng l e IP add ress. Th e o th er, techn i call y si mpl er, fo rm - also cal l ed N A T o r "on e -t o -o ne N A T" o r "b asi c N A T" o r "st ati c N A T" - i nv ol v es on ly ad d ress t ran sl ati o n, n ot po rt mapp in g. Th i s req u i res an ext ern al IP ad d ress fo r each si mu lt aneo u s co n necti on . Bro ad b and ro ut ers o ft en u se thi s feat u re, so met i mes l ab el ed "D M Z h o st ", t o all o w a d esi g n at ed co mp u ter t o accept al l ex t ern al co n necti on s ev en w h en Th e rou t er i t sel f u ses t he o nl y av ail abl e ext ern al IP ad d ress. N A T wi th po rt -t ran sl ati o n co mes in t wo sub -t yp es: so u rce ad d ress t ran sl ati on (so u rce N A T), wh ich re w ri t es t he IP ad d ress o f t h e co mp u ter w hi ch i nit i at ed th e con n ecti o n; an d i t s co u nt erpart , d est in at io n add ress t ran sl at io n (d est in at i on N A T). In p ract i ce, b ot h are u suall y u sed to g et her i n coo rd in at i on fo r t w o -w ay co m mu ni cat io n . 6.CLASSIFICATIONS OF NAT

Different types of NAT:A pp li cat io n s th at d eal w it h N A T so met i mes need to ch aract erize N A T b y ty p e. Th e STU N p rot o col , [1 ] p rop o sed to ch aract eri ze N et w o rk ad d ress t ran sl at io n as Fu ll co n e N A T, rest ri cted co ne N A T, p o rt rest ri ct ed co n e N A T o r sy m met ri c N A T. [2] N ot e t h at it i s in d eed cal l ed "con e" an d no t p o ssi bl y a t y p e o f "clo n e". W it h fu ll con e N A T, al so k no w n as o ne -t o -on e N A T, all requ est s fro m th e same in t ern al IP ad d ress an d po rt are mapp ed to t h e same ext ernal IP ad d ress an d p o rt . A n ext ern al h o st can send a p ack et to t he i n tern al ho st , by sen di ng a p acket t o th e ma pp ed ex t ernal ad d ress. W it h re st ri ct ed co n e N A T, al l req u est s fro m t h e same i nt ern al IP ad d ress an d p o rt are map p ed t o th e same ex t ernal IP add ress an d p o rt . U nli k e a fu ll con e NA T, an ext ern al h o st can send a p ack et t o th e in t ern al ho st on ly i f th e i nt ernal ho st h ad p revi ou sl y sen t a pack et to it . W it h Po rt rest rict ed co ne N A T o r sy mmet ri c N A T i s l ik e a rest ri ct ed co n e N A T, b ut t he rest ri ct io n in cl u d es po rt nu mb ers. Sp eci fi cal ly , an ex tern al h o st can sen d a pack et t o a p arti cul ar p o rt o n t he i nt ern al ho st on l y i f t h e i nt ern al h o st h ad p rev i ou sly sen t a p ack et fro m th at po rt to t h e ex t ern al h o st. W it h sy mmet ri c N A T al l req uest s fro m t h e same i n tern al IP ad d ress an d po rt t o a sp eci fi c d est in ati on IP ad d ress an d p o rt are map ped to a u ni q u e ex t ern al sou rce IP ad d ress an d po rt . It th e same i nt ern al h o st sen d s a pack et wi th t he same sou rce ad d ress and p o rt to a di ffer en t d est in at i on , a d i fferent map pi n g i s u sed . O nl y an ex tern al h o st t h at recei v es a p ack et can send a U D P p acket b ack to t he i nt ern al ho st. 7. BENEFITS

1.

In ad di ti o n t o t h e co n veni e nce and i o w co st o f N A T, t he l ack o f ful l bi di rect io n al con n ecti vi ty can b e reg ard ed i n so me si tu ati on s as a "feat u re", rat h er t h an a "l i mi tati on ".

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2. To th e ex tent t h at N A T d ep en d s on a mach in e o n th e lo cal net wo rk t o in it iat e an y co nn ect io n to ho st s o n th e ot h er si d e o f th e ro ut er, it p rev ent s mal i ci ou s act iv it y i ni ti at ed b y o ut si de h o st s fro m reach in g t h o se l ocal ho st s. Thi s can enh an ce t h e reli abil it y o f lo cal sy st ems b y st o pp in g wo rms an d en han ce p ri v acy b y di scou ragi n g scan s. M an y N A T-en ab l ed fi rew al l s u se t hi s as t h e co re o f t he p ro tecti o n t h ey p ro vi d e. 3. Th e g reat est b en efi t o f N A T is t h at it i s a p racti cal so l uti on t o th e i mp en di ng ex h au st io n o ( IPv 4 add ress sp ace. 4. N et w o rk s t h at p rev i ou sly requ i red a Cl ass B IP rang e o r a bl ock o f Cl ass C net wo rk add ress es can no w b e co n n ect ed t o t h e Int ern et w it h as l it tl e as a si n gl e IP add ress (man y h o me n etw o rk s are set u p t hi s way ). 5. Th e mo re co m mo n arrang emen t i s h avi n g mach in es t hat req ui re t rue bi di recti o nal an d un fett ered co n n ecti vi ty su p pl ied w it h a 'real ' IP add resses, w hi le hav in g mach in es t hat do n o t p ro vi d e servi ces to ou t si d e u sers (e.g, a secretar y's co mp ut er) t u ck ed away b eh i nd N A T w it h o nl y a few IP ad d resses u sed to en abl e In tern et access.

8. DRAWBACKS

1.

H o st s b ehi nd a NA T-en abl ed rou t er do n ot h av e t ru e en d -t o -end co nn ect iv it y and can n ot p arti cip at e i n so me In t ern et p ro to col s.

2.

Serv ices t h at requ i re t he in i ti ati o n o f TCP co n necti on s fro m th e ou t si d e n et w o rk, o r st atel ess p ro to col s su ch as t ho se u sin g U D P, can be d i srup t ed . U nl ess th e N A T ro ut er mak es a sp eci fi c effo rt t o su pp o rt such p rot ocol s, in co mi ng p ack et s can n ot reach t h ei r d est in ati o n.

3. So me p rot o col s can acco mm od ate on e i n stan ce o f N A T b et w een p art i ci pati n g h o st s ("passi ve mo de" FTP, fo r ex amp l e), so meti mes wi t h t he assi st an ce o f an A pp li cat io n Layer G atew ay , b ut fai l w h en bo t h sy stems are separat ed fro m t he In t ern et b y N A T. 4. U se o f N A T al so co mp li cat es secu rit y p rot o co l s su ch as IP sec 5. D ep en di ng on on e's p oi nt o f vi ew, an ot h er d raw b ack o f N A T i s t h at i t g reat ly slo w ed th e accep tan ce o f IPv 6 , rel egati n g i t t o research net wo rk s an d l i mit ed p u bl i c u se. (En d -t o -end con n ecti vi t y h as been a co re p ri n ci pl e o f th e Int ern et , su pp o rt ed fo r ex am pl e b y t h e In t ern et A rchit ect u re bo ard . So me p eo p le th u s reg ard N A T as a det ri men t t o th e Pu bl i c In t ern et. So me i nt ernet servi ce p rov id ers (ISPs) o nl y p rov i de t h ei r cu st o mers wi th "l o cal " IP ad d resses. Th u s, th ese cu sto mers mu st access servi ces ext ern al t o th e ISP 's n et w o rk th ro ug h NA T. A s a result , so me may arg ue th at such co mp ani es d o n ot p rop erly p ro vi d e "Int ern et " servi ce. )

9.APPLICATIONS AFFECTED BY NAT

Some higher-layer protocols (such as FTP and SIP) send network layer address information inside application payloads. FTP in active mode, for example, uses separate connections for control traffic (commands) and for data traffic (file contents). When requesting a file transfer, the host making the request identifies the corresponding data connection by its layer 3 and layer 4 addresses. If the host making the request lies behind a simple NAT firewall, the translation of the IP address and/or TCP port number makes the information received by the server invalid. An Application Layer Gateway (ALG) can fix this problem. An ALG software module running on a NAT firewall device updates any payload data made invalid by address translation. ALGs

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obviously need to understand the higher-layer protocol that they need to fix, and so each protocol with this problem requires a separate ALG. Another possible solution to this problem is to use NAT traversal techniques using protocols such as STUN or ICE or proprietary approaches in a session border controller. NAT traversal is possible in both TCP- and UDP-based applications, but the UDP-based technique is simpler, more widely understood, and more compatible with legacy NATs. In either case, the high level protocol must be designed with NAT traversal in mind, and it does not work reliably across symmetric NATs or other poorly-behaved legacy NATs. Yet another possibility is UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) or Bonjour but this requires the cooperation of the NAT device. Most traditional client-server protocols (FTP being the main exception), however, do not send layer 3 contact information and therefore do not require any special treatment by NATs. In fact, avoiding NAT complications is practically a requirement when designing new higher-layer protocols today. N A Ts can al so cau se p ro b lems w h ere IPsec en cryp ti on i s ap pl ied an d in cases w h ere mu lt ip le dev ice s su ch as SIP ph o nes are lo cat ed b eh in d a N A T. Ph o nes w hi ch encry pt t h ei r si g n all in g wi t h IPse c encap sul at e t he po rt in fo rmat io n w it hi n th e IPsec p ack et mean in g th at N A (P) T d evi ces can no t access and t ran sl at e t he p o rt. In t h ese cases th e N A (P) T d ev ices revert t o si mpl e N A T o p erat io n. Thi s mean s th at al l t raffi c ret u rn i ng t o th e N A T w ill be map p ed on to o ne cl i en t cau si ng t h e servi ce t o fail . Th ere are a cou p le o f so lu ti o n s to th i s p ro bl em, o ne i s to u se TLS w hi ch o p erat es at l ev el 4 i n t h e O SI Referen ce M o del and t h erefo re do es n ot mask t h e p o rt n u mb er, o r to En cap sul ate th e IPsec w it h in U D P - t h e l at t er b ein g t he sol ut i on cho sen b y TISP A N t o achi ev e secu re N A T t rav ersal .
I

10.IPv6 - is it creeping into your network?

j
M o st o rg ani zati o n s are cu rrentl y ru nn in g v ersi o n 4 o f th e Int ern et p rot ocol (IP ) on th ei r n et w o rk s. Su p pli ers hav e fo r so me ti me b een p ro vi d in g equ i p ment t o a n ew , hi gh er st an dard k n o w n as IPV 6 an d n et w o rk s are mi g rat in g .

IPv 6 (In t ernet Pro t o co l v ersi on 6 ) i s t h e n ex t g en erati on o f th e p ro to col t hat ru n s th e Int ern et . Cu rren tl y a set o f d raft stan d ard s i n t he Int ern et En gi neerin g Task Fo rce (IETF), i t i s desi gn ed t o i mp rov e up o n IPv 4, in term s o f scal abi li ty , ease -o f-con fig u rat io n, secu rit y an d t o re -in t rod u ce t h e o ri gi n al TCP/ IP b en efi t s fo r g lo b al net wo rk in g . Cent ral t o th e co mp et iti v eness an d p erfo rm an ce o f all n et w o rk u sers, i t's u se w il l al so exp an d t h e cap abi lit i es o f t h e In t ern et t o en ab l e so me v al u ab le and excit in g scen ari o s, in clu di n g larg e -scal e, p eer-t o -p eer an d mo bi l e ap pl i cati o n s.

IPv 6 h as t h e fol lo w in g adv an tag es ov er IPv 4 : Pro vi d es sig ni fi can tl y mo re add ress sp ace

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Easier ad d ress man ag ement and d el eg at io n Easy ad d ress aut o con fig u rati on Emb ed d ed IPsec (en cry p ted secu rit y ) D up li cat e A dd ress Det ecti o n (D A D ) featu re.

11. COMPARISON OF IPv4 VERSUS IPv6

IPv4 Solution

IPv6 Solution

IP Service
Addressing Range Autoconfiguration Security Mobility Quality-of-Service IP Multicast 32-bit, Network Address Translation DHCP IPSec Mobile IP IPSec Mandated, works End-to-End Mobile IP with Direct Routing 128-bit, Multiple Scopes Serverless, Reconfiguration, DHCP

Differentiated Service, Integrated Service Differentiated Service, Integrated Service

_ ..........................

MLD/PIM/Multicast BGP, Scope Identifier

IGMP/PIM/Multicast BGP ....................... _ J _

12 .CONCLUSION

N A T h as b een a go o d resp o n se i n an y way s t o t h e p ro bl em o f l i mit ed IPv 4 ad d ress sp ace, b ut it has al so cau sed many p ro b lems. D evi ces in p ri v at e n et w o rk s cann ot act as serv ers o r p arti ci p ate in P2 P app li cati o n s w h en N A T chan g es p acket s. N A T has al so serv ed t o un d ermi n e th e secu rit y p ro vi si o n s t h at hav e been creat ed t o p ro tec t th e u sers o f t h e Int ernet. Th e co mb i n ed u se o f N A T and IP sec n et w o rk l ev el secu ri ty ou t ri g ht p rev ent s su ccessfu l co m mu n i cati on b et w een d ev i ces u n der IPv 4 . Secu re co m mu ni cati on h as p ro v en t o b e a n ecessi ty in a wo rl d t h at h a s demo n st rat ed remark abl e mal feasan ce.

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13 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND WEBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS
1.ANDREW .S .TANENBAUM

"Computer Networks"

CONTENTS

1. IN TRO D U CTIO N A N D O V ERV IEW 2. W H A T IS N A T? 3. N A T O PERA T IO N S 4. FO RM S O F N A T 5. BA SIC N A T V S PO RT N U M BER TRA N SLA TIO N 6. CLA SS IFICA TIO N S O F N A T 7. BEN EFI TS 8. D RA W BA CK S 9. A PPLI CA TIO N S A F FECTED B Y N A T

1 3 4 5 8 9 10 II 12 15

10 . IPV 6 -IS IT CREEP IN G IN TO N ETW O RK 14 1 1 . CO M PA RI SO N O F IPV 4 V ERSU S IPV 6 13 . CO N CLU SIO N BIBLIO G RA PH Y A N D W EB LIO G RA PH Y 17 16

D ep t o f CSE

SN G CE,K ol en ch ery