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WALKING AID PROJECT – Integrated Motorized Systematic Evaluator

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Content:
Chapter 1 Need Recognition………………………………………………….5 1.1 Brief Introductions…………………………………….……………………………………....6 1.2 Problem Statements …………………………………….………………………………......7 1.3 Customer Requirements …………………………………….………………………......11 1.4 Needs Statement …………………………………….……………………………………..12 Chapter 2 Marketing Research…………………………………………….13

2.1 Market Segmentation…………………………………….………………………………......14 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Lead User Analysis …………………………………….…………………………………….16 Product Life Cycle …………………………………….……………………………………...22 Competitors Analysis…………………………………….………………………………….24 Perceptual Map…………………………………….……………………………………......26 Kano Model …………………………………….……………………………………...........27 Marketing Summary …………………………………….…………………………………32

Chapter 3

Conceptual Design………………………………………………33

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Introduction…………………………….…………………………………………………......34 Quality Function Deployment (QFD) ………………………………………….....35 QFD – Analysis ……………………………………………………….…..………………... 42 Concept Generation…………………………………………….…………… …………...44 Concept Screening……………………………………………………..…………….........46 FMEA (Concept Evaluation)………………………….……… ………………………... 49 Preliminary Design…………………………………………… 54

Chapter4 4.1 4.2

Product Architecture…………………………………………………………………….....55 Design for X ……………………………………………………………..............……...61

4.2.1 Design for Manufacturability…………………………………………….….……..... 65 4.2.2 Design for Recycling ..…… ………………………………………………………………...68 4.2.3 Design for Environment …………………………………………………….……………..70 4.3 Bill of Material (BOM)……………… …………………………………… ……………….72

Chapter5 5.1

Process Planning……………………………………………….75

Manufacturing Process Planning ……………………………………………….…...76

……………..……………..117 Agenda and Minutes ……………………………………124 Appendix 1 Survey Form ………………………………………143 Appendix 2 Survey Result ……………………………… ……145 .89 Line Balancing……………………………………………….6 Assembly Line Layout Design…………………………………….1 7.3 5.3 Packaging………………………………………………..5.4 5.109 7.110 Packing Design………………………………………….……………………………….96 Operation Charts…………………………………………………………………………….115 Chapter 8 Prototyping …………………………………….111 Packaging Arrangement………………………………..2 7.5 5... 99 Master Floor Plan ……………………………………………………………………… 102 Chapter 7 Packaging and Logistics ………….2 5.……………………83 Time Studies (MTM)…… ………………………………………………………………...

.Appendix 3 Purpose of Conducting Survey …………152 Appendix 4 CAD Model ……………………………………….154 Appendix 5 Gantt Chart ………………………………………176 .

4 Needs statements Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 6 .3 Customer requirements 1.2 Problem Statement 1.1 Brief Introductions 1.Chapter 1 Need Recognition 1.

1 Brief Introductions Personal hygiene multi-tool is a multi-functional product. camping and travelling. The product is designed to provide convenience and small in size of the product is stressed.1. It will be small in size and light in weight which can be put in the baggage conveniently. comb are examples of tools that the Personal hygiene multi-tool will contain. Toothbrush. The Personal hygiene multi-tool will imitate the design of pocket size multi-purpose knife (Swiss army knife). shaver. designed to aid consumers with their personal hygiene during business trip. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 7 .

2 Problem statement During trips. camping and traveling. Product: Personal hygiene multi-tool Market segment • • Businessmen who have frequent business trips Travelers + camper****** Benefit Proposition • • • • Convenient for customers to carry Small in size Light in weight New idea to the market Demographic The Personal Hygiene Multi-tool is specially designed for men in which the product will be used during business trip.1. personal hygiene is a great concern of travelers. Packing all of these items to the baggage is always a trouble for travelers. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 8 . there are no competitive products have been introduced to address aiding consumers with their personal hygiene during business trip. In addition. comb. Toothbrush. are examples of essential items of baggage. The small sized multi-tool is expected to provide great convenience for the targeted user group. etc. camping and travelling. shaver.

000 units. Materials options are based on properties (stiffness) and density (weight) of the materials. Number of parts • • Materials • • • Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 9 . material options are stainless steel or other strong metals with high resistance toward corrosion.Specification Expected order size Initial order size should reach 200. material options are those strong metals coated with paint. The product can be a single unit with several moving parts. For the outer part of the product. to optimize the minimal amount of defects and inventory costs. A weekly production cycle would be achieved with respect to the weekly shipping demand. 5. The production cost is roughly estimated to be HKD 30. For the inner part (functional part) of the product. Expected production schedule Estimated production cost Assumptions Packaging • The Personal hygiene multi-tool will be sold individually and will be packed in a paper box with hanging style packing. Material selections need to accommodate target retail pricing and clients manufacturing capabilities.000 units are expected to be shipped every week.

Stakeholders • • • • • • Users Retailers Logistics firms Factories Government Airline companies Key Business Goals • • • • • To develop a conceptual design of the Personal hygiene multi-tool To deliver 500000 units which are shipped separately of 5000 units/week starting from May 2011 To capture market share in this newly developed market To develop the leader image of our company among the competitors To deliver safety and quality Product to fulfill customer needs Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 10 .

2. Feature would be nice to have. 4. a product/process without it should not be considered. 2. 4. 5. Feature is not important. Feature is undesirable. 3. Feature is highly desirable. suggestions for each problem are introduced as follow: Affinity Group 1.After an analysis for the surveys. but would be ok to have. 3. a product/process with this feature should not be considered. 5. Feature is desirable. Safety problems of personal hygiene multi-tool. a product/process without it should not be considered. Matters about the component materials of the personal hygiene multi-tool Features that facilitate ordinary usage of the personal hygiene multi-tool Cost concerns of Personal hygiene multi-tool Specification design of Personal hygiene multi-tool Rating Keys (1 to 5) 1. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 11 .

personal hygiene tools must not be slipped easily from my wet hands.3 Customer Requirements Requirements/ Affinity Group Customer/Stakeholder Requirements It is always easy to forget to bring necessary personal hygiene tools when travelling. The personal hygiene multi-tool should be as handy as possible During usage. Ranking* Relevant Customer/ Stakeholders 3 5 Users 2 5 Users 2 4 Users 5 5 Users 4 3 Users 4 4 Users Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 12 .1. Selling price of personal hygiene tool should be reasonable. Personal hygiene tools should be easy-cleaning Personal hygiene tool is expected to have a long servicing life.

The personal hygiene multi-tool fits the palm of most users with 80mm x 30 mm x 30 mm and weight 200g or lower.1.4 Needs Statements Affinity Group Customers statement It is always easy to forget to bring necessary personal hygiene tools when travelling. 2 Personal hygiene tool must be handy 5 3 4 Selling price of personal hygiene tool should be reasonable. 3 2 Personal hygiene tools should be easycleaning Personal hygiene tool is expected to have a long servicing life. which gives high specific strength. Personal hygiene tools must not be slipped easily from my wet hands. Main raw materials of personal hygiene multi-tool are HDPE and stainless steel. Needs Statement The personal hygiene multi-tool consists of several common personal hygiene tools and it is an all-in-one multi-functional tool which is easy to pick up at once. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 13 . On average. the tool can have a service life longer than 5 years. non slippery pattern rubber is added to The two sides of main body of the personal hygiene multi-tool The cost of personal hygiene multi-tool is controlled to HKD 30 or lower. Functional parts in the hygiene multi-tool are detachable and can be replaced.

4 Competitors Analysis 2.5 Perceptual Map 2.3 Product Life Cycle (PLC) Analysis 2.1 Market Segmentation 2.7 Summary Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 14 .2 Lead User Analysis 2.Chapter 2 Marketing Research 2.6 Kano Model 2.

2. Similarly. the frequency of travelling with aged 35-45 is twice a week and most of the aims of Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 15 . according to our survey. So our product should aim to this group of customers.1 Survey Result – Targeted Group Age According to annual report of Traveling Industry Council of Hong Kong 2009/2010.1. the frequency of travelling with aged 18-35 is twice a month and most of their aims of travelling is leisure trip. the age group of 18-45 has paid the largest proportion of salary in traveling and their purchasing power in traveling is also the greatest.1 Market Segmentation Figure 2. Furthermore.

And thus. Reference : Traveling Industry Council of Hong Kong http://www. the higher the need of personal hygiene tools they have.tichk.travelling is business trip. The highest the frequency of travelling. we conclude that our target customers should be travelers and businessperson aged 18-45.html Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 16 .org/public/website/en/publications/annual_report/ar_2009_2010 /index.

Leader users play a vital role as they are queried to determine whether they have knowledge of Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 17 . the lead users should be able to respond to the market and allow our company to manufacture marketable personal hygiene multi-tool. this analysis can help us to develop our product towards best-selling direction.2 Lead User Analysis Purpose: Lead user analysis can be used to ensure our project team to know the trend of customers’ needs and hence customers’ expectations. Definition of lead users: Lead users are a small group of users whose present needs that will become general in a marketplace – but face them months or years before the bulk of that marketplace encounters them. They often attempt to fill the customers’ needs they experience and provide a company with solution data regarding their needs. By collecting information from related stakeholders.2. They are willing to collaborate in developing the new product because they are benefited significantly from a successful new product. In other words.

Descriptions will be shown in the following pages. Leader users of personal hygiene tools 1. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 18 . Department stores 2. Raw materials suppliers 3.individuals/organizations which is considerable to be “outside the market”. Consumer Council Stakeholders above are some examples of lead users of personal hygiene tools.

product(s) that sold the most . By analyzing this information. they may know customers’ behaviors such as which design of products can draw attention of customers the most or shopping habits of customers including frequency. customers’ behavior can be studied through collecting feedbacks from salespeople in the department store. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 19 . As the salespeople are the frontline people to deal with customers. etc.1. preference on the selection of product of customers can be understood. it will increase the efficiency of selling. Since each transaction of sales are recorded in computer system in the department stores . the stores can provide many useful sales data and transmit customers’ feedbacks to manufacturing companies. Department stores As personal hygiene tools will be sold in different departmental stores. Apart from statistical data. duration of shopping. statistical data of products such as the total volume sales per week/month. After grasping the information above. types of customers corresponding the products and so forth can be collected.

Consumer Council Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 20 . By tracking the market price of materials. more market information could be obtained and it would be much easier to do hedging. For example. material cost can always be kept constant by implementing appropriate hedging policies. 3. cost of materials can be lowered as discount can be enjoyed and the bargaining power would be increased if a partnership can be built. Raw Materials Suppliers As HDPE and stainless steel are main material used for producing personal hygiene multi-tools. tracking of market price of both materials and building a partnership relationship with suppliers should be done to lower the cost. if the price of stainless steel was forecasted to be increase in a few months. Besides.2. the volume of stainless steel should be purchased more than enough in this month to lower the effect of increasing cost and hence the selling price Through building a mutual trust with raw materials supplier.

html Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 21 . * http://www. A good reputation can be built and the quality of products can be assured if certified suppliers are used. But this aim can only be achieved by using hygienic tools.consumer.The basic performance of personal hygiene tool is to allow customers to maintain his or her personal hygiene. otherwise.org. Manufacturing company need to fulfill the requirement before selling their products to retailers. Consumer Council* has established a series of standard of tolerance of microorganism on personal hygiene tools. Retailers should reject any suppliers that cannot provide a supporting document of fulfilling the standard.hk/website/ws_en/news/press_releases/p318. For the manufacturing process. an adverbial effect would be obtained.

Conclusion To conclude. consumer council presenting strong needs will become general in the market in the future. raw materials suppliers. Building a partnership with suppliers can lower the material cost and while regulations of consumer council should be obeyed such that a good reputation can be built for the company. Department stores can provide consumers’ behavior and their preference on particular product. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 22 . department stores.

The PLC of personal hygiene multi-tool is sketched as below. maturity and decline.3 Product Life Cycle (PLC) Analysis The product life cycle model is commonly applied for designing. growth. By analyzing the existed market competitors and forecasting the trend of increasing travelers from years to years. it may owe to an uplifting rate of people who are looking for healthcare facilities that can help extend the life expectancy and thus improving their quality of life. From the graph. By analyzing 4 life cycle stages which are including introduction. to produce large production volume. manufacturing and marketing purpose. it can effectively help determine the suitable timings to launch the product. we can see that once the product comes to growth stages. we determine that the PLC of personal hygiene multitool is now staying at introduction stage (indicated by arrow). Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 23 . the trend of PLC curve is elicited from the dimensions of sale and time. the increasing rate becomes more stable and last for a long period before coming to maturity stage. as well as to redesign the next generation.2. Every product has its life cycle. at where sales keeps on rising but profit cannot be made at this stage.

Sales Introduction Growth Maturi ty Decline Time Figure 2.1.3. Product Life Cycle of Personal Hygiene Multi-tool Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 24 .

structural design.2.4 Competitor Analysis Typically. there are 4 main competitors in the market. Model Toothbrush Comb Shaver Nail clipper Picture Price (HKD) $15  Necessaries for all people $10  Necessaries for most of women  Low-weighted  Too tiny to search for when it is $18  Necessaries for most of men  Long stem. mobility and manufacturing materials. not easy to be stored in luggage $10  Necessaries for all people  Low-weighted  Too tiny to search for when it is Descriptions  Long stem. not easy to be stored in luggage Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 25 . in terms of price.

 Single-functional put into the handbag  Easy to store dust as if there is no protective cover  Single-functional  Low-weighted  Stem with non-slippery cover  Single-functional put into the handbag  The sharpness can be bunted if there is no protective cap  Single-functional Figure 2.1 Competitors in the market Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 26 . Low-weighted  Stem with non-slippery cover  Environmental unfriendly. it has to be discarded the whole toothbrush after prolonged usage.4.

2.5 Perceptual Map
Perceptual map is a market research tool applied to position the product against the competition. Facing to the dynamic market of walking aids, we should first position all competitors corresponding to the dimension of ease of control and number of function in order to identify a market place that best suit our product and therefore sharp our competitiveness.

By positioning the existed competitors in the perceptual map shown as below, we identify that by launching a new personal hygiene tool characterized as multifunctional would earn most market share. High Cost

Shaver Single Functions Toothbrush Comb Nail clipper Low cost Figure 2.5.1 Perceptual Map Personal hygiene multi-tool Multiple Functions

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2.6 Kano Model
Kano Model offers some insight into the product attributes which are perceived to be important to customers. The ideal product would include the Basic Quality, Performance Quality and Excitement Quality. All the product features and customer expectations are based on the basic functions of the product that are unspoken but assumed and concepts of customer quality which mapped their responses onto the model.

Figure 1 Kano Model

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The above diagram, fig 1.1, shows the Kano Model and items of the 3 types of quality features have been illustrated also.

For the Basic Quality, they are the unspoken but assumed features that the customer automatically expects. Items include the function of the product and attributes which must be present in order for the product to be successful. For the Performance Quality, they are spoken by the customer. The items are determined through market research and are directly correlated to customer satisfaction. For the Excitement Quality, they are unspoken new innovations which can delight customer. The items are attributes that are not normally expected and can give surprises to the customers.

Basic Quality  Low-weighted  Corrosion Resistance  Safe to use  Reasonable price  Multi-functional

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shaver. Since the tools will depreciate from time to time. nail clipper. a premium package consists of more variations of multi-tools will be planned to be sold in the market. To further elongate the product life cycle. Here is the suggested list of tools of the premium package: Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 30 . comb. Supplementary Package Personal hygiene multi-tool consists of 4 basic cleaning tools: toothbrush. Here are some descriptions of excitement quality. excitement quality will be the main focus as to make our product to be much competitive. a supplementary package consists of the same tools should be sold to customers to renew the tools.Performance Quality  Long service life  Warrant service  Non-slippery Excitement Quality  Supplementary Package  Changeable Skin Covers In this report.

As personal hygiene multi-tool is a brand new concept to the market. yellow. more variation in colors. the idea of premium package will be further developed by collecting feedbacks from customers after implementation of personal hygiene tool in the market. grey cover skins would be provided as to draw their attentions. such as white. To further strengthen this quality. Customers always show initiatives in choice selection. statistical data can be collected from the survey to show Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 31 . black. As most of the customers will receive the first impression from visual display. Changeable Colorful Skin Covers The color of the original skin cover is red.Scissors Mirror Female shaver Floss The concept of premium package is a tentative idea.

Increase the volume of production for the highest preference and stop the production line of the skin covers of the lowest preference. in order to boost the sales.the preference of the customer on colors. Moreover. the design of the skin cover can be outsourced such that more attractive design can be made in a lower cost Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 32 .

The tools are suitable for different users who are looking for convenient. easy-carrying. hopefully it could bring convenience to travelers and reduce the chance of leaving any tool. we look forward to supply the premium package for customers with a more variety of personal hygiene tools. convenience of personal hygiene multi tools can enter into this large potential market. there are millions of people who lose their personal hygiene tools during the trip. In other words. In order to differentiate our product and make it more competitive in market. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 33 . multi-functions etc.7 Marketing Summary Due to the increasing in number of travelers from years to years. Therefore. easy-cleaning.tool is a brand new product to the market. By conducting marketing research.2. which is built with multiple functions and ease to control. personal hygiene multi. we find that there are no similar types of products existing in the market.

4 Concept Generation 3.6 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 34 .2 Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 3.Chapter 3 Conceptual Design 3.3 Analysis 3.1 Introduction 3.5 Concept Screening 3.

1 Introduction After the survey conducted with the stakeholders identified. customer requirements were transformed into engineering requirements. different design criterions were further elaborated. which searched for creativity and excitements in the design without missing any of the basic needs from the survey conducted. interpretation and evaluation of the customers’ needs. In the concept generation and evaluation part.3. with the use of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD). Then. here we focused on the identification of the existing product and the concept generation and evaluation. and set the targets to be achieved in the design stage. which helped in ranking the needs from the customers. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 35 .

Also. which is mainly limited by technical capacities. helping us to compete with them. Correlation Matrix between Engineering requirements and Customer requirements: The aim of Correlation Matrix between engineering requirements and customer requirements is to translate the customer requirements into specific engineering requirements. QFD is divided into 5 sections. This allows us to understand customers’ voice more and helps us to determine objectives. QFD is used.2 Quality Function Deployment (QFD) To Link up technical requirements and customers’ requirements. 2. 1.3. and these sections will be applied through the process of concept generation and selection. Correlation Matrix among Engineering requirements: This is to evaluate the benefits and conflicts among engineering specification. which is vital in the concept generation phase. QFD provides insights on competitors’ products. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 36 . In this chapter.

in order to reflect the strengths and weaknesses of the generated concept. Engineering Competitive Assessment. Correlation Matrix among Engineering requirements. The following pages show the results of the Correlation Matrix between Engineering requirements and Customer requirements. 5. Marketing Competitive Assessment: The Marketing Competitive Assessment is to compare the customer requirements with other existing products or marketers. 4. in order to reflect the strengths and weaknesses of the concept generated. Correlation Matrix among Customer requirements: This is to evaluate the benefits and conflicts among customer specification. Correlation Matrix among Customer requirements.3. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 37 . Marketing Competitive Assessment. Engineering Competitive Assessment: The Engineering Competitive Assessment is to compare the engineering requirements with other existing products or marketers.

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 38 .1 Correlation Matrix between Engineering requirements and Customer requirements.Figure 3.2.

2.Figure 3.2 Correlation Matrix among engineering requirements Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 39 .

Figure 3.2.3 Correlation Matrix among customer requirements

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Figure 3.2.4 Marketing Competitive Assessment

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Figure 3.2.5 Engineering Competitive Assessment

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3. The customers do not show great concerns on this factor. Our group hence found 4 single function competitors for comparison: Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 43 . the chosen materials are light in weight and low in price.g. stainless steel is chosen for the nail chipper) For the market priorities. it is found that the materials used in different parts of the product are in great concern of customers. At the same time. there are no similar products compete with us. it is surprised that the life of the product resulted a low important factor. Although different materials are chosen for different parts. Hence. On the other hand. Since our product is new idea to the market. we found out that the design of nail chipper is the most important key factor to the product’s success.3 QFD Analysis: After constructing the QFD. the materials chosen can facilitate the functions of the product (e. this factor will not be enforced in the future steps. A detachable nail chipper with good nail-cutting effect providing all-in-one function is required.

For tooth brush: The competitor did a good job on the design of bristles and brush. we have done even better on the design and a great job on material chosen. For us. we are good at that of brush and the material chosen.Competitor#1: Nail chipper (NUK) Competitor#2: Shaver (Gillette) Competitor#3: Tooth brush (Colgate) Competitor#4: Comb (Clipper comb) For nail chipper: The competitor did a good job on the anti-slippery function and design. we have done a good job on the material chosen. For Shaver: The competitor did a good job on the design of blade and the holder. For us. For comb: The competitor did a good job on both length and material chosen. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 44 . We did well on the material chosen among plastic help reducing the crack rate. For us. on the other hand.

1 Concept generation chart Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 45 .4.4 Concept Generation The concepts were generated by Concept generation chart as below: Function/ Feature Hair care (Comb) Option 1 Flat Option 2 Round (full) Option 3 Round (half) Oral hygiene (Toothbrush) Mechanical (Rectangular) Mechanical (Round) Electrical Nail hygiene (Nail Chipper) Plastic Stainless steel Beard removal (Shaver) Electrical Mechanical (straight) Mechanical (safety) All in one Stored in box Pocket size (Swiss army knife) Non-slippery Plastic cover with non slippery patterns Rubber cover with non slippery patterns Cotton cloth Shape Rectangular Curve Figure 3.3.

The followings are the concepts generated by the concept generation chart: Function/ Feature Hair care (Comb) Oral hygiene (Toothbrush) Concept A Flat Concept B Flat Concept C Round (full) Concept D Round (half) Mechanical (rectangular) Mechanical (round) Mechanical (rectangular) Electrical Nail hygiene (Nail Chipper) Stainless steel Plastic Plastic Stainless steel Beard removal (Shaver) Mechanical (straight) Mechanical (safety) Mechanical (safety) Electrical All in one Pocket size (Swiss army knife) Stored in Box Pocket size (Swiss army knife) Stored in box Non-slippery Plastic cover with non slippery patterns Plastic cover with non slippery patterns Rubber cover with non slippery patterns Cotton cloth Shape Curve Rectangular Rectangular Curve Figure 3.4.2 Concept generated by the concept generation chart Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 46 .

Concept D is resulted a medium net score.5. Selection Criteria MAINTENANCE Get clean easily Has a long life span USAGE Light in weight Easy to carry Comfort during holding Easy to store Good nail cutting effect Good shaving effect Good oral cleaning effect Good combing effect APPEARANCE Suitable for wide variety of age group Attractive SAFETY Non-slippery Protection from sharp edges and points PRICE SUM OF +’s SUM OF 0’s SUM OF -’s NET SCORE RANK ACTION Concept A Concept B Concept C Concept D + + 0 0 - 0 0 + 0 + 0 + + + 7 4 4 3 1 Continue 0 0 0 0 0 0 + 1 8 6 -5 3 Refuse D A T U M + + + + + + + 7 0 8 -1 2 Figure 3. It can help to improve Concept A. So Concept A is out target direction for the design in the following stages.3. some parts can be improved and can be combined to enter the concept scoring.5 Concept Screening It is shown that apparently from the net scores Concept A is the best solution.1 Concept Screening Matrix on the 4 Design Concepts Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 47 . Since Concept B is resulted the lowest net score hence it is refused in this stage of design.

due to the concerns of size. so it is chosen. so the round (full) comb of Concept C is considered to replace the flat comb of Concept A. due to the concerns of size and ease of cleansing. due to the concerns of size and ease of cleansing. electrical one is rejected. As the rubber cover with non slippery patterns has no technical conflicts with the concept. - Concept D performs better than Concept A in terms of oral cleansing effect. electrical one is rejected. - Concept C performs better than Concept A in terms of combing effect. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 48 . so electrical shaver of Concept D is considered to replace the straight mechanical shaver of Concept A.Further evaluation and modification of the results: For continuous design of Concept A. - Concept C performs better than Concept A in terms of anti-slippery effect. so rubber cover with non slippery patterns is considered. the round (full) comb is rejected. However. - Concept B and Concept C also perform better than Concept A in terms of shaving effect and the mechanical (safety) shaver has no technical conflicts with the concept. so electrical tooth brush of Concept D is considered to replace the mechanical rectangular tooth brush of Concept A. some of the elements of other concepts are evaluated and combined with Concept A: - Concept D performs better than Concept A in terms of shaving effect. However. so mechanical (safety) shaver is chosen. However.

the followings are the elements of evaluated concept: Function/ Feature Hair care (Comb) Concept Flat Oral hygiene (Toothbrush) Mechanical (rectangular) Nail hygiene (Nail Chipper) Stainless steel Beard removal (Shaver) Mechanical (safety) All in one Pocket size (Swiss army knife) Non-slippery Rubber cover with non slippery patterns Shape Curve Figure 3.Hence.2 Finalized Design Concepts Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 49 .5.

To quantify the risk level associated with each potential failure mode. and identify actions to mitigate the failures. The main purposes of an FMEA are: - To identify possible failure modes that could occur in the design or manufacturing of a product. the development team should formulate as extensive a list of potential failure modes as possible. While anticipating every failure mode is not possible. To identify corrective actions that could reduce or eliminate the potential for failures to occur..6 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a structured analytical technique for assessing risk during product development to identify early corrective action. Methodology of FMFA: - Identify the potential failure of a system and its effect Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 50 .3. A crucial step is anticipating what might go wrong with a product. determine their effect on the operation of the product. To provide documentation of the process. It is used to identify potential failure modes.

Step 3 Define failure effects and give a severity number (S). Step 2 Determine all failure modes for each function. Step 4 Define failure causes and give an occurrence ranking (O). Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 51 .- Assess the failures to determine actions that eliminate the chance of occurrence Document the potential failures Benefits of FMEA - Early identification of problems “Right first time” design Reduced scrap Improved product reliability Reduced warranty returns Appropriate recommended actions may not have been taken Savings in engineering time Reduction of changes immediately before production start (Commercial Release) Steps for FMEA: Step 1 Identify the item functions of the product.

Occurrence. More design time and efforts should be allocated and dedicated to items with higher RPNs. Risk Priority Number (RPN) is calculated by multiplying these 3 numbers: RPN = S * O * D.6. Step 6 Calculate Risk Priority Number (RPN) = S x O x D. The failure modes that have the highest RPN should be given the highest priority for corrective action.6. Analysis Procedure of FMEA Figure 3. Step 7 Recommend actions for each failure mode. and Detection: Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 52 . The following is the detailed scale of Severity.Step 5 Define current controls and give a detection number (D).2 Rating Criteria of FMEA After giving all the ratings.1 Analysis Procedure of FMEA Rating Criteria of FMEA Effect of Failure How bad is it? SEVERITY Hardly Noticeable ↓ Dissatisfaction ↓ Serious Effects Cause of Failure How often? OCCURRENCE Almost Never ↓ Occasionally ↓ Often Design Controls What checks? DETECTION Absolutely Obvious ↓ Could Go Unnoticed ↓ Undetectable RATING 1 ↓ 5 ↓ 10 Figure 3.

Severity Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Occurrence Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Detection Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Description No effect Slight Dissatisfaction to Customer Moderate Dissatisfaction to Customer Significant Dissatisfaction to Customer Inconvenience to operate Difficult to operate of the device(s) Fail to operate of the device(s) Existence of potential risk to safety of the user Unapparent harmful to users Serious harmful to users Description Failure is unlikely Seldom: Relatively few failures Low: Relatively few failures Moderate: Occasional failures Moderate: Occasional failures Moderate: Occasional failures High: Frequent failures High: Frequent failures Very High: Persistent failures Very High: Persistent failures Description Almost Certain Very High High Moderately Moderate Low Very Low Remote Very Remote Absolute Uncertainty Figure 3. and Detection Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 53 .3 Detailed scale of Severity.6. Occurrence.

the highest the RPN is the cracks of the main body. It is suggested that by using a reasonably strong plastic help reducing the crack rate. sharp objects Uneven plating Unfit assemble 10 8 1 8 Using plastic Nail Clipper Coloring Fall away from the main body Fall away from the main body Fall away from the main body Cracks 5 5 1 1 50 40 Coloring several time Adjust assemble method with more accurate dimension Adjust assemble method with more accurate dimension Adjust assemble method with more accurate dimension Using plastic Shaver Tooth brush Comb The shaver falls It falls Break into several parts 5 5 8 Unfit assemble Unfit assemble Crash with other object when swing outwards Figure 3.FMEA Table Item Function Potential Failure Mode Potential Effect Severity rate Potential Causes Occurrence rate Detection RPN Recommended Action Main Body Cracks Break into several parts Bad outlook The clipper falls 8 Hardly crash 1 with hard.4 FMEA table 8 8 8 1 1 1 40 40 64 Implications From the table above.6. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 54 .

3 Design for Environment 4.2 Design for Recycling 4.1 Product Architecture 4.1 Design for Manufacturability 4.2.2 Design for X 4.2.2.3 Bill of Material Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 55 .Chapter 4 Preliminary Design 4.

1 Isometric View (Standard form) Expanded Form Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 56 . Figure 4.1.4.1 Product Architecture The following figures demonstrate the overview of the final assembly of the Personal Hygiene Multi-tool.

1.3 Top View of expanded form Figure 4.1.Figure 4.1.2: Isometric View (Standard form) Figure 4.5 Font View of expanded form Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 57 .4 Side View of expanded form Figure 4.1.

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 58 . All of the parts can be stored inside the body and can be turned around and be stored within the dimension of 85mm X 35mm X 34mm.Overview of the design: The personal hygiene multi-tool will have the following features: Way to assembly the tool : Nail clipper : Shaver : Tooth brush : Comb : Main body material : Features : Two blocks . to ensure balance support Free to rotate to use Detachable blades set plus a movable hand grip Detachable upper part plus a movable hand grip Movable comb up to 180 degrees High-density polyethylene (HDPE) 85mm X 35mm X 34mm Detail description: Way to store the multi-tool Two blocks act as main axis for four hygiene tools are used to affix them together. Two blocks can ensure the force is balance to support several parts and connect to each other.

6 Comb Figure 4.1. the comb. it does not rotate and move.1. Figure 4. The tool is stored within the body and is turned out when user need to use it.8 Tooth brush Figure 4. And the palm size of the body is comfortable for users’ hand to grip and hold firmly.1.9 Tooth brush Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 59 .Figure 4. The maximum rotation angle of the comb is 180 degrees so that when it is being used . The palm size 85mm X 35mm X 34mm is specially designed for users to hold as a hand grip.7 Comb (1) Comb This is the first functional tool in the multi hygiene tool.1.

11 Shaver (3) Shaver This is the third functional tool in the multi hygiene tool. The first part is the arm which is connected to the body. Figure 4. One is half of the hand grip which is connected to the body.10 Shaver Figure 4. When the shaver is not in use. another part consists of half hand grip plus the brush.1.(2) Tooth brush This is the second functional tool in the multi hygiene tool. it is convenient in case the razor blade does not work effectively. which can be connected to the half hand grip through the round connector. it connects to the razor blade and can hold it firmly.1. the tooth brush consist of two parts. The blade is detachable and can be brought in the market. The arm can turn 180 degrees only and in the front part of it. The detachable part is preferred because the brush can be bought and changed when it gets dirty. user can separate two parts and the detachable part can be stored inside the body. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 60 . Long body is preferred to ensure the contact to the whole oval.

1. When it is not in use. It is free to rotate up to 270 degrees.Figure 4.12 Nail Clipper Figure 4. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 61 . The tail of the nail clipper is fit and connected to the body by a main block.12 Nail Clipper (4) Nail clipper This is the fourth functional tool in the multi hygiene tool.1. it can be turned back inside the main body. The upper piece of metal of the nail clipper can flip over.

2 Components connected with the rod Position selection Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 62 . The benefit of this joint is easy to assemble and disassemble. as tight tolerance is used.1 Tight tolerance Figure 4.4. Moreover. the detachable components can be held tightly with the rod.2. Since supplementary packages of personal tools will be provided to customers.2.2 Design for X Design for assembly There are totally 4 major components namely nail clipper. it is very important to allow customers to manually replace the components easily. shaver. Figure 4. tooth brush and comb. The connection between each components and a connecting rod is U-shape joint with tight tolerance.

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 63 .Comb resides in a separate compartment of the main body as with size 65mm x 35mm x 3mm.2.3 Comb Figure 4.4 Comb 180 degrees of same plane rotation is selected since the functional part of flat comb is parallel to the comb body. it requires the largest area to allow rotation. Figure 4.2. Tooth brush resides in the other compartment of the main body but in a different cell to nail clipper and shaver because of hygiene concern.

Figure 4. This arrangement of rotation can facilitate reciprocating motion of shaving.5 Tooth brush Figure 4.2.2.6 Tooth brush Tooth brush holder rotates in the same fashion as comb as the joint between the brush and tooth brush holder is perpendicular to the main body.2.8 Shaver Shaver shares the same rotation fashion as tooth brush. Figure 4. This arrangement of rotation can facilitate reciprocating motion of tooth brushing. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 64 .2.7 Shaver Figure 4.

Figure 4. By 90 degree rotation.10 Nail Clipper Nail clipper resides in the same cell as shaver. nail clipper is used with ease and comfort.2. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 65 .2.9 Nail Clipper Figure 4.

combs. shaver holders. Also. Utilize Same Materials with same Manufacturing Process For the personal hygiene multi-tool. HDPE. connecting rod. mass production can be processed and hence production efficiency can be greatly increased and variable cost can be greatly reduced. Since main bodies. lower the cost and reduce the time of production. injection molding and processing can be used for manufacturing the components above. By injection molding.3 Design for Manufacturability Design for Manufacturability is the method that helps to produce the product in the best manufacturability. Utilize Common Parts and Materials Reducing the number of different parts can reduce idle time as the machines are idle when setting up for production of another part. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 66 .4. blade holders. I. it can maximized the capacity of factory and reduce fixed cost per unit. there are mainly three types of materials will be used: stainless steel. and tooth brush holders are made of HDPE. and rubber. II.

Other parts do not have tight tolerance.3. Large numbers of stainless stain product with great design flexibility can be manufactured. Avoid Unnecessarily Tight Tolerances To avid unnecessarily tight tolerances that are beyond the natural capability of the manufacturing processes. III. Figure 4. screw and hex nut casting will be adopted for manufacturing.1 Tight tolerance in a joint between a connecting rod and a concave surface of a shaver Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 67 .For remaining parts that are made of stainless steel. there will only be two joints for tight tolerance. This can help to reduce the cost of inspection since parts with tight tolerances are reduced. One joint is about connecting rod and concave connecting surface of each hygiene tool while the other is about the connecting rod and holes of front and bottom cover of the main body. blade of shaver. including nail shaver.

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 68 . Also.3. it should be easily checked by go/no-go tools for the dimension.Figure 4.2 Tight tolerance in a joint between a connecting rod and holes of font and bottom cover Design verifiability Design verifiability to the product and the component so that the components will not be wrongly attached and assembled and the production speed can be increased for the assembly part. thus the product can be easily attached and combined.

Design for recycling has two aims. To relieve effect of waste. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 69 .4. main body will be the only device that can be filled with different colors for providing excitement quality to suit more customers. For a personal hygiene multi-tool. for ease of transportation. The second one is to recommend the use of recyclable materials.4 Design for Recycling As some of the product might be consumable. some of main bodies may be redundant and finally being discarded. paper boxes are used for packing. recycling will be an important part for product design. This can prevent waste of materials. main bodies would be made of recyclable plastic HDPE so that the main bodies can be recycled and turned into many other useful things In addition. the first one is to reduce the use of toxic materials which might cause damage to the environment. However. As customers are encouraged to buy more main bodies with different colors. the paper boxes can be made of recycled paper such that it can save more papers and also the Earth.

4.1 and Figure 4.4.Figure 4.2 Recycling symbol for HDPE Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 70 .

For DFE.4. Therefore. It will be environmental friendly if we can use materials which Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 71 . the easiest way to achieve is to reduce the types of materials used in the product. packaging also cause lots of waste and will damage the environment. making the packaging part environmental friendly will be also essential to DFE and the use of materials of the package and the size should be as little as possible. only three types of material would be used and they are HDPE.5 Design for Environment Design for environment (DFE) is a general concept of product design which will make the design most environmental friendly. personal hygiene multi-tool. stainless steel and rubber. DFE is used to reduce waste and pollution produced by the product. For our product. design for environmental packaging. design for disposal or reuse. and also used to save the money which used for tackling the pollution problem or to handle the waste. There are several directions which can help to achieve DFE: design for environmental process and manufacturing. Apart from materials selection.

recycle paper would be used in making paper boxes for packing. For the personal hygiene tool.can be recycled. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 72 .

Material # Off Buy/Produce Verb Noun Description Nail clipper Shaver tooth brush Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 73 .Bill of Mate Assembly Main body Comb cover Separator Connecting rod Hex Nut Anti-slippery rubber cover a3 a4 k1 k2 a1 HDPE HDPE HDPE Stainless steel Rubber 2 1 2 2 2 Produce Produce Buy Buy Produce (Out source) Lever Upper cutter Lower cutter Pivot rod Fixer b1-L b1-UC b1-LC b1-P b1-F Stainless steel Stainless steel Stainless steel Stainless steel Stainless steel 1 1 1 1 1 Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy (Out source) Shaver holder Blade holder Blade b2-SH b2-BH b2-B HDPE HDPE Stainless steel 1 1 1 Buy Buy Buy hold hold allow shaver blade shaving allow blade detachment Replaceable apply facilitate facilitate facilitate connect force cutting cutting forceapplied cutters Fix upper and lower cutter together and allow rotation of the nail chipper Anti-slippery pattern present protect separate support fix prevent comb parts parts screw slippery Two pieces of rubber with anti-slippery patterns Separate nail clippers from shaver and tooth brush Two rods with screw pattern allow rotation of parts Name Part No.

replaceable length of teeth : 15mm Comb Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 74 .Tooth brush holder Brush b4-H b4-B a2 HDPE HDPE HDPE 1 1 1 Produce Buy Buy hold allow allow brush brushing combing Width: 5mm.

6 Floor Plan Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 75 .Chapter 5 Process Planning 5.5 Operation Chart 5.2 Assembly line layout design 5.4 Line balancing 5.1 Manufacturing method 5.3 Time Study (MTM) 5.

consisting Nail Clipper. Tooth Brush. the product contains five main components. Shaver and the Main body.1 Manufacturing Process Planning Manufacturing Methods From the specified product design. Comb. Each of the components is built upon certain parts as listed:  Nail Clipper: Lever – Stainless steel Upper cutter – Stainless steel Fixer – Stainless steel Lower cutter – Stainless steel Pivot rod – Stainless steel  Tooth Brush: Brush holder – HDPE Brush – HDPE  Comb: Comb – HDPE Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 76 .5.

which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape and then allowed to solidify. Shaver: Shaver holder – HDPE Blade holder – HDPE Blade – Stainless steel  Main body: Anti-slippery cover – HDPE Hex Nut – Stainless Steel Separator – HDPE Screw – Stainless Steel Comb cover – HDPE There are two major materials building up the “personal hygiene multi-tools”. namely stainless steel and HDPE plastic. which is ejected to complete the casting process. producing pasts of stainless steel would be using casting while HDPE with injection molding. Casting This is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold. The solidified part is known as a casting. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 77 . In general.

4. 3. It is a highly adaptable to the requirements of mass production. Certain metal alloys can be produced only as castings. Large numbers of a given casting can be produced quickly. When the liquid material is poured into the mold. Advantage of Casting 1. the cooling begins due to the heat transfer to the cooler mold. Great design flexibility. 2. Shows excellent bearing qualities.1.1 Casting Process Cooling process is crucial in a casting process. 5.Fig. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 78 . The cooling rate is controlled by the mold material.

Material is fed into a heated barrel. which expresses the amount of clamping force that the machine can exert. It can be manufactured by CNC machining or by using Electrical Discharge machining processes.Injection Molding This is a manufacturing process for producing parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 79 .1. 5. It holds the molds in which the components are shaped. or die. Mold. Presses are rated by tonnage. an injection ram. and a heating unit.2 Injection Molding Model An injection-molding machine consists of a material hopper. Fig. is a common term used to describe the tooling used to produce plastic parts in molding. This force keeps the mold closed during the injection process. mixed and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the mold cavity.

a holding pressure is maintained to compensate for material shrinkage In the next step.3 Die for Injection Molding Injection processing With injection molding. followed by the injection of the polymer into the mold cavity.1. the plastic is forced into a heated chamber. As the plunger advances. granular plastic is fed by gravity from a hopper into a headed barrel. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 80 . where it is melted. A typical injection molding cycle begins when the mold closes. Once the cavity is filled. 5. the melted plastic is forced through a nozzle that rests against the mold.Fig. The mold remains cold so the plastic solidifies almost as soon as the mold is filled. the screw turns. feeding the next shot to the front screw. allowing it to enter the mold cavity through a gate and runner system. the mold opens and the parts is ejected. Once the parts is sufficiently cool. As a screw-type plunger slowly moves the granules forward. This causes the screw to retract as the next shot is prepared.

1. 5.Fig.4 Injection Molding Machine Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 81 .

1.Back Cover Comb Separator Front Cover Tooth Brush Holder Blade Holder Shaver Holder Table 5.5 Parts design under Injection Molding Frames Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 82 .

They specialize in manufacturing various stainless steel and plastic products. Water mill.Outsourcing Information Nail Clipper Company: Yangdong Rongqianyi Hardware & Plastic Production Company Information Yangdong Rongqianyi Hardware & Plastic Product Factory is located near the Peral River Delta. Yangdong Country is onr of the national open areas. scissors. Automatic-polishing machine and others. eyelash clippers. They have advanced equipment of injection molding machine. They mainly manufacture stainless steel knives. stainless nail clippers. kitchen wares and plastic Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 83 . Sand mill. Ironware punching-machine.

Knife set. kitchen knife. Buyer Label Offered Guangdong 5000 Pieces 200000 Pieces / Month each in poly bag.Business Type Product/ Service Manufacturer Nail clipper. nipper. Household ware Number of Employee Total annual Sales Volume Contract manufacturing Place of Origin Min Order Supply Ability Packaging Detail Delivery Detail 101 – 500 people US$5 Million – US$10 Million OEM Service Offered. 12 pcs in a white box 25-30 days after confirmation order Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 84 . Kitchen ware. manicure set. Design Service Offered.

rubber handle razor. The company pays great attention to the design. Design Service Offered. razor blades 101 – 500 People US$ 1 Million – US$ 2.5 Millions OEM Service Offered.Blade Company: Ningbo Jiangbei Haixiang Hardware Plastic Factory Company Information Ningbo Jiangbei Haixiang Hardware Plastic Factory is a privately-owned enterprise integrating production with wholesale. ms shaving knife. Buyer Label Offered Zhejiang China 10000 Dozens 100000 Dozen / Day 12 Days Number of employees Total Annual Sales Volume Contract Manufacturing Place of Origin Min Order Delivery Ability Delivery Detail Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 85 . razor. Business Type Product/ Service Manufacturer Disposable razors. apprearance and coloring of one-off shavers.

Ltd Company Information Yangzhou Fivestar Toothbrush Co..Tooth Brush Company: YangZhou Fivestar Toothbrush Co. They are professional factory for toothbrushes and have many advanced equipment. 288pcs / outer carton 25 days after deposit Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 86 . established in 1999. Business Type Product Number of employees Total Annual Sales Volume Management Certification Contract Manufacturing Min Order Supply Ability Packaging Detail Delivery Detail Manufacturer Tooth brush for adults and children 101 – 500 People US$5 Million – US$10 Million ISO 9001:2000 OEM Service Offered 40000 Pieces 300000 Pieces / Month 1pc/ blister card.. 12pcs/ inner box. is a manufacturer of all kinds of high quality tooth brushes. Ltd.

2.1 Manufacturing Line 1 1B: Attaching Blade holder to Shaver holder.5.2 Assembly Line Layout Design Manufacturing Line 1: 1A: Attaching Blade to Blade holder. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 87 . 5. Fig.

Hex Nut and Antislippery cover 2B: Same as 2A Fig. Separator. 5.2.2 Manufacturing Line 2 Manufacturing Line 3: 3A: Hooking the Shaver and Brush component to the product and put the brush head into the dock 3B: Hooking the Comb and Nail Clipper to the product Fig.3 Manufacturing Line 3 Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 88 .Manufacturing Line 2: 2A: Building the Main body with the main body parts – Comb cover. 5. Screw.2.

3 Time Study (MTM) Assembly Line 1 – Station 1A Conveyor Direction Work Table 45cm 65cm Operator Fig.2 Layout Design for Station 1A Assembly Line 1 – Station 1B Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 89 .5. 5.3.

3.2 Layout Design for Station 1B Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 90 . 5.Work Table Conveyor Direction 45cm Operator 65cm Fig.

3 Layout Design for Station 2A Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 91 .3.Assembly Line 2 – Station 2A Conveyor Direction Work Table 45cm 65cm Operator Fig. 5.

Assembly Line2 – Station 2B Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 92 .

3.Work Table Conveyor Direction 45cm Operator 65cm Fig. 5.4 Layout Design for Station 2B Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 93 .

Assembly Line 3 – Station 3A Conveyor Direction Work Table 45cm 65cm Operator Fig.5 Layout Design for Station 3A Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 94 . 5.3.

6 Layout Design for Station 3B Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 95 . 5.Assembly Line 3 – Station 3B Work Table 45cm Operator 65cm Conveyor Direction Fig.3.

4. Workers work 8 hours a day Conveyor speed 0. 2.3 units 3.01 + 2 = 10.10 + 4.65meter / second Buffer time for production lines is 10% Standard rejection rate is 10% Standard Time Calculation: Standard Time in Manufacturing Line 1 TMU Second Total time 85.5.91 = 8.01 seconds 8. 3.9 + 136.4 = 222.01 seconds / product Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 96 .4 Line Balancing Production Scheduling Estimation Assumptions: 1.

6 units 6.77 = 13.59 seconds 13.82 + 6.59 = 36.8 units 8.59 + 2 = 15.5 + 188.27 seconds Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 97 .Standard Time in Manufacturing Line 2 TMU Second Total time 240.01 + 10.59 seconds / product Standard Time in producing one product: 10.67 seconds / product Standard Time in Manufacturing Line 3 TMU Second Total time 189.67 seconds 8.1 = 377.67 + 15.67 + 2 = 10.

Production rate = 3697 units / day Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 98 . To minus the standard rejection rate 10%. there will have another finished product ready. It is expected that for every 7 second (the time required for manufacturing station 3A). this is a bottleneck. 3697 products will be produced on each working day. There will have 28800 seconds of production time available per day. CT = 7 second Assume that workers will be working for 8 hours a day. it is expected that there will have 4108 products schedule to be produced per day. In accounting for the cycle time 7 seconds.Accounting for Cycle Time: Since Manufacturing Line 3 station 3A will be using longer time in producing a product. thus.

5 Operation Chart (Ln1) Fig.5.5.1 Operation Chart for Manufacturing Line 1 Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 99 . 5.

5.2 Operation Chart for Manufacturing Line 2 Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 100 .5.Operation Chart (Ln2) Fig.

3 Operation Chart for Manufacturing Line Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 101 .Operation Chart (Ln3) Fig. 5.5.

5.1 Factory Floor Design Layou Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 102 . 5.6.6 Master Floor Plan Fig.

which is at the center-top of the floor plan layout. HDPE raw material. and nail clipper and so forth will be placed near to the entrance ensuring the logistics of these items would not be affecting the production line processing. the factory floor consist of two main gates. According to the floor plan diagram.Floor Plan Description The factory floor design aims at providing a greater mobility for the entire manufacturing process in which to minimize the crossover of material and parts during the production in progress. one of the gates will be used as an entrance while another one will be used as an exit. All the manufacturing materials. from the bottom to top. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 103 . As the diagram suggested above. the entrance is on the left hand side. as shown in the figure above. line 2 or line 3. production line 1. The position of the production lines is aligned in one direction. one is to the left and another one is to the right. which is at the middle area of the factory floor. production line 3. such that the flow of the material/ the product will be in one main direction. Materials placed in this area will be directed to the respective production area. To ensure the smoothening of the material flow. brush head. to the final assembly process line. for the production of the hygiene multi-tools. which is at the center-bottom of the factory floor. This is The setting following the production sequence having the first assemble of parts at production line 1.

Then. ready to be shipped to the destination. the finished produced will be put to the loading area. inspection will be taken in the packaging area. will be put into packaging boxes.Once the product has finished the assembly. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 104 . in batch size. and once approved.

thus.1 Labor Cost It is expected to have 3697 products will be produced per day. the per unit labor cost will be $0. 1 2 320 Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 105 .6 Costing Direct Cost Labor Cost: Manufacturing line no of labor std wage/ day 2 3 2 2 320 320 Total $960 Standard Labor rate: HKD$ 20/ hour Table 6.26.

28 Shaver Shaver holder Blade holder Blade HDPE HDPE Stainless steel HDPE HDPE HDPE 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.1 78 x 5 x 5 35 x 10 x 2.8 9.2 0.03 0.2 2.0023 0.78 0.5 1.5 x 94 12.Material Cost: Assembly Main body Name Material # Off Buy/ Produce Dimension (mm) Volune (mm3) Weight (g) Cost Comb cover Separator Screw Hex Nut Anti-slippery cover HDPE HDPE Stainless steel Stainless steel HDPE Stainless steel Stainless steel Stainless steel Stainless steel Stainless steel 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Produce Produce Buy Buy Produce (Out source) Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy (Out source) Produce Produce Buy Produce Buy Produce 85 x 35 x 3 85 x 35 x 3.477 tooth brush Tooth brush holder Brush Comb Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 106 .8 0.6 2.001 0.004 0.5 2.9 Total 0.6 6. inner: 13.87 1950 875 1500 3750 2500 5250 16.5 30 x 10 x 5 75 x 10 x 5 50 x 10 x 5 60 x 35 x2.6 x 33 85 x 35 x 1 11 x 25 x 1 10 x 31 x 1 10 x 31 x 1 14.6 x 4.5 2.8 12 3.25 0.5 x 10 outer: 16 x 4.043 0.4 4.2 6.006 1.1 1.017 Nail clipper Lever Upper cutter Lower cutter Pivot rod Fixer 0.006 0.5 8925 9771 415 2975 275 310 310 145 9. 18 x 0.1.011 0.

the per unit labor cost will be $0. (15% of labor cost) Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 107 .004/ piece Table6.2/kg Screw: USD$0.02/unit Material Overhead: HKD$0. Indirect Cost Packaging: HKD$20/ 1000units.05/ piece Hex Nut: USD$20/ 5000 pieces. HKD$0.835. thus. (8% of material cost) Labor Overhead: HKD$0.118/unit.HDPE: HKD $11. $0.2 Material Cost Machine Cost: no of machine 8 machine hour 8 machine cost 3072 Total 3072 Standard Machine Cost: HKD$48 / hour Table6.39/unit.3 Machine Cost It is expected to have 3697 products will be produced per day.

03 + 0.39 + 2 + 0.26 + 1.477 + 0.1/unit.4 Expected Revenue 26000 Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 108 . Total Cost: HKD$ (0.1) = HKD$5.835 + 0.Selling and Administrative Expenses: HKD$2/unit. (estimate) Transportation: HKD$500/shipment (5000 products to be shipped).2/ unit Expected Revenue Cost Total Cost Revenue Total Revenue @ x5000 @ x5000 5.118 + 0. HKD0.2 26000 Gross Profit Table6.

1 Packaging 7.3 Packaging Arrangement Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 109 .Chapter 7 Packaging and Logistics 7.2 Packaging Design 7.

Second. packaging is an essential step. Figure 7.1. good packaging can attract customer. it helps in product protection.1. boost up the sales and hence benefit our company. stickers. hence guarantee the profit of the business.3 Expanded Polystyrene Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 110 .1 Packaging For the manufacturing of a product. Good protection to the product lowers the damage from accident such as shock damages during delivery. First. The available materials used as a package includes paper box.7.1 Paper Box Figure 7. expanded polystyrene and other which can provide adequate protection to product and components. Therefore. appropriate protection measure can be act as a shelter for the products.

there are 3 slots. After those 3 components are put into the expanded polystyrene box.2 Packaging Design In the design of packaging.2.7. paper box and expanded polystyrene box.1 Layout of Expanded Polystyrene Box Figure 7. For the expanded polystyrene box.2.2 Layout of Paper Box Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 111 . The two small slots are those for the refill components: the brush and the blade. there are two components. The largest one is the slots for the complete personal hygiene multi-tool. the expanded polystyrene box is slide into the paper box. The design and processes are shown below. Figure 7.

3 Drawing of the Expanded Polystyrene Box Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 112 .Figure 7.2.

2.Figure 7.3 Drawing of the Paper Box Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 113 .

2.Figure 7.4 The designed Box Set Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 114 .

The product is packed in the dimensioned box in 6. Afterwards. the product is packed.3 Packaging Arrangement For easing the burden of delivering cost.5cm (width height): length The packed products are grouped as follow: Figure 7.7.3.8cm x 10cm x 5. the process of logistics has to be taken into consideration.1 Package Box arrangement Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 115 .

1 Secondary arrangement of package box with pallets Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 116 . 324 products are delivered in one time. Hence.During the logistics process. The dimension (without the pallet): 27.5cm 90cm The detail showed as follow: Figure 7.3. the pallet is used for containing 18 groups of packed boxes of product as above for one time delivering.2cm 40.

the last step is to initiate the 3D printer to print the design layer by layer. In the process. a prototype is made in order to have to see whether the design feasible in reality. mainly two machines are involved: Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 117 . There are generally three steps in order to produce a prototype. the next step is convert the 3-dimension CAD drawing into horizontal crosssections by 3D printing software. The first step is to design the product and firm the dimensions of the whole products including all the parts in CAD models.8 Prototyping Before the product is massive produced.

3D Printer 2.1 3D Printer Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 118 .1. Powder Recycling Station Figure 8.

Figure 8.2 3D printing software

A CAD model was first designed and built with consultation from Mr. Leung. Then, the model is simulated as the situation as inside the 3D printer with a limitation of dimensions 20 cm X 20 cm X 25cm. Then, commands were given to the 3D printer to print the model in reality. The prototype is made by the 3D printer layer by layer, the machine sprays glue on one layer’s particular area of powder, so the next layer’s powder can adhere on the previous layer, and other steps are done with the same concept. After few hours, the prototype product is then done.
Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 119

Figure 8.3 Mr. Leung was teaching us how to make the prototype

Tools were used to dig the prototype out instead of bare hands as the prototype was so fragile that it would be easily collapsed. A soft brush was used to remove layer of non-adhered powder from top to bottom, during the process of removing powder, the prototype was gradually being seen. To avoid damage to the prototype, it is suggested to familiar ourselves of how the prototype had been printed and located on the box of powder. It can be seen on the software how it looks and locates so that we could arrange and remove the layers of powder carefully in some particular areas.

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Figure 8.4 A soft brush was used in the process

Once the prototype was extracted , then it was essential to add the AA glue to the surface of the prototype. Though the prototype was adhered by the 3D printer, it was still very fragile, so AA glue must be applied on it to make it stable. One skill to apply AA glue is to put ‘X’ shape glue on the prototype’s surface, as it can strengthen the prototype and can prevent it from cracking due to the tension created when glue is applied. Also, in the process, the bottom part where the prototype was on was raised up gradually in order to remove the powder gradually. It is not supposed to rise up too fast as it may cause damage to the prototype.

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5 AA glue is strong enough to adhere the prototype Then. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 122 . the prototype part is done. After all the extra powder was removed. An air gun was used to further remove the excessive powder on it. when the prototype could be stable enough to take it out. The benefit of using this particular machine is that no harmful powder flying everywhere in the room and the excessive powder can be collected and reused. it was transfer another machine called powder recycling station with a closed area.Figure 8.

Mask should be put on since there are many harmful substances producing in the process including the 3D printing powder and irritating AA glue. 1. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 123 . there are some measures we have to take to prevent dangerous situation.6 The prototype was gradually extracted out Precautions: Though the production of prototype is simple.Figure 8. 2. however. Google should be put on since irritating AA glue makes human eyes uncomfortable and irritating.

6.B.Agenda of the 1st meeting of group 2 Date: 18th October 2010 Time: 7:00 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Agenda: 1. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 124 . 3. Selection of team leader and clarify his/ her roles and duties Assignment of task owners and clarify his/ her roles and duties Define the most effective way to handle and gather the work Discuss the time assigned for each small task The date to discuss after all gather the needed information A.O. 4. 2. 5.

Item 2 Assignment of task owners and clarify his/ her roles and duties Each task was assigned to one specific member .Minutes of the 1st meeting of group 2 Date: 18th October 2010 Time: 7:00 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Attendence: Wan Nok Him (Chairperson) Tse Po Fung Wong Ka Lai Janet Wong Kam Kwan Lo Kui Lun (Secretary) Item 1 Selection of team leader and clarify his/ her roles and duties Him was elected to be the team leader for Product Description. Key business goal. assumptions: Production schedule: Possible make up material: Janet Him Tsepo Alan Henry Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 125 . description and problem statement: Market segment. demographic: Specification.

Gather the needed information do Stakeholders. Item 4 Discuss the time for each task 23/10/2010 4p. needs statements together. 6. customer requirements. we should specific another days to finish the task together with all member present. customer requirements. needs statements together. – 9p. – 9p. customer requirements. Item 5 The date to discuss after all gather the needed information 23/10/2010 4p.m. to avoid any irrelevance of each part.m. needs statements: All members Item 3 Define the most effective way to handle and gather the work For each part’s information is gathered.m.Stakeholders.m. Next meeting: 23/10/2010 4:00pm Date: 20th October 2010 Time: 3:30 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Signiture of Chairman: __________ Signiture of Secretary: __________ Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 126 . Gather the needed information do stakeholders. AOB There being no further business. the meeting closed at 10:00pm.

11. 10. 12.B Date and venue of next meeting Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 127 . 8. 9.Agenda of the 2nd meeting of group 2 Date: 20th October 2010 Time: 3:30 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Agenda: 7. To adopt and receive the agenda To adopt and receive the previous minutes To report the questionnaire result To discuss the design of the product A.O.

Minutes of the 2nd meeting of group 2 Date: 20th October 2010 Time: 3:30 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Attendence: Wan Nok Him (Chairperson) Tse Po Fung Wong Ka Lai Janet (Secretary) Wong Kam Kwan Lo Kui Lun Item 1 To adopt and receive the agenda Item 2 To adopt and receive the previous minutes Item 3 To report the result of the questionnaire the result of the questionnaire was collected and the data was analyzed. ACTIONS: Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 128 . Item 4 To discuss the design of the product A hygiene multi-tool was decided.

Lo Kui Lun Marketing research: Wong Ka Lai Janet. Wan Nok Him Customer requirement analysis: Wong Kam Kwan Item 5 Date and venue of next meeting Date: 27th October 2010 Time: 10:00 am Venue: HW 1-6B Signiture of Chairman: __________ Signiture of Secretary: __________ Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 129 .The needs recognition and product estimation: Tse Po Fung.

Agenda of the 3rd meeting of group 2 Date: 27th October 2010 Time: 10:00 am Venue: HW 1-6B Agenda: 1. 4. To adopt and receive the agenda To adopt and receive the previous minutes To discuss about which preliminary Design should be used as final design A. 5. 2.B Date and venue of next meeting Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 130 . 3.O.

3rd meeting minutes of group 2 Date: 27th October 2010 Time: 10:00 am Venue: HW 1-6B Attendance: Wan Nok Him (Chairperson) Tse Po Fung Wong Ka Lai Janet (Secretary) Wong Kam Kwan Lo Kui Lun Item 1 To adopt and receive the agenda Item 2 To adopt and receive the previous minutes Item 3 To discuss the potential preliminary Design ACTIONS: Process Charts. Wong Ka Lai Janet Website design: Lo Kui Lun Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 131 . Standard Cost : Wan Nok Him. Standard Time.

Solidworks model: Tse Po Fung Design sketch and Manufacturing requirements: Wong Kam Kwan Item 4 Date and venue of next meeting Date: 20th Nov 2010 Time: 5:00 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Signiture of Chairman: __________ Signiture of Secretary: __________ Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 132 .

O. 6. 4. 2.Agenda of the 4th meeting of group 2 Date: 20th Nov 2010 Time: 5:00 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Agenda: 1. 3. 5. To adopt and receive the agenda To adopt and receive the previous minutes To discuss about Manufacturing requirements and design sketch To discuss parts on final design A.B Date and venue of next meeting Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 133 .

Wong Kam Kwan Solidworks model and CAD model: Tse Po Fung.4th meeting minutes of group 2 Date: 20th Nov 2010 Time: 5:00 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Attendance: Wan Nok Him (Chairperson) Tse Po Fung Wong Ka Lai Janet (Secretary) Wong Kam Kwan Lo Kui Lun Item 1 To adopt and receive the agenda Item 2 To adopt and receive the previous minutes Item 3 To discuss about Manufacturing requirements and design sketch ACTIONS: Process Charts. Standard Cost: Wan Nok Him Website update: Lo Kui Lun. Wong Ka Lai Janet Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 134 . Standard Time.

QFD and FMEA: Tse Po Fung. Wan Nok Him Item 4 Date and venue of next meeting Signiture of Chairman: __________ Signiture of Secretary: __________ Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 135 .

To adopt and receive the previous minutes To discuss about the website design To discuss parts on final design To discuss about the presentation A.Agenda of the 5th meeting of group 2 Date: 5th January 2011 Time: 3:00 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Agenda: 1. To adopt and receive the agenda 2.O.B Date and venue of next meeting Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 136 . 3. 6. 5. 4. 7.

for example.5th meeting minutes of group 2 Date: 5th January 2011 Time: 3:00 pm Venue: HW 1-6B Attendance: Wan Nok Him (Chairperson) Tse Po Fung Wong Ka Lai Janet (Secretary) Wong Kam Kwan Lo Kui Lun Item 1 To adopt and receive the agenda Item 2 To adopt and receive the previous minutes Item 3 To discuss the potential preliminary Design ACTIONS: Presentation: Introduction. Design. and conclusion: Wan Nok Him Design concept. the conceptual design: Tse Po Fung Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 137 .

for example.Preliminary Design details. CAD model: Wong Ka Lai Janet Website design: Lo Kui Lun Item 4 Date and venue of next meeting Date: 12th Feb 2010 Time: 10:00 am Venue: HW 1-6B Signiture of Chairman: __________ Signiture of Secretary: __________ Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 138 .

B Date and venue of next meeting Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 139 . 7.O. 2. 3. To adopt and receive the agenda To adopt and receive the previous minutes To evaluate the past presentation performance To discuss parts on prototype To discuss about the content of final report A. 6. 4. 5.Agenda of the 6th meeting of group 2 Date: 12th Feb 2010 Time: 10:00 am Venue: HW 1-6B Agenda: 1.

time study: Wong Ka Lai Janet. and the questionnaire: Wong Kam Kwan Preliminary design. Tse Po Fung Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 140 .6th meeting minutes of group 2 Date: 10nd Feb 2010 Time: 1500 Venue: HW1-6B Attendance: Wan Nok Him (Chairperson) Tse Po Fung Wong Ka Lai Janet (Secretary) Wong Kam Kwan Lo Kui Lun Item 1 To adopt and receive the agenda Item 2 To adopt and receive the previous minutes Item 3 To evaluate the past presentation performance Item 4 To discuss about the content of final report ACTIONS: Survey results.

Manufacturing process. Process plan: Wan Nok Him Prototype. Tse Po Fung BOM. final product order size: Lo Kui Lun Signiture of Chairman: __________ Signiture of Secretary: __________ Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 141 .Product architecture: Wong Ka Lai Janet.

Appendix 1 Survey form Appendix 2 Survey Result Appendix 3 Purpose of Conducting Survey Appendix 4 CAD Model Appendix 5 Gantt Chart Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 142 .

Appendix 1 Survey Form Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 143 .

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 144 .

Appendix 2 Survey Result Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 145 .

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 146 .

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 147 .

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 148 .

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 149 .

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Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 152 . the basic qualities. with the needed information. we have to utilize survey’s results to cater the needs of potential users in the aspects of designs and functions. Also. opinion are relatively more important. Method and reason 1500 people were selected to conduct the survey . performance qualities and excitement qualities can be then identified and implemented in the design of the product.Appendix 3 Purpose of Conducting Survey The main purpose of conducting the survey has few main reasons: • • • to collect potential users’ expectation to collect useful innovation ideas for the product to collect potential users’ personal information In order to introduce a popular design into the market. We chose the three places because this three place are intensified with people who take transport and travel a lot. because the population density is high and has a higher chance to meet our potential customers (travellers and businessmen). in which 500 in Hung Hom Station. Central ferry pier and the Chap Lap Kok international airport. in which their ideas.

the average score mentioned in survey result of question 12 which is the relative importance to customers is transformed into ranking. Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 153 . the aim is to produce a product which is suitable and acceptable for most of the potential customers. The tool should be better than the one they are using daily. The relation of Customer Requirements and the results of the surveys is that the results are transformed into customer requirement. Results and conclusion from the survey result: 1. 3. They stress the need for a tool of multi purpose. All of them were given a questionnaire and were guided to fill the blanks and tick the boxes. In order to make the results of the questionnaire more precise with respect to surveyor’s opinion. Most of the potential users are aged between 18 and 45. All of the terms were explained to those who were not clear about that. 2. Convenience of the tool in term of size. we would not give them any suggested answer unless they requested to explain the ambiguity.500 people were invited to conduct the survey. weight and replace ability. 4.

Assembly Final Assembly Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 154 . all the drawing and 3D model of components are shown.Appendix 4 CAD Model In the following.

Tooth brush Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 155 .Sub assembly 1.

Nail clipper Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 156 .2.

3. Shaver

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool

Page 157

4. Main body

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool

Page 158

Components

1. Components of tooth brush a. Brush

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool

Page 159

Tooth brush holder Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 160 .b.

Components of nail clipper a. Lower cutter Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 161 .2.

b. Upper cutter Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 162 .

c. Lever Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 163 .

d. Pivot rod Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 164 .

e. Fixer Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 165 .

3. Component of shaver a. Shaver holder Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 166 .

Blade holder Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 167 .b.

Blade Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 168 .c.

Comb Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 169 .4.

Anti-slippery cover(bottom) Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 170 .5. Main body Components of main body a.

b. Comb cover Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 171 .

Separator Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 172 .c.

d. Anti-slippery cover(top) Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 173 .

Screw Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 174 .e.

Hex nut Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 175 .f.

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 176 .

Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 177 .

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Personal Hygiene Multi Tool Page 179 .

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