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The information listed here is to assist Network Administrators in the color coding of Ethernet cables. Please be aware that modifying Ethernet cables improperly may cause loss of network connectivity. Use this information at your own risk, and insure all connectors and cables are modified in accordance with standards. The Internet Centre and its affiliates .cannot be held liable for the use of this information in whole or in part
T-568A Straight-Through Ethernet Cable
The TIA/EIA 568-A standard which was ratified in 1995, was replaced by the TIA/EIA 568-B standard in 2002 and has been updated since. Both standards define the T-568A and T-568B pin-outs for using Unshielded Twisted Pair cable and RJ-45 connectors for Ethernet connectivity. The standards and pin-out specification appear to be related and .interchangeable, but are not the same and should not be used interchangeably
T-568B Straight-Through Ethernet Cable
Both the T-568A and the T-568B standard Straight-Through cables are used most often as patch cords for your Ethernet connections. If you require a cable to connect two Ethernet devices directly together without a hub or when you connect two hubs together, you will need .to use a Crossover cable instead
RJ-45 Crossover Ethernet Cable
A good way of remembering how to wire a Crossover Ethernet cable is to wire one end using the T-568A standard and the other end using the T-568B standard. Another way of remembering the color coding is to simply switch the Green set of wires in place with the Orange set of wires. Specifically, switch the solid Green (G) with the solid Orange, and switch .the green/white with the orange/white :Ethernet Cable Instructions Pull the cable off the reel to the desired length and cut. If you are pulling cables.1 through holes, its easier to attach the RJ-45 plugs after the cable is pulled. The total length of wire segments between a PC and a hub or between two PC's cannot exceed 100 Meters (328 feet) for 100BASE-TX and 300 Meters for .10BASE-T Start on one end and strip the cable jacket off (about 1") using a stripper or a.2 .knife. Be extra careful not to nick the wires, otherwise you will need to start over Spread, untwist the pairs, and arrange the wires in the order of the desired cable.3 end. Flatten the end between your thumb and forefinger. Trim the ends of the wires so they are even with one another, leaving only 1/2" in wire length. If it is longer than 1/2" it will be out-of-spec and susceptible to crosstalk. Flatten and .insure there are no spaces between wires Hold the RJ-45 plug with the clip facing down or away from you. Push the wires.4 firmly into the plug. Inspect each wire is flat even at the front of the plug. Check the order of the wires. Double check again. Check that the jacket is fitted right against the stop of the plug. Carefully hold the wire and firmly crimp the RJ-45 .with the crimper Check the color orientation, check that the crimped connection is not about to.5 come apart, and check to see if the wires are flat against the front of the plug. If even one of these are incorrect, you will have to start over. Test the Ethernet .cable :Ethernet Cable Tips .A straight-thru cable has identical ends • .A crossover cable has different ends • .A straight-thru is used as a patch cord in Ethernet connections • A crossover is used to connect two Ethernet devices without a hub or for • .connecting two hubs A crossover has one end with the Orange set of wires switched with the Green • .set
Odd numbered pins are always striped, even numbered pins are always solid • .colored Looking at the RJ-45 with the clip facing away from you, Brown is always on the • .right, and pin 1 is on the left No more than 1/2" of the Ethernet cable should be untwisted otherwise it will be • .susceptible to crosstalk Do not deform, do not bend, do not stretch, do not staple, do not run parallel with • .power cables, and do not run Ethernet cables near noise inducing components :Basic Theory
By looking at a T-568A UTP Ethernet straight-thru cable and an Ethernet crossover cable with a T-568B end, we see that the TX (transmitter) pins are connected to the corresponding RX (receiver) pins, plus to plus and minus to minus. You can also see that both the blue and brown wire pairs on pins 4, 5, 7, and 8 are not used in either standard. What you may not realize is that, these same pins 4, 5, 7, and 8 are not used or required in 100BASE-TX as well. So why bother using these wires, well for one thing its simply easier to make a connection with all the wires grouped together. Otherwise you'll be spending time trying to fit those tiny little wires into each of the .corresponding holes in the RJ-45 connector
Cat 6- Category - 6, (ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2-1) is a cable standard for Gigabit Ethernet and other network protocols that is backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards. Cat-6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. The cable standard provides performance of up to 250 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet). It is expected to suit the 10GBASE-T (10Gigabit Ethernet) standard, although with limitations on length if unshielded Cat 6 cable is used. The cable contains four twisted copper wire pairs, just like earlier copper cable standards. Although Cat-6 is sometimes made with 23 gauge wire, this is not a requirement; the ANSI/TIA-568-B.2-1 specification states the cable may be made with 22 to 24 AWG gauge wire, so long as the cable meets the specified testing standards. When used as a patch cable,
Cat-6 is normally terminated in 8P8C often referred to as "RJ-45" electrical connectors. Some Cat-6 cables are too large and may be difficult to attach to 8P8C connectors without a special modular piece and are technically not standard compliant. If components of the various cable standards are intermixed, the performance of the signal path will be limited to that of the lowest category. As with all cables defined by TIA/EIA-568-B, the maximum allowed length of a Cat-6 horizontal cable is 90 meters (295 feet). A complete channel (horizontal cable plus cords on either end) is allowed to be up to 100 meters in length, depending upon the ratio of cord length:horizontal cable length. The cable is terminated in either the T568A scheme or the T568B scheme. It doesn't make any difference which is used, as they are both straight through (pin 1 to 1, pin 2 to 2, etc). Mixing T568A-terminated patch cords with T568B-terminated horizontal cables (or the reverse) does not produce pinout problems in a facility. Although it may very slightly degrade signal quality, this effect is marginal and certainly no greater than that produced by mixing cable brands in-channel. To connect two Ethernet units of the same type and function in a peer-to-peer connection (Personal Computer to Personal Computer, or hub to hub, for example) a cross over cable should be used, though some modern hardware can utilize either type of cable automatically. The T568B Scheme is by far the most widely used patch cable (straight through) method of terminating the cables. For crossover cables, one end should be wired using the T568A scheme and the other end should be wired using the T568B scheme. This will ensure that the Transmit (TX) pins on both ends are wired through to the Receive (RX) pins on the other end. Crossover is used for hub to hub, computer to computer, wherever two-way communication is necessary. (not needed for client-server communication)
8P8C Wiring (TIA/EIA-568-A T568A) Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 3 2 1 1 2 4 Pair 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 Wire Color white/green green white/orange blue white/blue orange white/brown
8P8C Wiring (TIA/EIA-568-B T568B) Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 2 3 1 1 3 4 4 Pair 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Wire Color white/orange orange white/green blue white/blue green white/brown brown
 Augmented Category 6 (Category 6a)
The TIA is working to complete a new specification that will define enhanced performance standards for unshielded twisted pair cable systems. Draft specification ANSI/TIA/EIA-568B.2-10 specifies cable systems, called "Augmented Category 6" or more frequently as "Category 6a", that operate at frequencies up to 500 MHz and will provide up to 10 Gbit/s bandwidth. The new specification has limits on alien crosstalk in cabling systems. Augmented Category 6 specifies cable operating at minimum frequency of 500 MHz, for both shielded and unshielded. It can support future 10 Gbit/s applications up to the maximum distance of 100 meters on a 4-connector channel.
 External links
• • •
Cat 6 FAQ De-Mystifying Cabling Specifications From 5e to 7A An Overview of 10GBASE-T or 'Why we need Cat6a as well as Cat6'
Unshielded & Shielded Twisted Pair Cabling Standards
• • • • • • • • •
Cat 1: Currently unrecognized by TIA/EIA. Previously used for POTS telephone communications, ISDN and doorbell wiring. Cat 2: Currently unrecognized by TIA/EIA. Previously was frequently used on 4 Mbit/s token ring networks. Cat 3: Currently defined in TIA/EIA-568-B, used for data networks using frequencies up to 16 MHz. Historically popular for 10 Mbit/s Ethernet networks. Cat 4: Currently unrecognized by TIA/EIA. Provided performance of up to 20 MHz, and was frequently used on 16 Mbit/s token ring networks. Cat 5: Currently unrecognized by TIA/EIA. Provided performance of up to 100 MHz, and was frequently used on 100 Mbit/s ethernet networks. May be unsuitable for 1000BASE-T gigabit ethernet. Cat 5e: Currently defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. Provides performance of up to 100 MHz, and is frequently used for both 100 Mbit/s and gigabit ethernet networks. Cat 6: Currently defined in TIA/EIA-568-B. It provides performance of up to 250 MHz, more than double category 5 and 5e. Cat 6a: Future specification for 10 Gbit/s applications. Cat 7: An informal name applied to ISO/IEC 11801 Class F cabling. This standard specifies four individually-shielded pairs (STP) inside an overall shield. Designed for transmission at frequencies up to 600 MHz.
See also: TIA/EIA-568-B • Ethernet • 8P8C • Ethernet crossover cable • Twisted pair
Guidelines for Proper Wiring of an RS-485 (TIA/EIA-485-A) Network
Abstract: The proper method of wiring an RS-485 network is described, with recommendations for twisted-pair cabling and correctly locating termination resistors. Received waveforms are shown for examples of proper and improper cable termination. Configurations are shown for a simple, singletransmitter/multiple receiver network through multiple transceiver to multibranched circuits. This application note provides basic guidelines for wiring an RS-485 network. The RS-485 specification (officially called TIA/EIA-485-A) does not specifically explain out how an RS-485 network should be wired. The specification does, nonetheless, give some guidelines. These guidelines and sound engineering practices are the basis of this note. The suggestions here, however, are by no means inclusive of all the different ways that a network can be designed. RS-485 transmits digital information between multiple locations. Data rates can be up to, and sometimes greater than, 10Mbps. RS-485 is designed to transmit this information over significant lengths, and 1000 meters are well within its capability. The distance and the data rate with which RS485 can be successfully used depend a great deal on the wiring of the system.
RS-485 is designed to be a balanced system. Simply put, this means there are two wires, other than ground, that are used to transmit the signal.
Figure 1. A balanced system uses two wires, other than ground, to transmit data. The system is called balanced, because the signal on one wire is ideally the exact opposite of the signal on the second wire. In other words, if one wire is transmitting a high, the other wire will be transmitting a low, and vice versa. See Figure 2.
Figure 2. The signals on the two wires of a balanced system are ideally opposite. Although RS-485 can be successfully transmitted using multiple types of media, it should be used with wiring commonly called "twisted pair."
What Is Twisted Pair, and Why Is It Used?
As its name implies, a twisted pair is simply a pair of wires of equal length and twisted together. Using an RS-485-compliant transmitter with twisted-pair wire reduces two major sources of problems for designers of high-speed long-distance networks: radiated EMI and received EMI.
As shown in Figure 3, high-frequency components are present whenever fast edges are used in transmitting information. These fast edges are necessary at the higher data rates at which RS-485 is capable of transmitting.
Figure 3. Waveform of a 125kHz square wave and its FFT plot.
The resultant high-frequency components of these fast edges coupled with long wires can radiate EMI. A balanced system used with twisted-pair wire reduces this effect by making the system an inefficient radiator. It works on a very simple principle: as the signals on the wires are equal but opposite, the radiated signals from each wire will also tend to be equal but opposite. This has the effect of canceling each other, meaning that there is no net radiated EMI. However, this result is based on the assumption that the wires are exactly the same length and in exactly the same location. Because it is impossible to have two wires in the same location at the same time, the wires should be positioned as close to each other as possible. Twisting the wires so there is a finite distance between the two wires helps counteract any remaining EMI.
Received EMI is basically the same problem as radiated EMI but in reverse. The wiring used in an RS485 system will also act as an antenna that receives unwanted signals. These unwanted signals could distort the desired signals, which, if bad enough, can cause data errors. For the same reason that twisted-pair wire helps prevent radiated EMI, it also helps reduce the effects of received EMI. Because the two wires are close together and twisted, the noise received on one wire will tend to be the same as that received on the second wire. This type of noise is referred to as "common-mode noise." As RS485 receivers are designed to look for signals that are the opposite of each other, they can easily reject noise that is common to both.
Characteristic Impedance of Twisted-Pair Wire
Depending on the geometry of the cable and the materials used in the insulation, twisted-pair wire will have a "characteristic impedance" associated with it that is usually specified by its manufacturer. The RS-485 specification recommends, but does not specifically dictate, that this characteristic impedance be 120Ω. Recommending this impedance is necessary to calculate worst-case loading and commonmode voltage ranges given in the RS-485 specification. The specification probably does not dictate this impedance in the interest of flexibility. If for some reason 120Ω cable cannot be used, it is recommended that the worst-case loading (the number of transmitters and receivers that can be used) and worst-case common-mode voltage ranges be recalculated to make sure that the system under design will work. The industry-standard publication TSB89, Application Guidelines for TIA-EIA485-A,¹ has a section specifically devoted to those calculations.
Number of Twisted Pairs per Transmitter
Now that the required type of wire is understood, one can ask, how many twisted pairs can a transmitter drive? The short answer is: exactly one. Although it is possible for a transmitter to drive more than one twisted pair under certain circumstances, this is not the intent of the specification.
Because of the high frequencies and the distances involved, proper attention must be paid to transmission-line effects. A thorough discussion of transmission-line effects and proper termination techniques is, however, are well beyond the scope of this application note. With this in mind, terminations will be briefly discussed in their simplest form as they relate to RS-485. A terminating resistor is simply a resistor placed at the extreme end or ends of a cable (Figure 4). The value of the terminating resistor is ideally the same value as the characteristic impedance of the cable.
Figure 4. Termination resistors should be the same value of the characteristic impedance of the twisted pair and should be placed at the far ends of the cable. When the termination resistance is not the same value as the characteristic impedance of the wiring, reflections will occur as the signal travels down the cable. This process is governed by the equation (Rt-Zo)/(Zo+Rt), where Zo is the impedance of the cable and Rt is the value of the terminating resistor. Although some reflections are inevitable due to cable and resistor tolerances, large enough mismatches can cause reflections big enough to cause errors in the data. See Figure 5.
Figure 5. Using the circuit shown at the top, the waveform on the left was obtained with a MAX3485 driving a 120Ω twisted-pair cable terminated with 54Ω. The waveform on the right was obtained with the cable terminated properly with 120Ω. Knowing this about reflections, it is important to match the terminating resistance and the characteristic impedance as closely as possible. The position of the terminating resistors is also very important. Termination resistors should always be placed at the far ends of the cable. As a general rule moreover, termination resistors should be placed at both far ends of the cable. Although properly terminating both ends is absolutely critical for most system designs, it can be argued that in one special case only one termination resistor is needed. This case occurs in a system when there is a single transmitter and that single transmitter is located at the far end of the cable. In this case there is no need to place a termination resistor at the end of the cable with the transmitter, because the signal is intended to always travel away from this end of the cable.
Maximum Number of Transmitters and Receivers on a Network
The simplest RS-485 network is comprised of a single transmitter and a single receiver. Although useful in a number of applications, RS-485 allows for greater flexibility by permitting multiple receivers and transmitters on a single twisted pair.² The maximum number of transceivers and receivers allowed depends on how much each device loads down the system. In an ideal world, all receivers and inactive transmitters will have infinite impedance and will not overload the system in any way. In the real world, however, this is not the case. Every receiver attached to the network and all inactive transmitters will add an incremental load. To help the designer of an RS-485 network determine how many devices can be added to a network, a hypothetical unit called a "unit load" was created. All devices connected to an RS-485 network should be characterized in regard to multiples or fractions of unit loads. Two examples are the MAX3485, which is specified at 1 unit load, and the MAX487, which is specified at 1/4 of a unit load. The maximum number of unit loads allowed one twisted pair, assuming a properly terminated cable with a characteristic impedance of 120Ω or more, is 32. Using the examples given above, this means that up to 32 MAX3485s or up to 128 MAX487s can be placed on a single network.
Failsafe Bias Resistors
When inputs are between -200mV and +200mV, receiver output is "undefined". There are four common fault conditions that result in the undefined receiver output that can cause erroneous data:
All transmitters in a system are in shutdown. The receiver is not connected to the cable.
The cable has an open. The cable has a short.
Fail-safe biasing is used to keep the receiver's output in a defined state when one of these conditions occurs. The fail-safe biasing consists of a pull-up resistor on the noninverting line and a pull-down resistor on the inverting line. With proper biasing, the receiver will output a valid high when any one of the fault conditions occurs. These fail-safe bias resistors should be placed at the receiver end of the transmission line. Maxim's MAX13080 and MAX3535 families of transceivers do not require fail-safe bias resistors because a true fail-safe feature is integrated into the devices. In true fail-safe, the receiver-threshold range is from -50mV to -200mV, thereby eliminating the need for fail-safe bias resistors while complying fully with the RS-485 standard. These devices ensure that 0V at the receiver input produces a logic "high" output. Further, this design guarantees a known receiver-output state for the open- and shorted-line conditions.
Examples of Proper Networks
Given the above information, we are ready to design some RS-485 networks. Here are a few examples.
One Transmitter, One Receiver
The simplest network is one transmitter and one receiver (Figure 6). In this example, a termination resistor is shown at the transmitter end of the cable. Although unnecessary here, it is probably a good habit to design-in both termination resistors. This allows the transmitter to be moved to locations other than the far end, and permits additional transmitters to be added to the network if that becomes necessary.
Figure 6. A one-transmitter, one-receiver RS-485 network.
One Transmitter, Multiple Receivers
Figure 7 shows a one-transmitter multiple-receivers network. Here, it is important to keep the distances from the twisted pair to the receivers as short as possible.
Figure 7. A one-transmitter, multiple-receivers RS-485 network.
Figure 8 shows a two-transceivers network.
Figure 8. A two-transceivers RS-485 network.
Figure 9 shows a multiple-transceivers network. As with the one-transmitter and multiple-receivers example in Figure 7, it is important to keep the distances from the twisted pair to the receivers as short as possible.
Figure 9. A multiple-transceivers RS-485 network.
Examples of Improper Networks
The diagrams below are examples of improperly configured systems. Each example shows the waveform obtained from the improperly designed network, and compares that waveform from a properly designed system. The waveform is measured differentially at points A and B (A-B).
In this example, the ends of the twisted pair are unterminated. As the signal propagates down the wire, it encounters the open circuit at the end of the cable. This constitutes an impedance mismatch, thus producing reflections. In the case of an open circuit (as shown below), all the energy is reflected back to the source, causing the waveform to become very distorted.
Figure 10. An unterminated RS-485 network (top) and its resultant waveform (left), compared with a waveform obtained from a correctly terminated network (right).
Wrong Termination Location
Figure 11 shows a termination resistor, but it is located in a position other than the far end of the cable. As the signal propagates down the cable, it encounters two impedance mismatches. The first occurs at the termination resistor. Even though the resistor is matched to the characteristic impedance of the cable, there is still cable after the resistor. This extra cable causes a mismatch and, therefore, reflections. The second mismatch is at the end of the unterminated cable, leading to further reflections.
Figure 11. An RS-485 network with the termination resistor placed at the wrong location (top) and its resultant waveform (left), compared to a properly terminated network (right).
There are multiple problems with the layout in Figure 12. The RS-485 drivers are designed to drive only a single, properly terminated twisted pair. Here, the transmitters are each driving four twisted pairs in parallel. This means that the required minimum logic levels cannot be guaranteed. In addition to the heavy loading, there is an impedance mismatch at the point where multiple cables are connected. Impedance mismatches again mean reflections and, therefore, signal distortions.
Figure 12. An RS-485 network that uses multiple twisted pairs incorrectly.
In Figure 13, the cable is properly terminated and the transmitter is driving only a single twisted pair. However, the connection point (stub) for the receiver is excessively long. A long stub causes a significant impedance mismatch and thus reflections. All stubs should be kept as short as possible.
Figure 13. An RS-485 network that has a 10-foot stub (top) and its resultant waveform (left), compared to a waveform obtained with a short stub (right). References
TSB89, Application Guidelines for TIA/EIA-485-A, can be found by searching for the standard at www.global.his.com. For more information, see TIA/EIA-485-A Electrical Characteristics of Generators and Receivers for Use in Balanced Digital Multipoint Systems, which can be found by searching for the standard at www.global.his.com.
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APP 763: Jul 12, 2001 Full Data Sheet (PDF, 1.7MB) Full Data Sheet (PDF, 1.7MB) Full Data Sheet (PDF, 320kB)