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Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of B.Tech

By A. DEEPAK KUMAR 08BD1A0402 K. R. BHARAT RAM-08BD1A0425 K.RANADHEER REDDY-08BD1A0423

Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Keshav Memorial Institute of Technology (Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University) Hyderabad

Certificate

This is to certify that the project report entitled being submitted by Mr/Mrs.. in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in to the Jawarlal Nehru Technological University is a record of bonafied work carried out by him under my guidance and supervision. The results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

(HOD)

CERTIFICATE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT A finite-state machine (FSM) or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model used to design computer programs and digital logic circuits. It is conceived as an abstract machine that can be in one of a finite number of states. The machine is in only one state at a time; the state it is in at any given time is called the current state. It can change from one state to another when initiated by a triggering event or condition, this is called a transition. A particular FSM is defined by a list of the possible states it can transition to from each state, and the triggering condition for each transition. Finite-state machines can model a large number of problems, among which are electronic design automation, communication protocol design, parsing and other engineering applications. In biology and artificial intelligence research etc. Simulink software models, simulates, and analyzes dynamic systems. It enables you to pose a question about a system, model the system, and see what happens. With Simulink, you can easily build models from scratch, or modify existing models to meet your needs. Simulink supports linear and nonlinear systems, modeled in continuous time, sampled time, or a hybrid of the two. Simulink HDL Coder software lets you generate hardware description language (HDL) code based on Simulink models and Stateflow finite-state machines. The coder brings the ModelBased Design approach into the domain of application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) development. Using the coder, system architects and designers can spend more time on fine-tuning algorithms and models through rapid prototyping and experimentation and less time on HDL coding. we use a Simulink model to simulate a design intended for realization as an ASIC or FPGA. Once satisfied that the model meets design requirements, you run the Simulink HDL Coder compatibility checker utility to examine model semantics and blocks for HDL code generation compatibility. You then invoke the coder, using either the command line or the graphical user interface. The coder generates VHDL or Verilog code that implements the design embodied in the model.

CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. FSM 2.1 INTRODUCTION TO FSM 2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FSM 2.3 MEALY MACHINE 2.4 MOORE MACHINE 2.5 MEMORY CONTROLLER FSM 2.6 APPLICATIONS OF FSM 2.6.1 2.6.2 HARWARE APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS

2.7 ADVANTAGES OF FSM 2.8 DISADVANTAGES OF FSM 3. HARWARE AND SOFTWARE USED 3.1 SOFTWARE 3.1.1 MATLAB 3.1.2 SIMULINK 3.1.3 XILINX 3.1.4 VERILOG 4. IMPLEMENTATION OF FSM USING SIMULINK 4.1 MAIN BLOCK DIAGRAM IN SIMULINK 4.2 MEALY BLOCK DIAGRAM IN SIMULINK 4.3 MOORE BLOCK DIAGRAM IN SIMULINK 5. RESULTS 5.1 CODING

5.1.1 MEALY MACHINE CODE 5.1.2 MOORE MACHINE CODE 5.1.3 MEMORY CONTROLLER CODE

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

At a low level of abstraction, a protocol is often most easily understood as a state machine. Design criteria can also easily be expressed in terms of desirable or undesirable protocol states and state transitions. In a way, the protocol state symbolizes the assumptions that each process in the system makes about the others. It defines what actions a process is allowed to take, which events it expects to happen, and how it will respond to those events.

The formal model of a communicating finite state machine plays an important role in three different areas of protocol design: formal validation, protocol synthesis, and conformance testing. This chapter introduces the main concepts. First the basic finite state machine model is discussed. There are several, equally valid, ways of extending this basic model into a model for communicating finite state machines. We select one of those models and formalize it in a definition of a generalized communicating finite state machine. The model can readily be applied to represent PROMELA specifications and to build an automated validator. There exist many variations of the basic finite state machine model. Rather than list them all, we conclude this chapter with a discussion of two of the more interesting examples: the Petri Net and the FIFO Net.

2.1 INTRODUCTION TO FINITE STATE MACHINES It is a generic model for sequential circuits used in sequential circuit design .

In general, a state machine is any device that stores the status of something at a given time and can operate on input to change the status and/or cause an action or output to take place for any given change. A computer is basically a state machine and each machine instruction is input that changes one or more states and may cause other actions to take place. Each computer's data register stores a state. The read-only memory from which a boot program is loaded stores a state (the boot program itself is an initial state). The operating system is itself a state and each application that runs begins with some initial state that may change as it begins to handle input. Thus, at any moment in time, a computer system can be seen as a very complex set of states and each program in it as a state machine. In practice, however, state machines are used to develop and describe specific device or program interactions. To summarize it, a state machine can be described as:

An initial state or record of something stored someplace A set of possible input events A set of new states that may result from the input A set of possible actions or output events that result from a new state

In their book Real-time Object-oriented Modeling, Bran Selic & Garth Gullekson view a state machine as:

A set of input events A set of output events A set of states A function that maps states and input to output A function that maps states and inputs to states (which is called a state transition function) A description of the initial state

A finite state machine is one that has a limited or finite number of possible states. (An infinite state machine can be conceived but is not practical.) A finite state machine can be used both as a development tool for approaching and solving problems and as a formal way of describing the solution for later developers and system maintainers. There are a number of ways to show state machines, from simple tables through graphically animated illustrations.

FSM: Formal definition An FSM is a quintuple: (X, Y, Q, q0, , O), where: X is a finite set of input symbols also known as the input alphabet.Y is a finite set of output symbols also known as the output alphabet,Q is a finite set of states,q0 in Q is the initial state, : Q x XQ is a next-state or state transition function, and O: Q x XY is an output function. In some variants of FSM more than one state could be specified as an initial state. Also, sometimes it is convenient to add FQ as a set of final or accepting states while specifying an FSM.

State diagram representation of FSM A state diagram is a directed graph that contains nodes representing states and edges representing state transitions and output functions. Each node is labeled with the state it represents. Each directed edge in a state diagram connects two states. Each edge is labeled i /o where i denotes an input symbol that belongs to the input alphabet X and o denotes an output symbol that belongs to the output alphabet O. i is also known as the input portion of the edge and o its output portion.

Tabular representation of FSM : A table is often used as an alternative to the state diagram to represent the state transition function and the output function O. The table consists of two sub-tables that consist of one or more columns each. The leftmost sub table is the output or the action sub-table. The rows are labeled by the states of the FSM. The rightmost sub-table is the next state sub-table.

Properties of FSM : Completely specified: An FSM M is said to be completely specified if from each state in M there exists a transition for each input symbol. Strongly connected: An FSM M is considered strongly connected if for each pair of states (qi qj) there exists an input sequence that takes M from state qi to qj.

STATE DIAGRAM :

The design of an FSM normally starts with an abstract, graphic description, such as a state diagram or an ASM chart. Both descriptions utilize symbolic state notations, show the transition among the states and indicate the output values under various conditions. A state diagram or an ASM chart can capture all the needed information (i.e., state, input, output, nextstate function, and output function) in a single graph. .

A state diagram consists of nodes, which are drawn as circles (also known as bubbles), and onedirection transition arcs. The notation for nodes and arcs is shown in Figure 10.2. A node represents a unique state of the FSM and it has a unique symbolic name. An arc represents a transition from one state to another and is labeled with the condition that will cause the transition. The condition is expressed as a logic expression composed of input signals. An arc will be taken when the corresponding logic expression is evaluated to be logic '1'.

The output values are also specified on the state diagram. The Moore output is a function of state and thus is naturally placed inside the state bubble. On the other hand, the Mealy output depends on both state and input and thus is placed under the condition expression of the transition arcs. To reduce the clutter, we list only the output signals that are activated or asserted. An output signal will assume the default, unasserted value (not don't-care) if it is not listed inside the state bubble or under the logic expression of an arc. We use the following notation for an asserted output value: signal_name <= asserted value ; In general, an asserted signal will be logic '1' unless specified otherwise.

A state diagram is a type of diagram used in computer science and related fields to describe the behavior of systems. State diagrams require that the system described is composed of a finite number of states; sometimes, this is indeed the case, while at other times this is a reasonable abstraction. Many forms of state diagrams exist, which differ slightly and have different semantics. State diagrams are used to give an abstract description of the behavior of a system. This behavior is analyzed and represented in series of events, that could occur in one or more possible states. Hereby "each diagram usually represents objects of a single class and track the different states of its objects through the system".

State diagrams can be used to graphically represent finite state machines. This was introduced by C.E. Shannon and W. Weaver in their 1949 book "The Mathematical Theory of Communication". Another source is Taylor Booth in his 1967 book "Sequential Machines and Automata Theory". Another possible representation is the State transition table.

DIRECTED GRAPH A classic form of state diagram for a finite state machine or finite automaton (FA) is a directed graph with the following elements (Q,,Z,,q0,F):

Vertices Q: a finite set of states, normally represented by circles and labeled with unique designator symbols or words written inside them Input symbols : a finite collection of input symbols or designators Output symbols Z: a finite collection of output symbols or designators

The output function represents the mapping of ordered pairs of input symbols and states onto output symbols, denoted mathematically as : Q Z.

Edges : represent transitions from one state to another as caused by the input (identified by their symbols drawn on the edges). An edge is usually drawn as an arrow directed from the present state to the next state. This mapping describes the state transition that is to occur on input of a particular symbol. This is written mathematically as : Q Q, so by (transition function) in the definition of the FA is given both the pair of vertices connected by an edge and the symbol on an edge in a diagram representing this FA. Item (q,a)= p in the definition of the FA means that from the state named q under input symbol a, the transition to the state p occurs in this machine. In the diagram representing this FA, this is represented by an edge labeled by a pointing from the vertex labeled by q to the vertex labeled by p. Start state q0: (not shown in the examples below). The start state q0 Q is usually represented by an arrow with no origin pointing to the state. In older texts, the start state is not shown and must be inferred from the text. Accepting state(s) F: If used, for example for accepting automata, F Q is the accepting state. It is usually drawn as a double circle. Sometimes the accept state(s) function as "Final" (halt, trapped) states.

For a deterministic finite automaton (DFA), nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA), generalized nondeterministic finite automaton (GNFA), or Moore machine, the input is denoted on each edge. For a Mealy machine, input and output are signified on each edge, separated with a slash "/": "1/0" denotes the state change upon encountering the symbol "1" causing the symbol "0" to be output. For a Moore machine the state's output is usually written inside the state's circle, also separated from the state's designator with a slash "/". There are also variants that combine these two notations. For example, if a state has a number of outputs (e.g. "a= motor counter-clockwise=1, b= caution light inactive=0") the diagram should reflect this : e.g. "q5/1,0" designates state q5 with outputs a=1, b=0. This designator will be written inside the state's circle. Example: DFA, NFA, GNFA, or Moore machine S1 and S2 are states and S1 is an accepting state or a final state. Each edge is labeled with the input. This example shows an acceptor for strings over {0,1} that contain an even number of zeros.

[Example: Mealy machine S0, S1, and S2 are states. Each edge is labeled with "j / k" where j is the input and k is the output.

ASM CHART

An algorithmic state machine (ASM) chart is an alternative method for representing an FSM. Although an ASM chart contains the same amount of information as a state diagram, it is more descriptive. We can use an ASM chart to specify the complex sequencing of events involving commands (input) and actions (output), which is the hallmark of complex algorithms. An ASM chart representation can easily be transformed to VHDL code. It can also be extended to describe FSMD (FSM with a data path), which is discussed in the next two chapters. An ASM chart is constructed of a network of ASM blocks. An ASM block consists of one state box and an optional network of decision boxes and conditional output boxes. A typical ASM block is shown in Figure 10.4. The state box, as its name indicates, represents a state in an FSM. It is identified by a symbolic state name on the top left corner of the state box. The action or output listed inside the box describes the desired output signal values when the FSM enters this state. Since the outputs rely on the state only, they correspond to the Moore outputs of the FSM. To reduce the clutter, we list only signals that are activated or asserted. An output signal will assume the default, unasserted value if it is not listed inside the box. We use the same notation for an asserted output signal:

signal_name <= asserted value ; Again, we assume that an asserted signal will be logic '1' unless specified otherwise. A decision box tests an input condition to determine the exit path of the current ASM block. It contains a Boolean expression composed of input signals and plays a simi- lar role to the logic expression in the transition arc of a state diagram. Because of the exibility of the Boolean expression, it can describe more complex conditions, such as

(a > b) and (c /= 1). Depending on the value of the Boolean expression, the FSM can follow either the true path or the false path, which are labeled as T or F in the exit paths of the decision box. If necessary, we can cascade multiple decision boxes inside an ASM block to describe a complex condition. A conditional output box also lists asserted output signals. However, it can only be placed after an exit path of a decision box. It implies that these output signals can be asserted only if the condition of the previous decision box is met. Since the condition is composed of a Boolean expression of input signals, these output signals' values depend on the current state and input signals, and thus they are Mealy outputs. Again, to reduce clutter, we place a conditional output box in an ASM block only when the corresponding output signal is asserted. The output signal assumes the default, unasserted value when there is no conditional output box. Since an ASM chart is another way of representing an FSM, an ASM chart can be converted to a state diagram and vice versa. An ASM block corresponds to a state and its transition arcs of a state diagram. The key for the conversion is the transformation between the logic expressions of the transition arcs in a state diagram and the decision boxes in an ASM chart. Since an ASM chart is used to model an FSM, two rules apply: 1. For a given input combination, there is one unique exit path from the current ASM block.

2. The exit path of an ASM block must always lead to a state box. The state box can be the state box of the current ASM block or a state box of another ASM block.

The conversion can best be explained by examining several examples. The first example is shown below. It is an FSM with no branching arches. The state diagram and the ASM chart are almost identical.

The second example is also shown below . The FSM has two transition arcs from the s0 state and has a Mealy output, y. The logic expressions a and a of the transition arches are translated into a decision box with Boolean expression a = 1. Note that the two states are transformed into two ASM blocks. The decision and conditional output boxes are not new states, just actions associated with the ASM block s0.

ADVANTAGE OF ASM CHART OVER STATE DIAGRAM The output of the FSM is more complex and depends on various input conditions. The state diagram needs multiple logic expressions in the transition arc to express various input conditions. The ASM chart can accommodate the situation and is more descriptive. 2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FSM 2.2.1 GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAM

D

SET

...

NEXT STATE

D

CLR

OUTPUT LOGIC

SET

CLR

CLK

The block diagram of an FSM is shown below . It is similar to the block diagram of a regular sequential circuit. The state register is the memory element that stores the state of the FSM. It is synchronized by a global clock. The next-state logic implements the next-state function, whose input is the current state and input signals. The output logic implements the output function. This diagram includes both Moore output logic, whose input is the current state, and Mealy output logic, whose input is the current state and input signals. The main application of an FSM is to realize operations that are performed in a sequence of steps. A large digital system usually involves complex tasks or algorithms, which can be expressed as a sequence of actions based on system status and external commands. An FSM can function as the control circuit (known as the control path) that coordinates and governs the operations of other units (known as the data path) of the system. Our coverage of FSM focuses on this aspect. The actual construction of such systems is discussed in the next two chapters. FSMs can also be used in many simple tasks, such as detecting a unique pattern from an input data stream or generating a specific sequence of output values.

It is similar to the block diagram of a regular sequential circuit. The state register is the memory element that stores the state of the FSM. It is synchronized by a global clock. The next-state logic implements the next-state function, whose input is the current state and input signals. The output logic implements the output function. This diagram includes both Moore output logic, whose input is the current state, and Mealy output logic, whose input is the current state and input signals. The main application of an FSM is to realize operations that are performed in a sequence of steps. A large digital system usually involves complex tasks or algorithms, which can be expressed as a sequence of actions based on system status and external commands. An FSM can function as the control circuit (known as the control path) that coordinates and governs the operations of other units (known as the data path) of the system. Our coverage of FSM focuses on this aspect. The actual construction of such systems is discussed in the next two chapters. FSMs can also be used in many simple tasks, such as detecting a unique pattern from an input data stream or generating a specific sequence of output values.

State memory: Set of n flip-flops that hold the state of the machine (up to 2^n distinct states). Next state logic: Combinational circuit that determines the next state as a function of the current state and the input. Output logic: Combinational circuit that determines the output as a function of the current state and the input.

FORMAL DEFINITION A Mealy machine is a 6-tuple, (S, S0, , , T, G), consisting of the following:

a finite set of states (S) a start state (also called initial state) S0 which is an element of (S)

a finite set called the input alphabet () a finite set called the output alphabet () a transition function (T : S S) mapping pairs of a state and an input symbol to the corresponding next state.

an output function (G : S ) mapping pairs of a state and an input symbol to the corresponding output symbol.

In some formulations, the transition and output functions are coalesced into a single function (T : S S ).

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MEALY MACHINE Mealy machine is a finite state machine , whose output values are determined solely by its current state and current inputs.

Simple Mealy machine has one input and one output. Each transition edge is labeled with the value of the input (shown in red) and the value of the output (shown in blue). The machine starts in state Si. (In this example, the output is the exclusive-or of the two most-recent input values; thus, the machine implements an edge detector, outputting a one every time the input flips and a zero otherwise.)

State diagram for a simple Mealy machine with one input and one output.

More complex Mealy machines can have multiple inputs as well as multiple outputs.

FORMAL DEFINITION A Moore machine can be defined as a 6-tuple ( S, S0, , , T, G ) consisting of the following:

a finite set of states ( S ) a start state (also called initial state) S0 which is an element of (S) a finite set called the input alphabet ( ) a finite set called the output alphabet ( ) a transition function (T : S S) mapping a state and the input alphabet to the next state

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MOORE MACHINE moore machine is a finite state machine , whose output values are determined solely by its current state.

SIMPLE MOORE SYSTEMS Simple Moore machine have one input and one output:

edge detector using XOR binary adding machine clocked sequential systems ( a restricted form of Moore machine where the state changes only when the global clock signal changes )

Most digital electronic systems are designed as clocked sequential systems. Clocked sequential systems are a restricted form of Moore machine where the state changes only when the global clock signal changes. Typically the current state is stored in flip-flops, and a global clock signal is connected to the "clock" input of the flip-flops. Clocked sequential systems are one way to solve metastability problems. A typical electronic Moore machine includes a combinational logic chain to decode the current state into the outputs (lambda). The instant the current state changes, those changes ripple through that chain, and almost instantaneously the output gets updated. There are design techniques to ensure that no glitches occur on the outputs during that brief period while those changes are rippling through the chain, but most systems are designed so that glitches during that brief transition time are ignored or are irrelevant. The outputs then stay the same indefinitely (LEDs stay bright, power stays connected to the motors, solenoids stay energized, etc.), until the Moore machine changes state again. State diagram for an edge detector using XOR.

COMPLEX MOORE SYSTEMS More complex Moore machines can have multiple inputs as well as multiple outputs. 2.5 MEMORY CONTROLLER FSM MEMORY CONTROLLER : DEFINITION : The memory controller is a digital circuit which manages the flow of data going to and from the main memory. It can be a separate chip or integrated into another chip, such as on the die of a microprocessor. This is also called a Memory Chip Controller (MCC).

APPLICATIONS : Computers using Intel microprocessors have traditionally had a memory controller implemented on their motherboard's north bridge, but many modern microprocessors, such as DEC/Compaq's Alpha 21364 and Opteron processors, IBM's POWER5, Sun Microsystems's UltraSPARC T1, and more recently Intel's Core i7 have an integrated memory controller (IMC) on the microprocessor in order to reduce memory latency. While this has the potential to increase the system's performance, it locks the microprocessor to a specific type (or types) of memory, forcing a redesign in order to support newer memory technologies. When DDR2 SDRAM was introduced, AMD released new Athlon 64 CPUs. These new models, with a DDR2 controller, use a different physical socket (known as Socket AM2), so that they will only fit in motherboards designed for the new type of RAM. When the memory controller is not on-die, the same CPU may be installed on a new motherboard, with an updated northbridge.

The integration of the memory controller onto the die of the microprocessor is not a new concept. Some microprocessors in the 1990s such as the DEC Alpha 21066 and HP PA7300LC had integrated memory controllers, but rather than for performance gains, this was implemented to reduce the cost of systems by eliminating the need for an external memory controller.

STATE DIAGRAM OF MEMORY CONTROLLER FSM : The following figure shows the state diagram of a hypothetical memory controller FSM. The controller is between a processor and a memory chip, interpreting commands from the processor and then generating a control sequence accordingly. The commands, mem, rw and burst, from the processor constitute the input signals of the FSM. The mem signal is asserted to high when a memory access is required. The rw signal indicates the type of memory access, and its value can be either '1' or '0', for memory read and memory write respectively. The burst signal is for a special mode of a memory read operation. If it is asserted, four consecutive read operations will be performed. The memory chip has two control signals, oe (for output enable) and we (for write enable), which need to be asserted during the memory read and memory write respectively. The two output signals of the FSM, oe and we, are connected to the memory chip's control signals. For comparison purpose, we also add an artificial Mealy output signal, we me, to the state diagram. Initially, the FSM is in the idle state, waiting for the mem command from the processor. Once mem is asserted, the FSM examines the value of rw and moves to either the read1 state or the write state. These input conditions can be formalized to logic expressions, as shown in the transition arcs from the idle state: 1) mem' : represents that no memory operation is required. 2)mem rw: represents that a memory read operation is required. 3) mem rw' : represents that a memory write operation is required.

The results of these logic expressions are checked at the rising edge of the clock. If the mem expression is true (i.e., mem is '0'), the FSM stays in the idle state. If the memrw

expression is true (i.e., both mem and rw are '1'), the FSM moves to the read1 state. Once it is there, the oe signal is activated, as indicated in the state bubble. On the other hand, if the mem rw' expression is true (i.e., mem is '1' and rw is '0'), the FSM moves to the write state and activates the we signal.

After the FSM reaches the read1 state, the burst signal is examined at the next rising edge of the clock. If it is '1', the FSM will go through read2, read3 and read4 states in the next three clock cycles and then return to the idle state. Otherwise, the FSM returns to the idle state. We use the notation "-" to represent the "always true" condition. After the FSM reaches the write state, it will return to the idle state at the next rising edge of the clock. The we_ me signal is asserted only when the FSM is in the idle state and the mem rw' expression is true. It will be deactivated when the FSM moves away from the idle state

(i.e., to the write state). It is a Mealy output since its value depends on the state and the input signals (i.e., mem and rw). In practice, we usually want to force an FSM into an initial state during system initialization. It is frequently done by an asynchronous reset signal, similar to the asynchronous reset signal used in a register of a regular sequential circuit. Sometimes a solid dot is used to indicate this transition, as shown above. This transition is only for system initialization and has no effect on normal FSM operation.

ASM CHART OF MEMORY CONTORLLER The ASM chart is created from the state diagram.

Operation of a synchronous FSM While a state diagram or an ASM chart shows all the states and transitions, it does not provide information about when a transition takes place. In a synchronous FSM, the state transition is controlled by the rising edge of the system clock. Mealy output and Moore output are not directly related to the clock but are responding to input or state change. However, since a Moore output depends only on the state, its transition is indirectly synchronized by the clock. The timing of a synchronous FSM can best be explained by examining the operation of an ASM block. In an ASM chart, each ASM block represents a state of the FSM. Instead of moving "continuously" from one block to another block, as in a traditional owchart, the transitions between ASM blocks can occur only at the rising edge of the clock. The operation of an ASM block transition can be interpreted as follows: 1. At the rising edge of the clock, the FSM enters a new state (and thus a new ASM block). 2. During the clock period, the FSM performs several operations. It activates the Moore output signals asserted in this state. It evaluates various Boolean expressions of the decision boxes and activates the Mealy output signals accordingly. 3. At the next rising edge of the clock (which is the end of the current clock period), the results of Boolean expressions are examined simultaneously, an exit path is de- termined, and the FSM enters the designated new ASM block. A state and its transitions in a state diagram are interpreted in the same manner.

10.3.2 Performance of an FSM When an FSM is synthesized, the physical components introduce propagation delays. Since the block diagram of an FSM is almost identical to that of a regular sequential circuit, the timing analysis of an FSM is similar to that of a regular sequential circuit, as discussed in Section 8.6. The main timing parameters associated with the block diagram of Figure 10.1 are: Tcq, Tsetup, Thold: the clock-to-q delay, setup time and hold time of the state register. Tnext(max): the maximal propagation delay of the next-state logic. Toutput(mo): the propagation delay of output logic for the Moore output. Toutput(me): the propagation delay of output logic for the Mealy output. As in a regular sequential circuit, the performance of an FSM is characterized by the maximal clock rate (or minimal clock period). The minimal clock period is Tc = Tcq + Tnext(max) + Tsetup

Since an FSM is frequently used as the controller, the response of the output signal is also important. A Moore output is characterized by the clock-to-output delay, which is Tco(mo) = Tcq + Toutput(mo) A Mealy output may respond to the change of a state or an input signal. The former is characterized by the clock-to-output delay, similar to the Moore output: Tco(me) = Tcq + Toutput(me) The latter is just the propagation delay of Mealy output logic, which is Toutput(me).

2.6

APPLICATIONS OF FSM

Finite-state machines can model a large number of problems, among which are electronic design automation, communication protocol design, parsing and other engineering applications. In biology and artificial intelligence research, state machines or hierarchies of state machines are sometimes used to describe neurological systems, and in linguistics they can be used to describe the grammars of natural languages.

In a digital circuit, an FSM may be built using a programmable logic device, a programmable logic controller, logic gates and flip flops or relays. More specifically, a hardware implementation requires a register to store state variables, a block of combinational logic which determines the state transition, and a second block of combinational logic that determines the output of an FSM. One of the classic hardware implementations is theRichards controller.

Mealy and Moore machines produce logic with asynchronous output, because there is a propagation delay between the flip-flop and output. This causes slower operating frequencies in FSM. A Mealy or Moore machine can be convertible to a FSM which output is directly from a flip-flop, which makes the FSM run at higher frequencies. This kind of FSM is sometimes called Medvedev FSM. A counter is the simplest form of this kind of FSM.

The following concepts are commonly used to build software applications with finite state machines:

1) 2) 3)

1) Automata-based

programming :

Automata-based programming is a programming paradigm in which the program or its part is thought of as a model of a finite state machine (FSM) or any other (often more complicated) formal automaton (see automata theory). Sometimes a potentially-infinite set of possible states is introduced, and such a set can have a complicated structure, not just an enumeration. FSM-based programming is generally the same, but, formally speaking, doesn't cover all possible variants as FSM stands for finite state machine and automata-based programming doesn't necessarily employ FSMs in the strict sense. The following properties are key indicators for automata-based programming: 1. The time period of the program's execution is clearly separated down to the steps of the automaton. Each of the steps is effectively an execution of a code section (same for all the steps), which has a single entry point. Such a section can be a function or other routine, or just a cycle body. The step section might be divided down to subsection to be executed depending on different states, although this is not necessary.

2. Any communication between the steps is only possible via the explicitly noted set of variables named the state. Between any two steps, the program (or its part created using the automata-based technique) can not have implicit components of its state,

such as local (stack) variables' values, return addresses, the current instruction pointer etc. That is, the state of the whole program, taken at any two moments of entering the step of the automaton, can only differ in the values of the variables being considered as the state of the automaton. The whole execution of the automata-based code is a (possibly explicit) cycle of the automaton's steps. Another reason to use the notion of automata-based programming is that the programmer's style of thinking about the program in this technique is very similar to the style of thinking used to solve math-related tasks using Turing machine, Markov algorithm etc.

2) Event driven FSM : In computation, a finite-state machine (FSM) is event driven if the transition from one state to another is triggered by an event or amessage. This is in contrast to the parsing-theory origins of the term finite-state machine where the machine is described as consuming characters or tokens. Often these machines are implemented as threads or processes communicating with one another as part of a larger application. For example, a telecommunication protocol is most of the time implemented as an event-driven finite-state machine.

It is a finite state machine (FSM) defined in a virtual environment. The VFSM concept provides a software specification method to describe the behaviour of a control system using assigned names of input control properties and of output actions.

The VFSM method introduces an execution model and facilitates the idea of an executable specification. This technology is mainly used in complex machine control, instrumentation and telecommunication applications.

MEALY MACHINE APPLICATIONS Mealy machines provide a rudimentary mathematical model for cipher machines. Considering the input and output alphabet the Latin alphabet, for example, then a Mealy machine can be designed that given a string of letters (a sequence of inputs) can process it into a ciphered string (a sequence of outputs). However, although one could use a Mealy model to describe the Enigma, the state diagram would be too complex to provide feasible means of designing complex ciphering machines. MOORE MACHINE APPLICATIONS

edge detector using XOR binary adding machine clocked sequential systems ( a restricted form of Moore machine where the state changes only when the global clock signal changes )

Moore and Mealy machines are two methods of implementing a Finite State Machine or FSM. FSMs are widely used in integrated circuits for implementing simple functions to complex algorithms.

Any function that is inherently state-dependent will require an FSM implementation in hardware, e.g. Serial Bus Transfer protocols, like USB and power management applications.

Moore machines are generally preferred in RTL, since they are timing friendly. A testbench can use either.

2.7 ADVANTAGES OF FSM Advantages of FSM Model Simple Obvious graphical representation Easy to Build Support Tools Transformers Transform FSM Model into other representations

Theoretical Limit on Computational Power FSM has no memory Using states as memory is inefficient Consider modeling a cruise control system with states that model car speed 8-bit register = 2^8 = 256 states. State Space Explosion for Large Problems

MATLAB

3.1.1 MATLAB

MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. Developed by Math Works. MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, CR++, Java, and FORTRAN. MATLAB is a commercial software package written by The Math works, Inc, sometimes called TMW. Quoting from their web page: "Numeric computation, technical graphics and visualization, and an intuitive programming language for applications in engineering and science." MATLAB is a complete environment for high-level programming, as well as interactive data analysis. MATLAB excels at numerical computations, especially when dealing with vectors or matrices of data. Symbolic math is available through an add-on toolbox that uses a MuPAD kernel. MATLAB is a programming environment for algorithm development, data analysis, visualization, and numerical computation. Using MATLAB, you can solve technical computing problems faster than with traditional programming languages, such as C, C++, and FORTRAN. You can use MATLAB in a wide range of applications, including signal and image processing, communications, control design, test and measurement, financial modeling and analysis, and computational biology. For a million engineers and scientists in industry and academia, MATLAB is the language of technical computing. There are many add-on toolboxes that extend MATLAB to specific areas of functionality, such as statistics, finance, signal processing, image processing, bioinformatics, etc.

MATLAB features a family of application-specific solutions called toolboxes. Very important to most users of MATLAB, toolboxes allow us to learn and apply specialized technology. Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of MATLAB functions (M-files) that extend the MATLAB environment to solve particular classes of problems. Areas in which toolboxes are available include signal processing, control systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, wavelets, simulation, and many others.

The MATLAB Application Program Interface (API). This is a library that allows you to write C and FORTRAN programs that interact with MATLAB. It include facilities for calling routines from MATLAB (dynamic linking), calling MATLAB as a computational engine, and for reading and writing MAT-files. Some of the basic tools in MATLAB are: 1. Simulink 2. Signal Processing 3. Symbolic Math 4. System Identification 5. Real Time Workshop Out of these we use the Simulink tool box for our application.

3.1.2 SIMULINK Simulink is a graphical, drag and drop environment for building simple and complex signal and system dynamic simulations. Simulink is a software package for modeling, simulating, and analyzing dynamical systems. Simulink is an extension to Matlab that allows engineers to rapidly and accurately build computer models of dynamical systems using block diagram notation.

Simulink is an environment for multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic and embedded systems. It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries that let you design, simulate, implement, and test a variety of time-varying systems, including communications, controls, signal processing, video processing, and image processing. Add-on products extend Simulink software to multiple modeling domains, as well as provide tools for design, implementation, and verification and validation tasks. Simulink is integrated with MATLAB, providing immediate access to an extensive range of tools that let you develop algorithms, analyze and visualize simulations, create batch processing scripts, customize the modeling environment, and define signal, parameter, and test data.

Key Features

Extensive and expandable libraries of predefined blocks Interactive graphical editor for assembling and managing intuitive block diagrams Ability to manage complex designs by segmenting models into hierarchies of design components Model Explorer to navigate, create, configure, and search all signals, parameters, properties, and generated code associated with your model Application programming interfaces (APIs) that let you connect with other simulation programs and incorporate hand-written code MATLAB Function blocks for bringing MATLAB algorithms into Simulink and embedded system implementations Simulation modes (Normal, Accelerator, and Rapid Accelerator) for running simulations interpretively or at compiled C-code speeds using fixed- or variable-step solvers Graphical debugger and profiler to examine simulation results and then diagnose performance and unexpected behavior in your design Full access to MATLAB for analyzing and visualizing results, customizing the modeling environment, and defining signal, parameter, and test data Model analysis and diagnostics tools to ensure model consistency and identify modeling errors

You can construct a model by assembling design components, each of which could be a separate model.

State flow is an interactive design tool for modeling and simulating complex reactive systems. Tightly integrated with Simulink and MATLAB, State flow provides Simulink users with an elegant solution for designing embedded systems by giving them an efficient way to incorporate complex control and supervisory logic within their Simulink models. With State flow, you can quickly develop graphical models of event-driven systems using finite state machine theory, state chart formalisms, and flow diagram notation. Together, State flow and Simulink serve as an executable specification and virtual prototype of your system design.

3.1.2.1 Getting Started To start a Simulink session, we need to bring up MATLAB program first and then from MATLAB command window, enter: >> simulink

Fig 3.1 Simulink library window To start a model, click on the NEW FILE ICON in the screenshot above. Alternately, you may use key strokes CTRL+N. A new window will appear on the screen. We can construct and simulate a model in this window. 3.1.2.2 Steps for creating a simple model STEP 1: Creating Blocks From BLOCK SET CATEGORIES section of the SIMULINK LIBRARY BROWSER window, click on the "+" sign next to the Simulink group to expand the tree and select Sources. A set of blocks will appear in the BLOCKSET group. Click on the Sine Wave block and drag it to the workspace window.

Continue to build your model by adding more components like aScope from Sinks library, an Integrator block from Continuous library, and a Mux block from Signal

Routing library. To move the blocks around, simply click on it and drag it to a desired location. You may remove (delete) a block by simply clicking on it and use the DEL key or keys combination CTRL-X.

STEP 2: Making Connections To establish connections between the blocks, move the cursor to the output port represented by ">" sign on the block. Once placed at a port, the cursor will turn into a cross "+" enabling you to make connection between blocks. To make a connection: left-click while holding down the control key (on your keyboard) and drag from source port to a destination port. The connected model is shown below.

Fig 3.2 Connected model A sine signal is generated by the Sine Wave block (a source) and is displayed by the scope. The integrated sine signal is sent to scope for display along with the original signal from the source via the Mux, whose function is to multiplex signals in form of scalar, vector, or matrix into a bus. STEP 3: Running Simulation You now may run the simulation of the simple system above by clicking on the play button . Alternately, you may use keystrokes CTRL+T, or choose Start submenu (under

3.1.3 Xilinx

Xilinx ISE is a software tool produced by Xilinx for synthesis and analysis of HDL designs, which enables the developer to synthesize ("compile") their designs, perform timing analysis, examine RTL diagrams, simulate a design's reaction to different stimuli, and configure the target device with the programmer. Xilinx design solutions continue to lower overall design costs with new technology and faster performance than any other PLD solution. Achieve greater system-level design productivity and bring products to production faster with breakthrough technologies in the Xilinx ISE Design Suite. Built on methodologies to enable team design, power optimization, and to simplify IP integration, the ISE Design Suite unlocks full potential of Xilinx Targeted Design Platforms with configurations for logic, embedded, and DSP designs all available with tightly integrated design flows.

3.1.3.1

In electronics, a hardware description language or HDL is any language from a class of computer languages, specification languages, or modeling languages for formal description and design of electronic circuits, and most commonly, digital logic. It can describe the circuit's operation, its design and organization, and tests to verify its operation by means of simulation. HDLs are used to write executable specifications for hardware. A program designed to implement the underlying semantics of the language statements and simulate the progress of time provides the hardware designer with the ability to model a piece of hardware before it is created physically. It is this executability that gives HDLs the illusion of being programming languages, when they are more precisely classified as specification languages or modeling languages. Simulators capable of supporting discrete-event (digital) and continuous-time (analog) modeling exist, and HDLs targeted for each are available.

3.1.4 Verilog In the semiconductor and electronic design industry, Verilog is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. Verilog HDL is most commonly used in the design, verification, and implementation of digital logic chips at the register-transfer level of abstraction. It is also used in the verification of analog and circuits. Hardware description languages such as Verilog differ from software programming languages because they include ways of describing the propagation of time and signal dependencies. A Verilog design consists of a hierarchy of modules. Modules encapsulate design hierarchy, and communicate with other modules through a set of declared input, output, and bidirectional ports.

CHAPTER 4

OUTPUT :

OUTPUT :

CHAPTER 5 RESULTS

5.1.1

% y = f(x,u) : % all actions are condition actions and % outputs are function of state and input

S1 = 0; S2 = 1; S3 = 2; S4 = 3;

% switch to new state based on the value state register switch uint8(mealy_state_reg)

case S1,

% value of output 'Z' depends both on state and inputs if (A) Z = true; mealy_state_reg(1) = S1;

case S2,

case S3,

case S4,

otherwise,

Z = false; end

5.1.2

% y = f(x) : % all actions are state actions and % outputs are pure functions of state only

% using persistent keyword to model state registers in hardware persistent moore_state_reg; if isempty(moore_state_reg) moore_state_reg = fi(0, 0, 2, 0); end

S1 = 0; S2 = 1; S3 = 2; S4 = 3;

% switch to new state based on the value state register switch uint8(moore_state_reg)

case S1,

% value of output 'Z' depends both only on state and not on inputs Z = true;

% decide next state value based on inputs if (~A) moore_state_reg(1) = S1; else moore_state_reg(1) = S2; end

case S2,

Z = false;

case S3,

Z = false;

end

case S4,

Z = true; if (~A) moore_state_reg(1) = S1; else moore_state_reg(1) = S3; end otherwise, Z = false; end

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