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Chapter 3

Movement of substances across the plasma membrane

(A) (B)

(C)

(D) (E) (F)

Structure of the plasma membrane


composed mainly of phospholipids and proteins The movement of substances in and out of a cell occurs the plasma membrane The fluid-mosaic model proposed that membrane proteins are dispersed throughout and inserted into the phospholipid bilayer

Phospholipid molecule polar head - hydrophilic property and a pair of non-polar tails - hydrophobic property Phospholipid bilayer acts as a barrier isolates the two sides of the membranes Cholesterol molecules stabilize the structure of the plasma membrane

Pore protein Carrier protein glycoproteins


protein molecule that forms a channel or a pore protein molecule that acts as a carrier membrane proteins that have carbohydrates attached to them

The phospholipid bilayer, proteins and other components


not rigid or static

Selective Permeable / Semi Permeable Pore Protein Carrier Protein

The permeability of the plasma membrane


Selectively permeable/semi-permeable
some substances can move across the membrane freely while others cannot

Factors that determine permeability


the size and polarity

pass through the phospholipids bilayer freely


Lipid soluble molecules Non Polar Molecules

hydrophobic tails - prevent polar molecules to pass through it,


but because of the small molecular size of water - it can slide between the phospholipids bilayer / move through the pores

Pore proteins
allow small water-soluble molecules and ions to pass through the plasma membrane

Carrier proteins
Used by large water-soluble molecules such as amino acids and glucose to pass through the plasma membrane

Simple Diffusion
Definition :

Osmosis
Definition

Facilitated Diffusion
Definition :

Passive Transport
Definition :

The movement of substances across the plasma membrane : passive transport


Simple diffusion
Net movement of particles (molecules ) from of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

Expenditure of energy not required continue until dynamic equilibrium is reached

Example of process in living organisms is the diffusion of oxygen from the alveolus into the adjacent blood capillaries

Osmosis

Osmosis
Net movement of water molecules from a region of higher concentration of water molecules to a region of lower concentration of water molecules through a partially permeable membrane. Eg.
reabsorption of water molecules from the nephron into the blood capillaries

Facilitated diffusion
The passive movement of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient. involves
pore proteins (channel proteins) or carrier proteins

The particular molecules combine with the specific active site of the carrier protein. The carrier protein changes its shape After assisting the movement of molecules to the other side of the plasma membrane, it is free to bind with other molecules

Example- the reabsorption of glucose and amino acids from the villi into the blood capillaries

Active Transport
Definition : Example : Concentration Gradient :

Energy Involve
Name of energy : Source :

The movement of substances across the plasma membrane : active transport


The movement of substances (ions) across a cell membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration, against a concentration gradient.
requires expenditure of energy from ATP

particular molecules/ions combine with carrier protein change its shape


when the phosphate group from ATP molecules binds to it to allow the molecules /ions to pass through to the other side of the plasma membrane. specific active site of the carrier protein.

After assisting to movement of molecules to the other side of the plasma membrane,
it is free to bind with other molecules

Active transport result in the accumulation of or elimination of molecules Carrier proteins are often called pumps as they act like water pumps which use energy to move water against the gravity Example the absorption of mineral salts into the hair roots

Isotonic :

Hypotonic :

Hypertonic :

The movement of substances across the plasma membrane


Movement of substances across the plasma membrane is necessary : a) To supply nutrients to the cell b) To allow exchange of respiratory gases c) To remove waste products Substances may move through a membrane by simple diffusion, facillitated diffusion, osmosis and active transport

Movement of substances across the plasma membrane in everyday life


Isotonic solution a solution that has the same concentration of solutes as another solution Hypotonic solution a solution that has a lower total concentration of solutes than another solution Hypertonic solution a solution that has a higher total concentration of solutes than another solution

Define
Crenation Plasmolysis Haemolysis Turgid

Animal and plant cells in an isotonic solution


Water molecules move into and out of a cell at the same rate and the cell retains its normal shape (normal concave disc shape red blood cell and plant cells)

Animal and plant cells in an hypertonic solution


Water leaves a cell by osmosis causing the cell to shrink (loose water ). The cell shrivel and the plasma membrane crinkles up of red blood cell known as crenation and in plant known as plasmolysis

Animal and plant cells in an hypotonic solution


Water enters a cell by osmosis causing the cell to swell. The bursting of red blood cell is known as haemolysis and in plant known as turgid

To remove toxic substances

Generate ionic Gradients essential For muscular and Nervous activities

Secrete useful substances


The importance of trasport across membrane

Maintain a suitable pH And ionic concentration Inside the cell

Obtain certain Food supplies

Task : 1. Activity 3.4 (Page 48 Biology Text Book) 2. Visualizing Main Idea (Page 54 Biology Text Book)