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u (m/s) - x (m)

u (m/s)

3.75

1.5
2

0.50.75



()

2.5

3
x (m)

( - - )



: Q > 0
: W > 0



: W < 0
: Q < 0

W>0

Q>0

W<0

Q<0

2006

( - - )


,
, .
,
!



. . . .

.
H. Young,
Physics, Part 1 and 2, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., USA, 1992,
.
.

.

.
Mathcad 2001 Professional
MathSoft Inc .
.
Mathcad
,
.

.
Mathcad 2001 Professional, .
,
.
, .

.

....1

6 ...9

6-1.

6-2.

6-3.

6-4.

6-5.

7 15

7-1.

7-2.
( )

, ,

8 43
- - -
8-1.

8-2.

8-3.

8-4.

8-6.

(m1 , v1 ) (m2 = m1/ , v2)

(m1 , v1 ) (m2 = m1/ , v2)

9 ...63

9-0.

9-1.

9-2.

9-3.

9-4.

10 69

10-1.
10-2.
10-5. ( )
10-7.
-

12 .87

12-1. ( )
12-2.

12-3.
12-5.
12-6.
12-9.



KEPLER (1571 - 1630)

13 .97

13-1.
13-2. ...
13-3. ...
13-4.
13-5.
13-7.
13-8.

13-9. :

15 129

15-1.
15-5.
DEBYE
15-7.
-
STEFAN-BOLTZMANN
15-8. (IC)

17 .135

17-1. ,
17-2.

17-3.
17-4. U
17-5.

18 143

18-1.
18-5.
18-6. CARNOT (1796-1832)
18-7.

19 .153

19-1.
19-2.
19-3.
19-4.
19-5.

20 .165

20-0.

20-1.
20-2.
20-3.


[ ]

21 .173

21-1.
21-2.
21-3.
21-3. DOPPLER
21-6.
22 .185

.

.

23 191

23 .219

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.
( )
10.
(kg/m3) 300
11.
. 25 oC
12.
(m/s)
25 oC ( )
13.

( 1 Mz)
14.
( )
15.
(m/s)
25 oC ( )
16.

17.
. rad/s.
....233

S. I. ( - 1960)

1. t: (s). ,

(Cs). ,
f, .
, 9.192.631.770
. 1967 (!).
2. l: (m). , .
1/299.792.458s.
299.792.458m/s. 1983 (!).
3. m: (kg).
(78Pt) (77Ir) .
. 1960 (!).
4. i: (A - Amper).
5. : (K - Kelvin).
6. J: (cd - ).
7. MOLE: (mole mol = 6.023x10 23).

: (rad - ). 2 .
: (sr - ). 4 .
:
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hph.html
http://www.aps.org/
http://cds.cern.ch/
http://xxx.lanl.gov/
http://www.physics.ntua.gr/
http://www.iop.org/
http://scitation.aip.org/

yotta

zetta
exa

peta

tera

giga

mega

kilo
hecto

deka

deci

centi
milli

micro

nano

pico

femto

atto

zepto

yocto

Y
Z
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m

n
p
f
a
z
y

21
10

18
10

15
10

12
10

9
10

6
10
3
10
100

10
1
10

2
10

3
10

6
10

9
10

12
10

15
10

18
10

21
10

24
10

24

10


15 .
5.5 .
65 .

300 .
Homo Sapiens ( ) 250.000
.
2000
( 1912).
"" ,
30 .
120
2.000.000/s.
.
" " 60-70 /min.

10 -10 s.


10
10 21 m ( 100.000 10.000
).
500.000 km/h. 3 !

5x108 m.

H ""
117 m.

6.10 6 m.

1.5 m.

10 -5 m.

10 -10 m.

10 -15 m.

10 -5m
10 -9m

10 -10 m

10 -14 m

10 -15 m

10 -18 m


(mol)
( )












( )
( )

( )
( 1-18 a, b, c 21 Hugh D. Young).

( )

W F s

W = F s

W = F x cos F , x

= A

= A cos , A

( ).
1-20 a, b 22 Hugh D. Young).


= r F


u=r


L = r p

i j

r F = rx ry

F F
x y

( )
( )
() .
- t.
:
d
dt

d
dt

s =u

d
dt

u=

s u , p F,

, L

- - -

(a = 0)
(a = ct)

W P

rz

Fz

H

1.
(a. = 0, a . = )

(a . = ct)

2. . ( )
. ( )

!
- - -
- - - .

- - - - .

- - - ( 20 ).

- - -


(1642 - 1686 "Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica" {
} - 1727)
( - NEWTON - EINSTEIN)
1 : ( )
,
.
!
.
.

()
:

()
():

F = 0

Fx = 0

Fy = 0

Fz = 0

a = 0

ax = 0

ay = 0

az = 0

= 0

x = 0

y = 0

z = 0

x = 0

y = 0

z = 0

=0

H
2: ( - )
(
, )
.

F = m

m = ct.

d
F= p
dt

m = ct.

3: - [ ! ].
( ),
, , ,
.
( )
1. ( - )
2.
3.
4.

1. - . { ,
, }.
2. - . { ,
}.
3. - . {
, ( )}.
4. - W +, W-, Zo . {
, }.
:
{ + }.

. 6

6

6-1.








1.
2.

: K = mu 2 /2

1. ( ): U = mgy
2.

( ): U = kx 2 /2 F = -kx

6-2.
F

W = F s

W = F s cos ( )

O
s

( )

0 deg cos F , s < 90 deg ( ).

2. : cos F , s = 90 deg
( ).

3. : 90 deg < cos F , s 180 deg


().
1. :

( )

( )

. 6

6-3.


F
s x .
s x,
W.

.

Hooke.
k
x1 x2 .
Hooke .

4 N

k := 6 10

x1 := 0.020 m

x2 := 0.015 m

Hooke :

F ( x) := k x

F x1 = 1.2 10 N

( )

( )

F x2 = 900 N

.
x

Hooke
x1 x2 :

2
W12 := F ( x) dx W12 = 5.25 J
x

Hooke
x2 x1 :

1
W21 := F ( x) dx W21 = 5.25 J
x

()

W121 := W12 + W21

()

W121 = 0 J


.
. .
: ( ), ( Coulomb).
: (
), .
.
:
x:

c := x2

d := x1

x := c , c +

10

d c

.. d

1000

. 6

F () x (m)

( )

F x2

1000

x2

x1

Hooke
F ( x)

0.015

0.01

0.005

0.005

0.01

0.015
0.02

Hooke

( )

F x1

1000

x
Hooke x1
x2 :

( )

1
E10 := x1 F x1
2

E10 = 12 J

()

( )

1
E02 := x2 F x2
2

E02 = 6.75 J ()
W12 := E10 + E02

W12 = 5.25 J

()

6-4.
() -
,
( ) .
11

. 6

:
.
.
:

du
dt

du dx

dx dt

= u

du
dx
x

2
W = F dx
x

2
W = m dx
x

2
du
W = m u
dx
dx

2
W = m u du
u

W=

1
2

mu2

1
2

mu1

m H uo ,
u ( . ;).
.
w, ( g = ) , ,
.
R, ,
.
Ww w .
.
WR R .
:

Ww = w H

Ww = w H cos ( 0 deg)

Ww > 0

WR = w H

H
WR = R ( x) dx
0

WR < 0

():

u=

2
2

uo +

2
m

m u

Ww + WR

m uo = Ww + WR
2

u uo(!).

6-5.

W
Pav =
t

W t.
P av :
P :

P=

lim

t 0 t

P=

d
dt

F u, P
:
12

. 6

P = F u

( )

P = F u cos F , u

( )

1. :

0 deg cos F , u < 90 deg

2. :

cos F , u = 90 deg

3. :

90 deg < cos F , u 180 deg

( )

( )

13

. 6

14

. 7

7

7-1.

1.
2.


1. ( ): U = mgy

: K = mu 2 /2

2.

( ): U = kx 2 /2


.
.
.
: ) ( ). ) ( Coulomb).
: ) (
). ) .
: ( )
.
7-2. ( )

(m)

m
uo .

A
u0
w

:
1. H
(g = ).
2. .

.

H
(m)

Given

m g H +

1
2

m uo = 0 +

1
2

m u

1
1

2
2
2
2

Find ( u) 2 g H + uo

2 g H + u o

w
u

u=

2 g H + uo


( - ).
1
m H uo.
h ( ), , Uw
.
:

ma := 2 kg g := 10

m
s

H := 225 m

uo := 20

m
s

h: c := 0 m d := H

15

h := c , c +

d c

.. d

1000

. 7

u:

u ( h) :=

u o + 2 g h

M :

E ( h) := ma g H h +

Uw:

2
Uw ( h) := ma g ( H h)

K ( h) :=

1
2

ma u ( h)

ma uo

5000

3750

E ( h)
Uw ( h)
K ( h)

2500

Uw ( 0 m)
K ( 0 m)
1250

50

100

150

200

t, ,
Uw .

1
2
H = uo tmax + g tmax
2

Given

Find tmax ( 9 s 5 s )

tmax := 5 s

t:

c := 0 s

d c
d := tmax t := c , c +
.. d
1000

u:

u ( t) := uo + g t

M :

E ( t) := ma g H t +

K ( t) :=

Uw:

Uw ( t) := E ( t) K ( t)

1
2

ma u ( t)

16

1
2

ma uo

K ( 0 s) = 400 J
3

Uw ( 0 s) = 4.5 10 J

. 7

6000
2.95s

E ( t)

4500

Uw ( t)
3

K ( t)

2.45 10 J

3000

Uw ( 0 s )
K (0 s)
1500

, Uw ;

Given

ma g H t0 + 1 ma u 2 1 ma u ( t) 2 = 1 ma u ( t) 2

o 2
2
2

Find ( t) 2 +

7
2

2 s

2 7 2 s

2 + 7 2 s = 2.95 s

2 s = 2.45 10 J

K 2 +

Uw :

7
3
Uw 2 + 2 s = 2.45 10 J
2

M :

E 2 +

17

7
2

7
2

2 s = 4.9 10 J
3

. 7

18

. 6-7

6 7
, ,

1

(m 1 )

x
m1 = 2Kg, ( , uo = 0),
15s, F ,
( SI).
F = t + t

:= 2

( 1)

:= 20

( 2)

( 3)

1.
0s, 5s, 10s 15s.
Newton :

F (0 s) = 0

kg m
s

0s:

10s:

F ( 5 s ) = 50

kg m
s

d
dt
d
dt

p = 0

p = 0

F ( t) := t + t

kg m
2

15s:

kg m

F ( 15 s ) = 150

5s:

( 4)

dp/dt

( 5)

kg m
s

dt

p=F

F ( 10 s ) = 0

kg m
s

m1 := 2 kg

d
dt
d
dt

p = 50

kg m
s

p = 150

kg m
s

2. a
du/dt 0s, 5s, 10s 15s.
Newton : a ( t) =

0s:

du/dt a:

a ( 0 s) = 0

F ( t)
m1

a ( t) :=

5s:

s
10s:

a ( 10 s ) = 0

m1

t +

m1

a ( 5 s ) = 25

t ( 6)

m
2

15s:

a ( 15 s ) = 75

m
2

3.
15s.

F a

F t, .
t = 0s ( = 0). (0,0).
, ,
[-/2, -/2], .
19

. 6-7

to :=

to = 5 s

Fo :=

4 ( 0 N)
4

( )

( 7)

m
a to = 25
2
s

( 8)

( )

F to = 50 N

Fo = 50 N

d c

d := 15 s t := c , c +

c := 0 s

t:

.. d

1000

F(t) :
F (), a (m/s^2) t (s)
Fo
50

F( t)

2 to

to

a( t)

F ( t) = t + t

50

a ( t) =

100

m1

t +

10

11

12

13

14

15

m1

150
t

: F - t, ()
t J F
,
m 1 .
: a - t, ()
t, (u)
.
4.
.
u o :

m
uo := 0
s

a :

a ( t) :=

u :

u ( t) = uo +

m1

t +

a ( t ) dt

m1

u ( t) :=

3 m1

t +

t + uo
2 m1

( 9)

: u - t, ( )
t x,
.
: u - t, (slope) t x 15s,
a tx.

20

. 6-7

u (m/s) t (s)

200

u ( 10 s)

2 to

to
150

u( t)

100

50
u ( 2 s)

10

11

12

13

14

15

5.
x .
x o :

xo := 0 m

u :

u ( t) :=

x ( t) = xo +

x :

3 m1

t +

x ( t) :=

u ( t ) dt

t + uo
2 m1

12 m1

u ( 15 s ) = 0

t +

t + xo
6 m1

m
s

( 10)

s (m), u (m/s), a (m/s^2) - t (s)

200

2 to

to
100
x( t)
10
u( t)
0

10

11

12

13

14

2 a( t)
100

200
t

: x - t, (slope) t 15s,
u t.

21

15

. 6-7

6.
, p
.

t3 + t2 + u
p ( t) := m1
o
2 m1
3 m1

p :

p (Kgm/s) t (s)

400

2 to

to
300

p( t)

200

100

10

11

12

13

14

15

7.
,
.
.
F .
o :

Ko := 0 J

o :

Ko ( t) :=

Ko ( t) :=

1
2

t3 + t2 + u
o
2 m1
3 m1

m1

1
2

m1 u ( t )

( 12)
W ( t) := Ko ( t) Ko

() :

(J) - t (s)

3 .10

2 to

to
4

2 .10
Ko ( t)

1 .10

8
t

22

10

11

12

13

14

15

. 6-7

: - t, W F - t, (slope)
t 15s, P
F t.
8. P F
dK/dt.
.
P F F u.
dK/dt :

P ( t) := F ( t) u ( t) cos ( 0 deg)

P ( t) := t + t

3 m1

t +

t + uo
2 m1

d
dt

K ( t) = P ( t)

. . (J/s) - t (s)

1 .10

2 to

to
5000

P( t)
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

5000

1 .10

: p - t, (slope) F (2
Newton).
: p - t,
t,
F 15s.

23

. 6-7


2
7-25 / . 194 / H. YOUNG

(m 1 )

wy

wx

n=0
:
m1 (
) R.
, .
.
, n R, .
( ) w, ,
. :
wx, wx = wsin (
) wy wy = wcos.
wy n,
, .
( ),
u.
wy, n = 0 ( ).
.
1. .
w ,
:

Ww = m1 g R ( 1 cos )

( 1)

n ,
:

Wn = 0

( 2)

K + U = K + UA

:
=

2 g R ( 1 cos )

m
= m1 g R ( 1 cos )
2 1
m 1 .

( 3)

wy: m1 g cos = m1
R
cos = 2 ( 1 cos )

(4) (3) :
cos =

2
3

( 5)

2 = 48.19 deg

acos

24

3 cos = 2

( 4)

. 6-7

3
7-27 / . 194 / H. YOUNG
:
m1 , l
. ( ). (
) . w (
), (
).
" " .
:

(m 1)

m1 := 0.5 kg

g := 9.8

o
= 90

m
s

w := m1 g

l := 2 m

w
1.
( ).
w ,
:

Ww := m1 g l

( 1)

.
:

WN := 0 J

( 2)

:=

( 3)

K K = WF

= 6.261

m 1 0 = m1 g l

2 gl

m
s

2. .
2

N w = m1
l

N = m1 g + m1
l

N = m1 g + m1
l

( 3)

N := 3 w

(m 1)


30 .
w

.

30 o

:= 30 deg

w
25

N = 14.7 N

. 6-7

3.
.
H := l sin ( )

H:

H = 1m

.
:
:=

2 g l sin ( )

= 4.427

( 4)

m
s

" " .

N w sin = m1
l

( 4)

N = m1 g sin + m1
l

N = m1 g sin + 3 m1 g sin

N := 3 w sin ( )

N = 7.35 N

( 5)

4. ( 0
180) u N.
:
a := 0

b := 180

:= a , a +

.. b

100000
ba

u() () :
( ) :=

2 g l sin ( deg)

( 90) = 6.261

( 30) = 4.427

m
s

( 150 ) = 4.427

m
s

8
30
v (m/s)

( 90)

90

6
( 30)
()

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

(deg)

N ( ) := 3 w sin ( deg)

N ( 90) = 14.7 N

N ( 30) = 7.35 N

26

N ( 150 ) = 7.35 N

. 6-7

N( 90)

15
30

90

()

10

N( )

N( 30)

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

(deg)

: 7.35 .
;
5. :
a) = 0o b) = 30o c) = 90o d) = 150 o .
F . ,
,
( ) F .
:
, (
),
, ( Bohr - ),
, (
).
P ( ) := w ( ) cos ( deg)

( 6)
m

a)

:= 0

cos ( deg) = 1

( ) = 0

:= 30

cos ( deg) = 0.866

( ) = 4.427

c)

:= 90

cos ( deg) = 0

( ) = 6.261

d)

:= 150

cos ( deg) = 0.866

( ) = 4.427

P ( ) = 0 W

s
m
s
m
s
m
s

P ( ) = 18.787 W
P ( ) = 0 W
P ( ) = 18.787 W

(a), (c) (b), (d). ;


6. (
) :
:
27

. 6-7

a := 0

b := 180

:= a , a +

ba

.. b

100000

K ( ) :=

1
2

m1 ( )

( 7)

. . .

20

(J)

30

150

K( 90)

10

K( 30)

K( )
P( )

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

10

20

(deg)

:
;
:
P' ( ) :=

d
d

P ( )

m := 30

max := root ( P' ( m) , m)

max = 35.259

P ( max ) = 19.033 W

m := 150

min := root ( P' ( m) , m)

min = 144.741

P ( min) = 19.033 W

F. .

20
max

P( max )

min

P (W)

10

P( )
0

30

60

90

120

150

180

10
P( min)
20

(deg)
28

210

. 7

7
.

1
U(x) F(x),
1.
x > 0. SI:
3

U ( x) := x 3 x + 2 x 1

1
x

( ).
2.
x
U(x).
D1 ( x) :=

d
dx

1
2
D1 ( x) 3 x 6 x + 2 +
2
x

U ( x)

3 x 6 x + 2 +

=0

x01 := 1

x02 := 1.406

x01 x02 .
2
x01
0

0.5

x02

1.5

2.5

2
U ( x)

4
6
8
10
x

.
1.98
0.95

1.09

1.23

x01

1.36

1.5
x02

U( x) 2.02

2.04

2.06
x

29

. 7

.
3.
U(x) :
a) , U(x) min
b) , U(x) max .
d

D2 ( x) :=

dx

2
D2 ( x) 6 x 6
3
x

D1 ( x)

( )
D2 ( x02 ) = 1.716
D2 x01 = 2

x01 U(x) max .


x02 U(x) min .

( )
4.
x = 0.
2

F ( x) := D1 ( x)

F ( x) 3 x + 6 x 2

1
2

x1 := 0.5

x2 := 1.25

x3 := 2

( )
F ( x2) = 0.172
F ( x3) = 2.25
F x1 = 3.75

2
x1
0

x2

0.5

1.5

2.5

2
U ( x)
4

F( x)

10
x

2
U ( x) :=

U(x)
1.
F(x), x > 0.
SI:

1
2

5
3

x +

3
2

( ).
2.
x
U(x).
D1 ( x) :=
Given

d
dx

D1 ( x) 2 x 5 x + 3 x

U ( x)
2

2 x 5 x + 3 x = 0

Find ( x) 0 1

2
3

30

x01 := 0

x02 := 1

3
x03 :=
2

. 7

x01 , x02 x03 .

x02

x03

0.4

U ( x)
0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

.
3.
U(x) :
a) , U(x) min
b) , U(x) max .
D2 ( x) :=

d
dx

D2 ( x) 6 x 10 x + 3

D1 ( x)

( )

x01 U(x) min .

( )

x02 U(x) max .

( )

x03 U(x) min .

D2 x01 3
D2 x02 1
3
D2 x03
2

( )
4.
x = 0.
F ( x) := D1 ( x)

F ( x) 2 x + 5 x 3 x

0.5
x02

U ( x)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

F( x)
0.5

1
x

31

x03

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

. 7

x1 := 0.5

x2 := 1.3

x3 := 2

( )
F ( x2) .156
F ( x3) 2
F x1 = 0.5

()
()
()


5.
. .
F(x) .
3

F ( x) := 2 x + 5 x 3 x
2

W1 := F ( x) dx

W2 := F ( x) dx

W3 :=

1.5

F ( x) dx

W1234 := W1 + W2 + W3 + W4

W4 :=

F ( x) dx

1.5

W1234 = 0

3
2

U ( y , ) := y

U(y, )
1.
F(y, ):

( ).
2.
y
U(y, ).
D1 ( y , ) :=

d
dy

U(y , )

D1 ( y , ) 2 y

2 y = 0

Given

Find ( y) 0

y = 0 .
y = 0.
3.
U(y) :
a) , U(x) min
b) , U(x) max .
D2 ( y , ) :=

d
dy

D1 ( y , )

3a. :

D2 ( 0 , ) 2
:= 2

J
m

D2 ( 0 , ) 4

J
m

.
:

F ( y) := D1 ( y , )

y := 1.20 m

F ( y) = 4.8 N

F(y) ( y). 6
.

y := 1.20 m

F ( y) = 4.8 N

F(y) ( y). 6
.

32

. 7

y:
a := 1.8 m

b := 1.8 m

b ( a)

y := a , a +

1000

.. b

F(y) U(y) :
10
1.2

U( y , )
F( y)

1.8

1.2

0.6

0.6

1.2

1.8

10
y

() Robert Hooke (1678);



4.
. .
F(x) .

0.5 m

0 m

F ( x) dx = 0 J

0.5 m

1.8 m

0.2 m

F ( x) dx = 0 J

0.2 m

F ( x) dx +

1.8 m

0 m

F ( x) dx +

1.8 m

F ( x) dx = 0 J

1.8 m


! ;

3 m

F ( x) dx = 0 J

3 m

4
7-14 / . 192 / H. YOUNG
z
z. : U(z) = cz 3 , c = 2.5 J/m 3 .
( ) z = 1.20m.
U(z, c)
F(z, c):

33

U ( z , c ) := c z

. 7

F(z, c), z > 0:

U ( z , c)
dz

F ( z , c ) :=

F ( z , c ) 3 c z

c:

c := 2.5

J
m

F ( z , c ) := 3 c z

c :

U(z) F(z) :
z:
a := 0 m

b := 1.8 m

z := a , a +

b ( a)
1000

.. b

20
1.2
10

U ( z , c)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

F( z , c)
10

20

30
z

z1 := 1.20 m

F ( 1.20 m , c ) = 10.8 N

F(y) ( y)
.
5
Yukawa
Yukawa
. r o U o . )
. )
r = 2ro , r = 4ro , r = 10ro r = ro .
) U(r) F(r), r > 0. SI:

r0
r0
U r , r0 , U0 := U0 e
r

Yukawa

( ).
U(r) :

34

. 7

r0
r 1
r
U r , r0 , U0
U0 exp + U0 exp
2
dr
r
r0 r
r0

r r0 + r
U r , r0 , U0 = U0 exp
dr
r0 r2

r r0 + r
F r , r0 , U0 := U0 exp

r0 r2

:
15

r0 := 1.5 10

eV := 1.6 10

19

M := 10

U0 := 50 M eV

r :
a := 0 m

b := r0

r := a , a +

b ( a)

.. b

100

. n - p eV

n - p
0

2 .10

U r , r0 , U 0

r0

r0

10

10

) 4 .10 10
6 .10

10

8 .10

10

5 .10

16

1 .10

1.5 .10

15

15

r
n - p m

) .

) = 0.138

F 2 r0 , r0 , U0

r0

, r0 , U0

) = 7.779 10 3

F 4 r0 , r0 , U0

r0

, r0 , U0

r0

35

) = 6.788 10 6

F 10 r0 , r0 , U0

, r0 , U0

. 7

r0

, r0 , U0 = 3.924 10 N
3

F 2 r0 , r0 , U0 = 541.341 N

F 4 r0 , r0 , U0 = 30.526 N

F 10 r0 , r0 , U0 = 0.027 N

. n - p eV

1 .10

U r , r0 , U 0

n - p

1 .10

10

1 .10

11

1 .10

12

r0

r0

10

5 .10

16

1 .10

1.5 .10

15

15

r
n - p m

6
U(x) F(x)
[
Lennard-Jones ( C. Kittel 5 . 81- ]:
f

U ( x , f , k ) :=

12

f, k x
.

U(x).

1.
f
12

=0

x0 ( f , k ) :=

f
k

( ).
2.
x
U(x).
D1 ( x , f , k ) :=

12

f
13

+ 6

d
dx

k
7

U(x , f , k)

f
k
D1 ( x , f , k ) 12
+ 6
13
7
x
x
6

=0

36

x1 ( f , k ) :=

2f
k

. 7

.
3.
U(x) :
a) , U(x) min
k) , U(x) max .
D2 ( x , f , k ) :=

d
dx

f
k
D2 ( x , f , k ) 156
42
14
8
x
x

D1 ( x , f , k )

19

k:

eV := 1.6 10

Xe Lennard-Jones :

:= 0.02 eV

, k :

f := 4

Ang := 10

10

:= 3.98 Ang

12

k := 4

H U(x) :
x0 ( f , k ) = 3.98 Ang

U x0 ( f , k ) , f , k = 0 eV

H U(x) min :
x1 ( f , k ) = 4.467 Ang

U x1 ( f , k ) , f , k = 0.02 eV

x:
a1 := 0.8 x0 ( f , k )

y := a1 , a1 +

a2 := 2 x1 ( f , k )

0.08

a2 ( a1 )

.. a2

1000

U 0.84 x1( f , k) , f , k

3.98 Ang4.467 Ang

eV

0.06

0.04
U ( x , f , k)
eV
0.02

U x1( f , k) , f , k
10
3.18 .10

10
4.62 .10

10
6.06 .10

10
7.5 .10

eV

0.02
x

U(x,,b) eV m
.
4.
U(x) :
a) , min
k) , max .
D2 ( x , f , k ) :=

d
dx

D1 ( x , f , k )

kg
D2 x0 ( f , k ) , f , k = 9.212
2
s

37

. 7

x0 (f, k) U(x) min .

13

F ( x , f , k ) := 12

+ 6

x0 ( f , k ) = 3.98 Ang

x1 ( f , k ) = 4.467 Ang

(
)
F ( x1 ( f , k ) , f , k ) = 0 N

10

F x0 ( f , k ) , f , k = 1.93 10

1.5
x0( f , k) x1( f , k)
1

F( x , f , k)
0.5

10

10

3.18 .10

10

4.62 .10

6.06 .10

10

7.5 .10

10

10

0.5
x

( )
5.
x = 0.

x2 := 2 Ang

F x2 , f , k = 2.938 10

x1 ( f , k ) = 4.467 Ang

F x1 ( f , k ) , f , k = 0 N

x3 := 5 Ang

F x3 , f , k = 1.919 10

(
(


11

6
7-40 / . 195 / H. YOUNG
U(x, i, n):

U ( x , i , n) :=

i
2

n
x

i n . (u = 0) x = i/n.
( ).
1.
x
U(x).

D1 ( x , i , n) :=

d
dx

U ( x , i , n)

i
n
D1 ( x , i , n) 2
+
3
2
x
x

38

. 7

Given

n
2

Find ( x) 2

=0

i
xo ( i , n) := 2
n

x0 .
.
2.
U(x) :
D2 ( x , i , n) :=

d
dx

i
n
D2 ( x , i , n) 6
2
4
3
x
x

D1 ( x , i , n)

a) , U(x) min

b) , max .
F(x) :

3.

F ( x , i , n) := D1 ( x , i , n)

F ( x , i , n) 2

i
3

F ( x , i , n) := 2

i
3

U(x) F(x) .

4.

i := 1000J m

i n:

n := 10J m

xo ( i , n) = 200 m

U(x) (J) x (m)

U(x) (J)

i
n
0

100

U( x , i , n)

xo( i , n )

200

300

400

500

xo ( i , n) = 200 m

0.01

0.02

U xo ( i , n ) , i , n

U=

i
2

n
x
x
x (m)

4.
( )
x = 0.
F ( x , i , n) := 2

i
3

n
2

i
x1 :=
n

1
J
F x1 , i , n

1000 m

i
x2 := 2
n

F x2 , i , n 0

: F > 0

.
.

39

. 7

1
J
F x3 , i , n

27000 m

i
x3 := 3
n

x2

F(x) (N)

: F < 0

F(x) (N) x (m)

:
F>0

2 .10

xo ( i , n) = 200 m

.
.

F( x , i , n )
200

2 .10

F = 2

i
3

400

600

800

1000

400

500

: F < 0

n
x
x (m)

U(x) (J) F(x) N _ x (m)


i
n
0

U( x , i , n)
F( x , i , n )

100

U=

10

0.02

i
2

xo ( i , n)
200

300

n
x

F = 2
x
x (m)

40

i
3

n
2

. 7

6

() (
SI):
2

U ( x , y) := 2 x 5 x y + 3 y + 6 x 7 y
U(x,y).
d
dx

U ( x , y) 4 x 5 y + 6

dy

U ( x , y) 5 x + 6 y 7

1. :
d

Fx = U ( x , y) i
dx

Fy = U ( x , y) j
dy


F = Fx + Fy

F = ( 4 x 5 y + 6 ) i ( 5 x + 6 y 7 ) j

2.
x y :
Given
( 4 x 5 y + 6) = 0
Find ( x , y)

d
dx

1

2

( 5 x + 6 y 7 ) = 0
:

U ( x , y) 4 x 5 y + 6

dy

(x y ) = (1 2 )

U ( x , y) 5 x + 6 y 7

3. .
U(x,y) :
a) , U(x,y) min
b) , U(x,y) max .
:
2

U ( x , y) 4

U ( x , y) 6

dx
2

dy

(1, 2) .
2

U ( x , y) := 2 x 5 x y + 3 y + 6 x 7 y
x0 := 0.99

y0 := 1.99

x1 := 1.01

y1 := 2.01
41

C := CreateMesh ( U , x0 , x1 , y0 , y1)

. 7

42

. 8

8
- -

8-1.

F=

p
dp/dt (m, u)

dp
dt
p

p = m u

(m,u)

NEWTON
(m, u),
.

dp
F =
dt
8-2.
.
() .
. ( - ).
.
: ,
( ).

p = m u
P = m1 u1 + m2 u2 + ..... + mi ui
P = pi

Fex = 0

P = ct


J F.
.
- :
.
!
!

J = F t

J F:
J F:
t

J=
F dt

t
1

2

J=

dp
dt

dt

43

J = p2 p1

. 8

p = p + J

J = F dt
dp
F=

dt
u

(m ,u)


t F ( ) , J
!
( 8-6 . 204 H. Young, ) .

: .
: .
.
8-3.
( p = ct. ) ( < 0 ).

.
.
- .
: = - ( ) / ( ) = 0.
(
).
- . .
: 0 < < 1.

.
8-4.
( p = ct. ) ( = 0 ).

.
, .
.
: = - ( ) / ( ) = 1!

.
8-6.
:

mi xi
xcm =

mi
i

mi yi
ycm =

mi z i

z cm =

mi
i

mi
i

44

. 8

mi ri
rcm =

1 L , 1 L 3

6
2

CM

mi

(CM)
(CW).

CM

x
O

1
(CM) ;
;
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. ().
8. .
9. .
2 ( )

,

.
(CM).
L m.
.

x
O
L

(CM)
:

m, x1 = L/2, y1 = 0

: m, x2 = (L/2)cos60o, y2 = (L/2)cos30o
:

m, x3 = L- (L/2)cos60o, y3 = (L/2)cos30o

L + L 1 + L L 1

2 2
2 2 2

Given

xcm =

3 m

1 L
2

Find ( xcm , ycm)

1 L 3
6

45

m 0 +

ycm =

L
2

3
2
3 m

L
2

3
2

. 8

(CM) ,
( ).
3 ( )
z

, ,

.

(CM).

x m.
.

(CM)

x, y: m, x1 = /2, y1 = /2, z1 = 0
y, z: m, x2 = 0, y2 = /2, z2 = /2
z, x: m, x3 = /2, y2 = , z2 = /2
Given

+ 0 +

2
2

m
xcm =

+ +

2 2

m
ycm =

3 m

m 0 +
z cm =

3 m

3 m

1
3

Find ( xcm , ycm , z cm)

3
1

3
4
8-73 / . 230 / H. YOUNG
( )

y
dx

)
, ( )
() , L.

(CM)
.

A
x

LA.
dV = Adx dm = Adx.
:
L

1
xcm =
x dm
M 0
Given

xcm =

LA
1

( )

1
Find xcm L
2

x A dx

0
46

. 8

(CM) .
)
, , L,
x = x ( kg/m 4 ).
(CM).
dV = Adx dm = (x)Adx.
:

M=

Given

x A dx

Find ( M)

1
2

L A

(kg/m3)


xA ()
= f(xA) xA

.

M=

1
2

LA L

M=

1
2

L
M
O

A L

:
1
xcm =

x dm

Given

xcm =
1
2

1
2

L A

( )

2
Find xcm L
3

x ( x) A dx

47

x (m3)

. 8

48

. 8

(m 1 , v1 ) (m2 = m1 / , v2 )
:

m1

m2

,

()

v1
v2

k1
k2

p1
p2

,

()

V1

K1

P1

V2

K2

P2


1.

Given

m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m1 V1 + m2 V2
1
2

m1 v1 +

v
1
Find ( V1 , V2)

v2

1
2

m2 v2 =

1
2

m1 V 1 +

m1

1
2

m2 V 2

m2
v1

v2

(v1 m2 + m1 v1 + 2 m2 v2)

(m2 + m1)

(m1 v2 + m2 v2 + 2 m1 v1)

(m2 + m1)

m1

m2

V1

V2

V1 =

( m1 m2) v1 + 2 m2 v2

V2 =

(m2 + m1)

2.

2 m1 v1 + ( m2 m1) v2

(m2 + m1)

:

:

Given
:

m1 v1 m2 v2 = m1 V1 + m2 V2
1
2

m1 v1 +

v1

Find ( V1 , V2)

v2

1
2

m2 v2 =

1
2

m1 V 1 +

m1

1
2

m2 V 2

v1

v2

v1 m2 + m1 v1 2 m2 v2

(m2 + m1)

m2

m1

(m1 v2 m2 v2 + 2 m1 v1)

(m2 + m1)

m2

V1

V2

V1 =

( m1 m2) v1 2 m2 v2

(m2 + m1)

V2 =

2 m1 v1 ( m2 m1) v2

(m2 + m1)

, ,
v 2 -v2 ,
.
49

. 8

3.

:
,

Given

m v1 + m v2 = m V1 + m V2

m v1 +

Find V1 , V2

1
2

m v2 =

1
2

m V1 +

1
2

m V2

v2

v1
:

v2 v1
v v
1 2

m
V2

V1

V1 = v2

V2 = v1

:
.
( m 2 ):

4.
Given

m1 v1 = m1 V1 + m2 V2

(
)
v v
1
1 m +m

( 2 1)
Find ( V1 , V2)

v1

0 2 m1 ( m + m )
2
1

m1 v1 =

1
2

m1 V 1 +

1
2

m2 V 2

m2 m1

4.

V1 =

(m1 m2) v
(m2 + m1) 1

V2 =

2 m1

(m2 + m1)

v1

( m 2 ), m1 >> m2 ( ):
lim

m1

(m1 m2) v
(m2 + m1) 1

v1

lim
m1

2 m1

(m2 + m1)

v1 2 v1

:
) () .
().
) () .
4.

( ):
lim

m1 m2

(m1 m2) v
(m2 + m1) 1

lim
m1 m2

2 m1

(m2 + m1)

v1 v1

:
) .
) , .
4.

( m 2 ), m2 >> m1 ( ):


.
50

. 8

lim
m2

( m1 m2)
v
m1 v1
( m2 + m1) 1

m1

lim
m2

2 m1

v1 2 m1 v1
( m2 + m1)

m2

:
) () ,
.
) () ().
.
5.
m 1 , m2 v1 , v2
;
Given
m1 v1 m2 v2 = m1 V1 m2 V2

2
1
2

0
Find ( m1 , m2 , V1 , V2)
V
1
V
2
:

m1 v1 +

1
2

m1 v1 =

m2 v2 =

1
2

1
2

m1 V 1 +

m1 V 1

1
2

m2 V 2

m2 v2 =

1
2

m2 V 2

v1
0 m2 m 2 m1

v2

v1 V1 v1
v1

V2 v2 v2
v2

m1

m1

m1

v2
m1 = m2
v1

V1 = v1

V2 = v2

:
) ( ).
) .
6.
m 1 , m2 v1 , v2
( m 1 ) ;
Given
:

m1 v1 + m2 v2 = 0 + m2 V2

1
2

m1 v1 +

1
2

m2 v2 =

(v1 + 2 v2)
0 m2
v1
Find ( m1 , V2)

v1 v2
2

m1 = m2

(v1 2 v2)
v1
51

V2 = v2 + v1

1
2

m2 V 2

. 8

7.

:
7.

V1 =

( m1 m2) v1 + 2 m2 v2

(m2 + m1)

m1 := 1 kg

V1 ( ) :=

m
v1 := 50
s

V2 ( ) :=

(1 + )

(m2 + m1)

:= 0 , 0.01 .. 10

m2 ( ) :=

(1 + )

1
50

50
10

10
10 0

30
50

/ (m1/m2)

lim
1

lim
0

lim

V1 ( ) 10

lim

V1 ( ) 30

lim

V1 ( ) 50

m
s

lim

V2 ( ) 50

V2 ( ) 10

m
s
m
s

V2 ( ) 90

m
s

= 1, .
.

7.

V1 =

2 v1 + ( 1 ) v2

30
V2( )

m1

70

V1( )

2 m1 v1 + ( m2 m1) v2

m
v2 := 10
s

( 1 ) v1 + 2 v2

90

(m/s)

V2 =

( m1 m2) v1 2 m2 v2

(m2 + m1)

V2 =

52

2 m1 v1 ( m2 m1) v2

(m2 + m1)

10

. 8

m
v1 := 50
s

m1 := 1 kg

V1 ( ) :=

lim
1

lim
0

lim

( 1 ) v1 2 v2

V2 ( ) :=

(1 + )

V1 ( ) 10

V1 ( ) 70

m
v2 := 10
s

lim

lim

V1 ( ) 50

lim

:= 0 , 0.01 .. 10

m2 ( ) :=

m1

2 v1 ( 1 ) v2
(1 + )
V2 ( ) 50

m
s

V2 ( ) 10

m
s

V2 ( ) 110

m
s

= 1, .
.

v 2 = -10m/s.

110
90

(m/s)

70
V1( )
V2( )

50

50
30
10
10 0

10
1

10

30
50
70

/ (m1/m2)

1

:


k 1 :=

1
2

m1 v1

k 1 = 1.25 10 J

k 2 ( ) := 0
53

k . ( ) := k 1 + k 2 ( )

. 8


V1 =

(m1 m2) v1
(m2 + m1)
m
v1 := 50
s

m1 := 1 kg

V1 ( ) :=

K1 ( ) :=

V2 =

V2 ( ) :=

(1 + )

m1 V 1 ( )

(m2 + m1)

v2 := 0

( 1 ) v1

2 m1 v1

K2 ( ) :=

:= 0 , 0.01 .. 10

m1

2 v1
(1 + )
1
2

m2 ( ) V 2 ( )

2
K2 ( ) := k 1

( 1 + )

m2 ( ) :=

8-53 . 228 Young


1400

(J)

1200

k1

1000

K1( )
800

k1

K2( )

2
600

400

200

10

= 1, .

pososto ( ) :=

K2 ( )
k1

r :=

pososto ( r) = 0.75

3
54

1 = 0.75

pososto

. 8

. -

1.5

pososto( r)

0.5

3
4
5
6
7
/

10

, (1) :
= 1.
o := 1
:
2

i := 1

i :=

1
8

j :=

j :=

( )

pososto i = 1

pososto j = 1

j = 8

32
pososto i =
81

32
pososto j =
81

( )

j = 1

( )

( )

2
, 50%
;

Given

b=

1
2

3 + 2 2 3 2 2

Find ( , b)
1
1

2
2

K1 ( ) = b k1

a := 3 + 2 2

1
pososto a =
2

b := 3 2 2

1
pososto b =
2

( )
( )

;
3
, :
a) ;
a) ;
.
55

. 8

(m 1 , v1 ) (m2 = m1 / , v2 )
, :

m1

m2

,

()

v1

k1

p1

v2

k2

p2

,

()

m1 := 1 kg

m
v1 := 20
s

:= 0 , 0.01 .. 10

m2 ( ) :=

m1

m
v2 := 10
s

M ( ) := m1 + m2 ( )
( )
1.

m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m1 + m2 V

(m1 v1 + m2 v2)
(m1 + m2)

Synbolics, Variable, Solve, :

V=

V ( ) :=

+1

/ .

25
(m/s)

v1 + v2

1
20
v1
V( )
v2

15

10

lim
0

v1 v2
+1

10

m
s

lim

56

v1 v2

+1

20

m
s

10

. 8

2.

m1 v1 m2 v2 = m1 + m2 V

(m1 v1 m2 v2)
(m1 + m2)

Synbolics, Variable, Solve, :

V=

V ( ) :=

v1 v2
+1

,
, v 2 -v2 ,
.
/ .

(m/s)

25
1

20
15

v1

10

V( )

v2

10

5
10
15

v1 v2

lim
0

+1

10

v1 v2

lim

+1

20

m
s

:
1. > .

m
v1 = 20
s

m1 = 1 kg

:
m.

m.

m2 ( 3 ) =

1
3

kg

m
v2 = 10
s

kg

V ( 3 ) = 17.5

V ( ) :=

v.
:

M ( 3 ) =

(m. + m.)

V > 1/2 v.
57

4
3

m
s

v1 + v2
+1

. 8

2.
.
:
m.

m1 = 1 kg

m
v1 = 20
s

m2 ( 1 ) = 1 kg

m
v2 = 10
s

M ( 1 ) = 2 kg

V ( 1 ) = 15

m.

v.
:
(m. + m.)

m
s

V = 1/2 v.

3. >
:
m.

m.

m
v1 = 20
s

m1 = 1 kg

1 = 3 kg

m
v2 = 10
s

1 = 4 kg

m2
v.
:
(m. + m.)

1 = 12.5 m

s
3

V < 1/2 v.



k 1 :=

1
2

m1 v1

k 1 = 200 J

k 2 ( ) :=

1
2

m2 ( ) v2

k . ( ) := k 1 + k 2 ( )


:
1.

V ( ) :=

K =

1
2

M V

:
v1 + v2
+1

K ( ) :=

1
2

M ( ) V ( )

K ( 1 ) = 225 J

,
( , ) (
).

, :
K ( ) := k . ( ) K ( )

pososto ( ) :=

K ( )
k . ( )

58

. 8

300

(J)

k1

200

k2( )
K ( )
100

10

. -

0.2
1

1
9
0.1

2
/

, (1/9) :
= 1/2.
o :=

1
pososto o =
9

( )

< 100%. !

:
2

i := 1

i :=

1
8

j :=

j = 0.25

1
pososto i =
10

1
pososto j =
10

j = 2

2
pososto i =
27

2
pososto j =
27

( )

j :=

( )

59

( )
( )

. 8

2.

:
v1 v2

V ( ) :=

K ( ) :=

+1

M ( ) V ( )

K ( 1 ) = 25 J

300

(J)

k1

200

k2( )
K ( )
100

10

,
( , ) (
).
, :
K ( ) := k . ( ) K ( )

K ( )
k . ( )

. -

1.5
1
.

pososto ( ) :=

1
1

0.5

2
/
60

. 8

, (1) :
= 1/2.
1

o :=

( )

pososto o = 1

100%. !

:
2

i := 1

i :=

j :=

j = 0.25

9
pososto i =
10

9
pososto j =
10

j = 2

2
pososto i =
3

2
pososto j =
3

( )

j :=

( )

( )

( )

2.
, ( )
50% ;
Given

m1 v1
m1
1

m +
2 1

m1 +

Find ( )

v2

= 1 1 m v 2 + 1 m1 v 2
2 2 1 1
2 2
m1

m1

13 + 3 17 13 3 17

8
8
8 8

13 + 3 17 = 1

8 8
2

13 3 17 = 1

8 8
2

pososto

pososto

2.
(0 ),
;

V ( ) :=

v1
+1

K ( ) := k . ( ) K ( )

K ( ) :=

1
2

M ( ) V ( )

pososto ( ) :=

K ( )
k . ( )

:
lim

pososto ( ) 1

()
.
:
lim

pososto ( ) 0

()
61

. 8


( )

p1 := m1 v1

p1 = 20

m1
p2 ( ) :=
v
2

kg m
s

P = m1 + m2 V

: P1 = m1 V

P 2 = m2 V

:
P1 ( ) :=

p + p ()

( 1 2 )
+ 1

P2 ( ) :=
p1 = 20

1 p + p ()

( 1 2 )
+ 1

kg m

p2 ( 2 ) = 5

P ( ) := P1 ( ) + P2 ( )

kg m
s

P ( 2 ) = 25

kg m
s

(Kg m /s )

1 .10

p1

100

p2( )
P ( )
10

62

. 9

9

9-0.

: "", "", "".
:
1. .
u
.

.
2. .

xx.
.
3. .
9-1.


:

av =
t

av:

av =

63


z
xy.

.


,

z.

d
dt

d
dt

. 9

9-2.
d

ang:

ang =

t:

t = t2 t1

dt

ang = ct

( ).
:
t

d
dt

2
= ang dt

= + ang t

t
2

= +
dt

t1

1
2
= + t + ang t
2



.
""
,
(+) (-).

64

. 9

9-3.

z.
z ( 9-8 .
239 H. Young). t s, r
( rad). :
s = r

s:

u:

dt

s =

d
r
dt

lin = tan + rad

lin:

u = r

lin =

tan + rad

tan lin (
u):
tan =

d
dt

tan =

d
dt

( r)

tan = ang r

rad lin (
u):
2

rad =

rad = r

9-4.

z.
z .

. :
:

M=

mi
i

cm z,
(CM):

65

Icm =

mi ri

. 9

K=

2 mi ( ri)
1

K=

2 mi ( ri)
1

K=

1
2

mi ri

K=

I
2 cm

P P, z
d ( Steiner):

IP = Icm + M d

66

. 9

z.
. .
a
. t.

:= 2

rad
s

( t) :=

:= 4

rad

:= 8

rad

:= 1

rad
s

t := 0 s , 0.01 s .. 15 s

t if 0 s t 2 s
t

if 2 s t 4 s

t if 4 s t 15 s
. . (rad/s) - t (s)
8
15 s 4

6
4
2

(4+8+8) rad
0

8
t s

a ( t) :=

dt

14

16

( 15 s)

12

-24.5 rad

a ( t) :=

10

( t)
if 0 s t 2 s
0 if 2 s t 4 s
if 4 s t 15 s

67

. 9

. . (rad/s^2) - t (s)
4
15 s

10

12

14

16

2
t s

( t) :=

1
2

if 0 s t 2 s

1
2

( ) (2 s)

if 2 s t 4 s

t 1 t2 4 s 1 ( ) 4 s 2 if 4 s t 15 s

2
2


25
2 s

4 s

0
rad

20

15
( t)
10

4
()

10

5
t
rad/s^2

15s:
(4+8+8+ -24.5 ) rad = 44.5 rad.
(4+8+8-24.5) rad = -4.5 rad.

68

12

14

4.5

16

. 10

10


10-1.
z
.
F 1 1
r1 F1 ( z)
l1 F1 z:

l1 = r1 sin r1 , F1

1 F1 z:

1 = r1 F1

1 = r1 F1 sin r1 , F1

1 :

1 = F1 l 1

1 :

.
( ).

F1

1
r1

l3 = 0

l1

F3

l2

r3

3 = 0

2
r2

2
F2

F 2 2
r2 F2 ( z)
l2 F2 z:

l2 = r2 sin r2 , F2

2 F2 z:

2 = r2 F2

2 :

2 = r2 F2 sin r2 , F2

69

2 = F2 l 2

. 10

2 :

.
( ).

F 3 3
r3 F3 ( z)
l3 F3 z:
3 F3 z:

l3 = 0

3 = r3 F3

3 = 0

10-2.
z,
I. . :
.
.
L
K .
1. .
2. ,
.
3. ,
.
70

. 10

= I

d
=
dt

: ,
, .
z CM
z . :
CM cm.

ang z.

:
ucm cm :

ucm = R

ucm cm :

cm = R ang

Klin =

Krotation =

W :

W =

1
2

M u

1
2

d
1

W =

I d
1

1
2 1
2
W = I 2 I 1
2
2

P :

P =

P :

P =


10-6 . 265 H.
Yoyng.

71

. 10

I=

mi ri

10-5. ( )
.
L p

.
( - ).

L :


L = r p

L = r m u

( 1)

(1) :

L = r m u


u u = 0

d d
d
L = r m u + r m u
dt
dt
dt

:

d
L = r m lin
dt


d
d
L = m u u + r m u
dt
dt

d
L = r F
dt

d
L=
dt

( 2)

" L
".
( ).
' L = mur
.
,
.
72

. 10

:
:

L = r m u
L = m u r sin

L =


L i ,
z :

L=
Li
L =
mi ri
L = I
( 3)

().

L
:

d
L =
dt

( 4)

,
.


.
.
73

. 10

d
L =
dt

= 0

d
L=0
dt

.
.
, .

, .

,
.
.

10-7.

, L .
(
)
.
. :

() L

d/dt, L, dL dL/dt
. .
.

() L

d/dt, L, dL dL/dt
. "" .
.

74

. 10



:
() ;

;
. .
()
L. . w = mg N
.

mg,
,
= mgx

,


.

.
L

.
Lsin
, L

.

P

() .



.
P :



mgx

75

. 10

p =

p =

t
m g r sin
L sin

p =

p =

( L sin) t

p =

L sin

m gr
I




()
,

.
,

,

,
.

76

. 10

p
.
p =

77

m gr
I

. 10

L = (),
.
= mgl
L.
mgl L L.
L, L
.
.

:
,
,
.
.
;

78

. 10

1
(, r) M
Ox, . F
, .

d/dt
F
O

r := 0.2 m

M := 1 kg

:
1

x :

I :=

o := 2

Ko :=

L :

Lo := I o

F :

z := 10

F :

( t) := r F ( t)

( t) :=

t x :

tx := 10 s

( t) := o + ( t) dt

M r

1
2

I = 0.02 kg m

rad
s
2

I o

Ko = 0.04 J
2

Lo = 0.04

2 N

kg m
s

F ( t) := z t

( t)
I

K ( t) :=

L :

L ( t) := I ( t)

I ( t)

rad
tx = 7
s

( )

( )

K tx = 0.49 J

( )

L tx = 0.14

kg m

( )

tx = 0.02 N m

F :

79

. 10

t

( t) := ( t) dt

( )

110
tx =
rad
3

W ( t) := ( t) ( t) dt

W tx = 0.45 J

K ( t) := K ( t) Ko

K tx = 0.45 J

P :

P ( t) := ( t) ( t)

7
P tx =
W
50

P av :

Pav ( t) :=

W :

( )

( )

( )

K ( t ) Ko

( )

9
Pav tx =
W
200

t:
c := 0 s

d := tx

t := c , c +

d c

.. d

1000

(rad/s^2) t (s)
1.2
tx

( )

tx

0.8
( t)
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

10

12

(rad/s) t (s)
10
tx

( t)

( 4 s ) = 0.4

( )

tx

rad
s

0.4
0

6
t
80

10

12

. 10

(rad) t (s)

( )

tx

40
tx

30

( t)
20

rad

( 4 s ) = 2.8

10

2.8
0

10

12

L (Kgm^2/s) t (s)

( )

L tx

0.15
tx

0.1
L( t)

16x10-3

( t)

( 2 s ) = 4 10

( 8 s ) = 0.016 N m

Nm

4x10 -3
0.05

8x10 -3
3

( 4 s ) = 8 10

Nm

6
t

81

10

12

. 10

2
10-12 / 10-12 H. YOUNG
= 2.5 kgm 2
. = t 2
= 400rad/s3 .
:
: I := 2.5 kg m

( t , ) := t

L
:

L ( t , ) := I ( t , )


o
:

( t , ) :=

arev ( t , ) :=

K ( t , ) :=

P ( t , ) := ( t , ) ( t , )

P ( t , ) :=


t :

Pmean ( t , ) :=

d
dt

( t , ) 5.0 kg m t

(t , )
I
I (t , )

d
dt

( t , ) :=

L ( t , ) 2.5 kg m t

L(t , )

K (t , )
K (t , )
t

( t , ) dt

0 s

N ( t , ) :=

(t , )
2

2s:
:= 400

o :

rad
s

3
2
3 kg m

L :

L ( 2 s , ) = 4 10

( 2 s , ) = 4 10 N m

K ( 2 s , ) = 3.2 10 J

P ( 2 s , ) = 6.4 10 W

P ( 2 s , ) = 6.4 10 W

s
3

82

2
2

. 10


t :

Pmean ( 2 s , ) = 1.6 10 W

( 2 s , ) = 1.067 10 rad

N ( 2 s , ) = 169.765

2000

(rad),
(rad/s)
(rad/s^2)
t (s)

1500
( t, )
( t, )

1000

arev ( t , )

500

0.5

1.5

5000

L (Kgm^2/s)
(m) t (s)
t (s)

4000

L( t , ) 3000
( t, )
2000

1000

0.5

1
t

L (Kgm^2/s) t (s)
(m) t (s)
83

1.5

. 10

7 .10

P ( 2 s , )

6 .10

(J),
(W)
. dK/dt (J/s)
t (s)

5 .10

K( t , )
4 .10

P ( t , )

. 6
P ( t , )3 10
Pmean( 2 s , )

2 .10

1 .10

0.5

1.5

(J) t (s)
(W) t (s)
. dK/dt (J/s) t (s)
6

P ( 2 s , ) = 6.4 10 W

Pmean ( 2 s , ) = 1.6 10 W

3
m :

r = cos ( t) x + sin ( t) y

, , , , t ,

x y .
x y
1. (x, y).
:
x

x = cos ( t)

y = sin ( t)

r = cos ( t) x + sin ( t) y

x = ( cos ( t) ) 2

= cos ( t)

= sin ( t)

y = ( sin ( t) ) 2

=1

(0, 0), 2 2.
84

. 10

2.
a.

r = cos ( t) x + sin ( t) y
d
= r
dt

= sin ( t) x + cos ( t) y

d
a=
dt

2
2
a = cos ( t) x sin ( t) y

2
a = r
3.
( ) ,
.

p = m


L = r p

p = m sin ( t) x + cos ( t) y


L = m r

x
y

L = m
cos ( t)
sin ( t)

sin ( t) cos ( t)

L = m 0 x + 0 y + z

0
0

Lx = 0

Ly = 0

Lz = m z

4. F .
.

F = m a

2
F = m r


= r F


2
= r m r

d
L=0
dt

L =

85

( )

2
= m r r

=0

. 10


.
' L = mur
. , r
p .

L = r m u

L = m u r sin

86

. 12

12

12-1.

( )

1, m1

2, m2
Fg1

Fg2

, m 1 , m 2 Fg
m 1 m 2
r. .

. :

Fg1 + Fg2 = 0

Fg1 = Fg2

Fg1 = G

G
.
Henry Cavendish () 1798
. R. Feynman " ".
G SI :

m 1 m2
2

11 N m

G := 6.67 10

kg

:
,
r.
r
.

i
.
12-2.

w ()
.

.

.

, m E
R,
. m
w r
:
12-3.

w = Fg

w = G

g ( N/kg) ,
w m ,
m. g w :
87

mE m
2

. 12

Fg

(mE, R)

H
(, m)
g

g=

g = G

mE
2


12-6 .
323 H. Young

g H
g ( N/kg)
g
:

g=

g = G

mE

g ( m/s 2 )
g w
( m/s 2 )
:

g = 9.8

H g :

gH = G

g :

g = G

m
s

mE
( R + H)

mE
2

gH = g

( R + H)

g h
, (!!),
(!!) (!!) m E ,
R, ,
.
m
h
:
(R-h)
m inE
h.


m inE .

minE

gh

:
4
3
mE = R
3

( 1)

:
4
3
minE = ( R h)
3

( 2)

(R-h)
88

. 12

gh = G

h gh :

g = G

g :
gh
g

( R h)

minE
mE

gh


(1) (2):

( R h)

minE
( R h)

(3)
(4) :

mE

( 4)

( R h)

gh = g

m
g := 9.8
2
s

R := 6.38 10 m

( R h)
R

r :
a := 0 m

( 3)

r := a , a +

b := 24 10 m

b ( a)
10000

r
g
if 0 < r R
R

g ( r) :=

.. b

g
2
r

10
R

3 R

g

r

9
7.5

g ( r)

otherwise

5
2

R
g = g
2
r

g = g
R

2.5

g
9

0
0

6 .10

1.2 .10
r

1.8 .10

r 1 r2
. :

2.4 .10

x , :

R
r1 =
2
x

r2 = x R

g=

go
2

x = 3
89

r1 r2 = R

. 12

12-5.

, m H
.
u p ,
.
L .
:
u
2

m gH = m

gH = g

( 1)

( R + H)

( R + H)

R
2
g
=u
( R + H)

u :=

( 1)

u = R

R g

( R + H)

u = 7.907 10

3m

( 2)

( R + H)

( R + H)

( 3)

, , .

.
H u.

T=

2 ( R + H)
u

( 3)

T=

2 ( R + H)
R

T=

2 ( R + H)
R

( R + H)

( 4)

( R + H)

:
r (r = R+H).
(3 Kepler ).
:
( 4)

T =

2 R
R

mE

T = 2

G R
3

T =

( 5)

H .

!
a := 0 m

b := 24 10 m
g

u ( H) := R

u ( 0 m) = 7.907 10

90

H := a , a +

( R + H)
3m

b ( a)
10000

.. b

. 12

2 ( R + H)

T ( H) :=

T ( 0 m) = 5.07 10 s

R
3

( R + H)
g

T ( 0 m) = 1.408 hr

1 .10

2 R

u( H)

u( 0 m)

...

8000

u( R)

6000

4000

u = R

2000

g
( R + H)

6 .10

1.2 .10
H

1.8 .10

2.4 .10

. (m/s) (m)

T ( H) :=

1
3600

2 ( R + H)

( R + H)
g

15
2 R

R
11.25

T=
T( H)

1
3600

2 ( R + H)

( R + H)

7.5
T( R)
3.75
T( 0 m)
0
0

6 .10

1.2 .10
H

1.8 .10

2.4 .10

(h) (m)
H geostatic
, ,
.

"" .
,
.
91

. 12

Tgeostatic =

T := 8.64 10 s

) (R + Hgeos) = T

(R + Hgeos)
3

Hgeos :=

)2 (R + Hgeos) = T

(R + Hgeos) =

(2 )

Hgeos = 35872 km

T g R

T g R

( 2 ) R + Hgeos

T g R
(2 )

R
4

2 R + Hgeos

) (R + Hgeos)

2 R + Hgeos


( ) :

(2 )

12-35
.343 . Young

12-6. KEPLER (1571 - 1630)


Johannes Kepler
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601).
Brahe
( 1608).
Kepler Brahe.

Newton () .

1. , .
2. ( ),
.
3.
.


, .
,
.
.

Fg

x
E'

O
e

92

. 12


() Newton ( F
r)
, , .
.

t (
r) d dA.

1 2
r d
2

dA =
dA

dt

1 2 d
r
2
dt

sin = r

( 1)

( 2)

( 3)

dt

( 4)

(2) (3) (4) :


dA
dt

1
2

dt

rr

dA

( 3)

dt

1
2

r(r )

dA

( 4)

dt

L (
Fg ) :

1
2

r sin

( 5)

( )

L = r m

L = r m sin

L :

dA

(5) (7) :

dt

L
2 m

L.

normal

normal = sin

rd

d, r, dA

x
E'

93

( 6)
( 7)
( 8)

. 12

, ;
1. , e .
.
2. 0.017 !
3. ;

.
12-9.

(m, uB)
H

FgH

(m, uevasion)
Fgo


m , R,
, , ,
.


,

.

:

VH = G

(m, R)

( 1)

R + H


uB
(
) .
u:

m
m 1

2
2

mB u + mB G
= mB u + mB G
R 2

2
R +


uB :

uB = 0,
:

u=

uevas =

g =

94

1
2
1

u + 2 G m

R R +
2 G m
R
G m
R


mB .

( 2)

( 3)

( 4)

( 5)

. 12




:


:

2 g R

uevas =

u1 =

g R

uevas = R

G m

u1 =

8 G

u1 = R

( 6)

4G
3

uevas = u1 2

( 7)

( 8)


1.
.
2.
.
3.
.

m
g = 9.8
2
s

R := R

u1 :=

km
u1 = 7.9
s

( 9)

uevas :=

km
uevas = 11.2
s

( 10)

g R
2 g R

G = 6.67 10

11 N m
2

R := 6.96 10 m

kg

G m

u1 :=

uevas :=

R
2 G m
R

30

m := 1.99 10

kg

km
u1 = 436.7
s

( 11)

km
uevas = 617.6
s

( 12)



,
( ).

c!!
.
Einstein
Newton .
1916 Karl Schwarzchild ( )
RS Schwarzchild.
RS

RS =

2 GM
c

95

. 12

RS,
, ,
RS.
Stephen Hawking ()
,

.
RS,
.
()
.
;
1. , .
2. , .
3. ,
.
4.
.
5.
.
.

.

96

. 13

13

13-1.

:
.
.
:
() .
():

. F
x .
.
: ( SI s).
f: ( SI Hz).
(): .
" ( k) - ( m) ".
13-2.

(!)
U
E ( ).
13-3.

m
k D

x:

x = A sin t +

= A cos t +

= A sin t +

= x

F:

F = m

()

U:

D
m

1
2

U=

)
)

F = D x

))2

m A cos t +
1
2

))2

D A sin t +

97

. 13

DA

U:

E=

T = 2

= ( ) A x

E=

1
2

m1 max

m
D
2

x ( )
.


, k, m g/k.


.
.

()
( )
CM.

. :



c =

= sin c t +

T = 2

= A c cos c t +

= A c sin c t +

:
13-4.

= I

= c

()

, .
().
xx, ().
' ( , ,
) x'x x = At.
' ( ,
, ) x'x

x = At.
x . F x.
98

. 13

= - 2 t

x = t
= t

x

() :
SI.
m:

m := 0.5 kg

:= 0

A := 0.01 m

1.

k:

2 N

k := 200

Matcad

.

, f :

T := 2

m
k

T = 0.1 s

f :=

f = 10 Hz

:= 2 f

= 62.832

rad
s

2. max , F:
max := A
max := A

max = 0.628
2

max = 39.478

s
m
2

s
Fmax := k A

Fmax = 19.739 N

3.
max , U
() E:

99

. 13

Kmax :=

Kmax = 0.099 J

1
2
Umax := k A
2

Umax = 0.099 J

E := Kmax

E = 0.099 J

E := Umax

E = 0.099 J

m max

4.
x, ,
, F, , U ()
E:

x ( t) := A sin t +

( t) := A cos t +

( t) := A sin t +
F ( t) := m ( t)

F ( t) := k x ( t)

K ( t) :=

U ( t) :=

E ( t) :=

E ( t) :=

))2

m A cos t +

))2

k A sin t +
2 0

m max t
2 0

k A t

5.
t
x, , , F, ,
U () E.
T = 0.1 s

t := 0 s , 0.0001 s .. T

5. x - t

x ( t) := A sin t +

xmax := A

xmax = 0.01 m

x - t
0.015

A x (m)

0.01

12

0.005

12

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.005
0.01
0.015
t (s)

5.

- t

( t) := A cos t +

max := A

max = 0.628
100

m
s

0.1

. 13

- t

max

(m/s)

T
0.5

12

12

0.025

0.05

0.075

max

3
2

0.1

0.5

1
t (s)

5.

- t
2

( t) := A sin t +

max := A

max = 39.478

m
2

s
- t

40

(m/s)

T
20

12

12

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.5 max 0.1

0.075

0.5Fmax 0.1

20

40
t (s)

5.

F- t

F ( t) := k x ( t)

Fmax := k A

Fmax = 19.739 N
F- t

25
T
F (N)

12.5

12

T
12

0.025

0.05

12.5

25
X t (s)
101

. 13

5.

, - t

/2 .
1000x(t) (m), 50 (m/s) , (t) (m/s^2)

1000x(t) (m), 50 (m/s) , (t) (m/s^2)

40

T
4

20

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.1

1000x (m)

20

50 (m/s)

40

(m/s2)
(s)

5.

- t

K ( t) :=

U ( t) :=

k A sin t +
2

1
2
Umax := k A
2

E ( t) :=

E := Kmax

))2

m A cos t +

))2

2 0

m max t

Kmax :=

1
2

m max

E = 0.099 J

E := Umax

E = 0.099 J

(J) - t (s)
T

T
8

K( t)
E (J)

0.1
U( t)

2
0.05

0.012

0.025

0.037

0.05

6.
x, ,
U () E.
102

. 13

U ( x) :=

E ( x) :=

K ( x) :=

2
2
2

1
2
Umax := k A
2

2 0

E := Kmax

k x

k A x

2 0

k A x

1
2

k x

Kmax :=

1
2

E = 0.099 J
m max

E := Umax

E = 0.099 J

x := A , 0.99 A .. A

- x
0.12

A 2

A 2

2
0.09

(J)

K( x)
U ( x)

E
0.06

E
0.03

0.01

0.005

0.005

0.01

x
A x (m)

7.

x, F .

F - x
x := A , 0.99A .. A

F ( x) := k x

Fmax := k A

Fmax = 19.739 N

F x.
,
, ,
( - ).
F - x

F ( x) = k x

30

Fmax

F (N)

15

0.099J

A Fmax = 0.099 J

F( x)
0.015

0.0075

0.0075

0.015
Fmax

15

0m

30

F ( x) dx = 0.099 J

x
x (m)

F ( x) dx = 0.099 J

0m

- x
x := A , 0.99A .. A

( x) := x

max := A

max = 39.478

m
2

s
103

. 13

max

(m/s^2)

50
A

A
25

( x)

0.015

0.0075

0.0075

0.015
max

25
50
x
x (m)

- x
8.

( t) := A sin t +

(m/s^2)

A = 0.628

( t) := A cos t +
50

m
max

max

2
25

3
2
0.5
max

( t)
A

0.8

0.4

0.4

0.5max 0.8

25

( A 2)

50

(A )

=1

A = 39.478

( t)
(m/s)

m
2

. -

9.
P ( )
t.

x ( t) := A sin t +

F ( t) := k x ( t)

P ( t) := F ( t) ( t)

t := 0 s , 0.0001 s .. T

10
P (W)

T
5

0.099J

P( t)

-0.099J

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.1

5
T
10
t
t (s)

P (W) - t (s)
104

P ( t ) dt

. 13

.

,
( ).

x ( t) := A sin t +

F ( x) := k x

K ( t) :=

))2

m A cos t +
2
T

i)
P-t,
/4:

P ( t) dt = 0.099 J

ii)
/4, 0.01m:

iii)

/4:

iii) F-x, x = 0
x = A :

0.01m

F ( x) dx = 0.099 J

0m

T K ( 0 s) = 0.099 J

F ( x) dx = 0.099 J

10.
, ()
P ( ), t.
;
1

K ( t) :=

))2

m A cos t +
2

P (W), . (J) dK/dt (J/s)


t (s)

E (J)

K( t)
P( t)

P/50 (W)

0.1

(J)

0.05

50
0

d
dt

K( t)
0.05

0.012

0.025

0.037

-(0.099 / 50) J

50
0.1

0.15

(d/dt) / 50 (J/s)
t

105

P = d/dt

0.05

. 13

13-5.


()
.
m.
.

K
sin =
Fx = m g sin

3 .

.
(, m)
.
3

.
,
sin tan
rad.
:

Fx = m g

x
L

L
(, m)

Fx =

m g

mgsin

mgcos
mg

:= 1 deg

= 0.01745 rad

sin ( ) = 0.01745

tan ( ) = 0.01746

:= 2 deg

= 0.03491 rad

sin ( ) = 0.0349

tan ( ) = 0.03492

:= 3 deg

= 0.05236 rad

sin ( ) = 0.05234

tan ( ) = 0.05241

:= 45 deg

= 0.7854 rad

sin ( ) = 0.70711

tan ( ) = 1

:= 60 deg

= 1.0472 rad

sin ( ) = 0.86603

tan ( ) = 1.73205

mg, mgsin . :
Fx = m g sin

( 1)

sin =

Fx = m g

( 2)

x
L

( 3)

x Fx . Fx :
Fx =

m g
L

x ( 4)

k :

k=


m
( ):

T = 2

m g

( 5)

L
k

( 6)

m
m
k

( 7)

( 5)

T = 2

L
g

g .

.
:
Tex = 2

1+

1
2

2
2

2
4
2 2
+ 1 3 sin + ....

2 2
2
2
2 4

sin

, .
106

( 8)

. 13


(, m) ( = 2s)
go = 9.8 m/s2 .
1. Lo.
Given

Lo

To = 2

To := 2 s

go := 9.8
2
s

( )

go

1 To
Lo :=
g
2
4

1 To
Find Lo
go
2
4

Lo = 0.994 m

2. = 8.000m.
24 ;
:

H := 8000 m

RE := 6.38 10 m

gH := go

g :

TH := 2

g :

posg :=

posT :=

tt
t

:

RE

(RE + H)

m
gH = 9.775
2
s

Lo

TH = 2.003 s

gH

gH go
go

100 %

TH To
To

posg = 0.25 %

100 %

posT = 0.159 %

tt := 24 hr
t := posT tt

t = 137.685 s

3. ex
20 .
ex .

ex (s)

Tex ( ) := To 1 +

2
2

deg + 1 3 sin deg

2 2
2

2 4

sin

:= 0 , 0.1 .. 20

T ( 3 ) = 2.0003 s
ex

Tex ( 15) = 2.0086 s

2.02
3
Tex ( )

15

Tex( 15)

2.01

Tex ( 3 ) = 2.0003 s
Tex ( 15) = 2.0086 s

2
0

12

(deg)
107

16

Tex( 3)

20

. 13

:
posT =

Tex T
T

posT ( ) :=

2
2

posT =
2

Tex

1
T

posT = 1 +

deg + 1 3 sin deg

2 2
2

2 4

sin

1
2

2
2

2
4
2 2
+ 1 3 sin 1

2 2
2
2
2 4

sin

posT ( 15) = 0.43 %

0.8
3

15

0.6

posT ( 15) 100

posT ( 15) = 0.43 %


posT( ) 100 0.4

posT ( 3 ) = 0.017 %

0.2

posT ( 3) 100

10

15

20

(deg)

= 1deg:

posT ( 1 ) = 0.0019 %

0.002% !

= 3deg:

posT ( 3 ) = 0.01714 %

0.018% !

= 15deg:

posT ( 15) = 0.43 %

0.5% !

13-7.



.
(-bu). :
m 1 , ) k, b,

:

d
Fb = b x
dt

Newton :

m1


x:

x = Ao e

A = Ao e

d
x + b x + k x = 0
dt
dt
2

cos ( t)

b
2 m1

:
: o =

k
m1

o
f : fo =
2
108

: To =

2
o

. 13

() :

b
2 m
1

f: f =

T=

. SI.
m1 :

m1 := 1 kg

k:

k := 16

Ao := 0.01 m

2 N

:
:

o :=

f :

fo :=

To :=

o = 12.566

m1
o

rad
s

fo = 2 Hz

2
2

To = 0.5 s

:
b := 2

b:

N
m
s

:=

f:

f :=

T :=

b
2 m
1

2
1
f
m1

Newton :

= 12.527

f = 1.994 Hz

fo = 2 Hz

T = 0.502 s

To = 0.5 s

a := 0 s

x ( t) := Ao e

d := 5T

rad
s

d
x ( t) + b x ( t) + k x ( t) = 0
dt
dt
2

:=

cos ( t)

t := a , a +

o = 12.566

:
:

rad

b
2 m1

A ( t) := Ao e

d ( a)
1000

.. d

.
t1 := 0 , T .. 5 T

t1

A1 ( t1) := Ao e

t2 :=

109

T 3T 9T
,
..
2 2
2

t2

A2 ( t2) := Ao e

. 13

A ( t) = Ao e

3T

Ao

0.01

0.005

0.5

1.5

2.5

0.005

Ao

0.01

x ( t ) = Ao e

=
cos ( t)

k b

m 2 m1



T = 0.50159 s


. .

To ( b) :=

b
o

2 m1
2

b:

b := 0

N
m
s

, 0.1

N
m

.. 20

N
m
s

. b.

To ( b )

b
o

2 m1
2

N
To 0
m

To =

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

10

15

20

b
b

b
( = )
.

b. := 2 k m1

110

kg
b. = 25.133
s

. 13

13-8.



. ( f)
.
() fo
f
().

.
.

, .
:
.
1
. SI.
m1 :

m1 := 1 kg

k:

k := 16

Ao := 0.01 m

o :=

b:

b := 6.283

2 N

o = 12.566

m1

rad
s

N
m
s

:=

b
2 m
1

= 12.167

rad
s

():


, .
Fmax d.

F = Fmax cos d t

Newton :

m1


( )

x:

x=

G=

m1 d o

d
x + b x + k x = Fmax cos d t
dt
dt
2

Fmax

A=

111

2
2
+ b d

sin d t

Fmax
G

)
)

)
=

b d

cos

. 13

d := 12

m1 d o

G :=
:=

rad

Fmax := 10 N

2
2
+ b d

G = 76.669

Td = 0.524 s

kg
2

= 1.804 rad

b d

cos
G

Td :=

A :=

Fmax

A = 0.13 m

x
u.

x ( t) := A sin d t

a := 0 s

t := a , a +

c := 2Td

c ( a)
1000

.. c

0.2
A

Td
0.1

x( t)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1
x( 0 s)

0.1

0.2
t

x (m) t (s)
b
d := 0 , 0.0001 o .. 2 o

d:
1.

kg
b1 = 12.566
s

b1 := m1 o

G d , b1 :=

m1 d o

2
2
+ b1 d

d , b1 :=

Fmax
A d , b1 :=
G d , b1

2.

b2 :=

G d , b2 :=

m1 o

m1 d o

2
2
+ b2 d

d , b2 :=

Fmax
A d , b2 :=
G d , b2

b1 d
G ( d , b1)

cos

kg
b2 = 6.283
s

2
2

)
112

b2 d
G ( d , b2)

cos

. 13

[(d) / ()]
0.15

A d , b1
A d , b2

b2 = m1 / 2
1

0.1

0.05

b1 = m1
0

0.5

1.5

d
o

2
() FPSE (Stirling ) m 1
""
k. (
)
x. xo,
u F(t).
(1), b
( , -b\u).
2

dt

x+

b d
F ( t)
k
S =
x+
m 1 dt
m1
m1

( 1)

1 ( - )
SI
m1 := 1 kg

b ( t) := 0

F ( t) := 0 N

T := 2

Ns

k := 1

m
m1

:=

N
m
k
m1

x0 := 0 m

0 := 5

T = 6.283 s

=1

X1

D ( t , X) := 1
S := rkfixed ( ic , 0 s , T , 5000 , D)
m ( F ( t) b ( t) X1 k X0)
1

rad
s

ic :=

( )

Ao

( )
1
S

3
0

2
2

3
6

( S0 )

t(s)

113

x0

0

1
Ao := max S

x - t
x (m)

6
A
o

. 13

( )

2
uo := max S

u - t

uo

u (m/s)

( S2 )
0

uo

( S0 )

t(s)

u x

uo

u (m/s)

Ao

Ao
3

( S2 )
6

uo

( S1 )

()

x (m)

2 . 13-30 376 H. Young.


( - - -
)
SI
m1 := 1 kg

F ( t) := 0 N

f :=

b := 0.1

ic :=

Ns
m

x0

0

f = 0.159 Hz

k := 1

o :=

T :=

x0 := 0 m

k
m1

:=

T = 6.291 s

f
114

0 := 5

b
2 m
1

m
s

= 0.999

rad
s

. 13

X1

D ( t , X) := 1

m ( F ( t) b X1 k X0)
1

S := rkfixed ( ic , 0 s , 3T , 5000 , D)

x - t

x (m)

( S1 )
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

( S0 )

t(s)

u - t

u (m/s)

( S2 )
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

( S0 )

t(s)

u x

u (m/s)

( S2 )
6

(0, uo).
(0, 0).

( S1 )


()

x (m)

115

. 13

3
( - -
)
SI
Ns
bo := 0.5
m

m1 := 1 kg

0 := 5

b ( t) :=

ic :=

bo t

k := 1

x0

0

x0 := 0 m

F ( t) := 0 N
X1

D ( t , X) := 1

m ( F ( t) b ( t) X1 k X0)
1

if 0 s t 10 s

0 otherwise
S := rkfixed ( ic , 0 s , 40 s , 5000 , D)

10 s . ;
x - t
4

x (m)

10

( S1 )

10 s

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

( S0 )

t(s)

u - t

u (m/s)

( )
2
S

10 s
2

10

15

20

25

2
4

( S0 )

t(s)
116

30

35

40

45

. 13

u - x

u (m/s)


()

3.75

( S2 )

1.5

0.5
0.75

2.5

( S1 )

10 s

x (m)

Tacoma Narrows
Tacoma Narrows 1940
.

.
.

.

. Fb
Fb. Fb
, .
Fb :

d
Fb = b x
dt

Newton :

m1



x:

x = Ao e

A = Ao e

d
x b x + k x = 0
dt
dt
2

cos ( t)

b
2 m1

:
:

o =

f :

fo =

k
m1
o
2

117

To =

2
o

. 13

f:

f=

b
2 m
1

T=

1
f

. SI.
m1 :

m1 := 1 kg

k:

k := 16

Ao := 0.01 m

2 N

:
:

o :=

f :

fo :=

To :=

o = 12.566

m1
o

rad
s

fo = 2 Hz

2
2

To = 0.5 s

:
b := 2

b:

N
m
s

:=

f:

f :=

T :=

b
2 m
1

Newton :

1
f
m1

f = 1.994 Hz

fo = 2 Hz

T = 0.502 s

To = 0.5 s

x ( t) := Ao e

rad
s

o = 12.566

rad
s



!!

d
x ( t) b x ( t) + k x ( t) = 0
dt
dt
2

= 12.527

cos ( t)

:=

b
2 m1

118

A ( t) := Ao e

. 13

a := 0 s

b := 5T

t := a , a +

b ( a)
1000

.. b

.
t1

t1 := 0 , T .. 5 T

t2 :=

A1 ( t1) := Ao e

T 3T 9T
,
..
2 2
2

t2

A2 ( t2) := Ao e


0.15
T

3T
2

0.1

0.05

Ao
Ao
0

0.05

0.5

1.5

0.1

x ( t ) = Ao e

cos ( t)

0.15
t

A ( t) = Ao e



. .

119

2.5

. 13

13-9.

:
.

20

.
.

.
,
.
, .
-
- ,
, . "
, "

(
"Mathematica " , , 2001).
.
(
F = -kx),

( ).

:
x
u .

.
1 ( - )
SI
m1 := 1 kg

b ( t) := 0

F ( t) := 0 N

T := 2

Ns
m
m1
k

k := 1

:=

N
m
k
m1

Newton :

m1

dt

x0 := 0 m

0 := 5

T = 6.283 s

=1

rad
s

ic :=

x0

0

X1

D ( t , X) := 1

m ( F ( t) b ( t) X1 k X0)
1

x + b x + k x = F ( t)
dt

(2x1)
( x 0 0 ).
S := rkfixed ( ic , 0 s , 5 T , 5000 , D)

u :

( )
2
uo := max ( S )
1
Ao := max S

120

. 13

. u x.


( 0 5).
( ).
.
: x = 0m uo = 5m/s ().

u x

uo

u (m/s)

6
Ao

Ao

( S2 )
6

6
uo

( S1 )

()

x (m)

2
( - - -
)
SI
m1 := 1 kg

b := 0.1

F ( t) := 0 N

ic :=

f :=

Ns
m

x0

0

f = 0.159 Hz

k := 1

o :=

T :=

X1

D ( t , X) := 1

m ( F ( t) b X1 k X0)
1

x0 := 2.5 m

m
k
m1

:=

0 := 5

b
2 m
1

m
s

= 0.999

rad
s

T = 6.291 s

S := rkfixed ( ic , 0 s , 5 T , 5000 , D)

. u x.

( 0 5).
( ).

.
: x = 2.5m uo = 5m/s [ (2.5m, 5m/s)].

(0, 0).

121

. 13

u x

u (m/s)

x0

( S2 )
6

:
(2.5m, 5m/s)

( S1 )

x (m)

3
( - -
- )
SI
Ns
bo := 0.5
m

m1 := 1 kg

b ( t) :=

bo t

k := 1

N
m

x0 := 0 m

0 := 5

ic :=

x0

0

F ( t) := 0 N

X1

D ( t , X) := 1

m ( F ( t) b ( t) X1 k X0)
1

if 0 s t 10 s

0 otherwise
S := rkfixed ( ic , 0 s , 40 s , 5000 , D)

u - x

u (m/s)

( S2 )

:
(0m, 5m/s)

1
2

( S1 )

x (m)

. u x.

( 0 5).
( ).

.

122

. 13

: x = 0m uo = 5m/s [ (0m,
5m/s)].

10 s ( ).

4
( - -
)
SI
Ns

m1 := 1 kg

b := 0.8

Fmax := 10 N

d := 0.1

F ( t) := Fmax cos d t

m
rad
s

k := 1

T :=

x0 := 2 m

0 := 3

T = 62.832 s

ic :=

m
s

x0

0

X1

D ( t , X) := 1
S := rkfixed ( ic , 0 s , 5 T , 5000 , D)
( F ( t) b X1 k X0)
m

. u x.

( 0 5).
( ).

.
: x = 2m uo = 3m/s [ (2m, 3m/s)].

. ( )
d .



. .

u - x
6
x0
0

4
u (m/s)

( S2 )

15

:
(2m, 3m/s)

10

10

15

( S1 )

x (m)

123

. 13

:
(4m, 5m/s)

5
() . ( ) .
1.

U1 (x, k, L)

1
2
U1 ( x , k , L) := k x
2
2. U(x, k, L)
F(x). SI:
U ( x , k , L) :=

1
2

k x 1

F ( x , k , L) = k x 1

F(x) :

d
F ( x , k , L) = U ( x , k , L)
dx

2 x

L
L
x

x << L:

F ( x , k , L) = k x

x L:

F ( x , k , L) = k ( x L)


13-31 376 H. Young

( ).
x
U(x, k, L).

x
1

x
L

2
Given k x 1 + k x
=0
L
L

Find ( x) 0 L

1
2

x01, x02 x03 .


x 01 x03: .

124

. 13

x02: .
:

k := 1

N
m

L := 2 10

a := 0.5 L

x := a , a +

c := 1.5 L

1
x02 := L
2

x01 := 0

x03 := L

c ( a)
1000

.. c

13-31
376 H. Young

x02
1.5 .10

x03

U=

U1( x , k , L)
U( x , k , L)

1 .10

5 .10

1
2

k x 1

1
2
U1 = k x
2

0.001

5 .10

5 .10

0.001
x

0.0015

0.002

0.0025

U(x, k, L)
F(x). SI:

F ( x , k , L) := k x 1

(N) (m)
x02

x03

0.002

F( x , k , L)
0.001

5 .10

0.002

5 .10

0.001

F = k x 1

125

0.0015

0.002

2 x

L
L
x

0.0025

2 x

L
L
x

. 13

Newton :

m1 := 1 kg

b := 0.01

x0 := 0 L

0 := 1

T :=

Ns
m

k := 1

2x
x
d

x + b x + k x 1 1
= F ( t)
L
L

dt
dt
2

L := 1 m

Fmax := 1 N

T = 12.566 s

m1

ic :=

d := 0.5

x0

0

rad
s

F ( t) := Fmax cos d t

X1

D ( t , X) := 1
( X 0) 2 ( X 0)

m ( F ( t) b X1) k ( X0) 1 L 1 L
1

S := rkfixed ( ic , 0 s , 2 T , 5000 , D)
x - t

x (m)

( S1 )

10

15

20

25

30

( S0 )

t (s)

u - t
u (m/s)

0
2

( S2 )
0

10

15

( S0 )

126

20

25

30

. 13

u - x
2
x0

u (m/s)

( S2 )
1

0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

:
(0L, 1m/s)

( S1 )

( )

x (m)

:
(0.1L, 1)

( )

. u x.

( 0 2).
( ).

.
: x = 0L uo = 1m/s [ (0m, 1m/s)].

. .
.

( )
.
!
( ) .

127

. 13

128

. 15 /
Q

15

15-1.

U: .
.
.
.
. ,
,
. .
:
( ). Kelvin
Celsius.
urms.
Q:
.

.

.
: ,
( ).
.
:
, .
15-5.

( SI): 1 cal = 4,186 J, 1Btu = 1055 J.


12000

BTU
hr

= 3516.85 W ( )
dQ = c m dT

dQ m ,
c .
: J/Kg .Co .
14,5 C : c = 1cal/Kg.Co = 4186 J/Kg.Co .
c.
Q .
m c
k .

k = c m

C = c M

M (molar) .
dQ = C n dT

n () mol .
129

. 15 /
Q

2
15-71 / 447 H. YOUNG
Debye.
(molar)
NaCl
Debye:
k := 1940

C = k

:= 281 K

mol K

) 2.00 mole NaCl 10.0


60.0 ;
) ;
) 10.0 K
60.0 ;
n := 2 mole

) :

T1 := 10 K

T2 := 60 K

dQ = C ( T) n dT

T
2

Q :=
C ( T) n dT

C ( T) := k

Q = 566.138 J

T1

)
:

Q
Cmean :=
n T2 T1

J
Cmean = 5.661
mole K

)
10.0 K
60.0 :

J
C T1 = 0.087
mole K

J
C T2 = 18.886
mole K

( )

( )

T := 10 K , 15 K .. 60 K
-

100

10 K
C( T)

60 K

10

18.886

J
mole K
1

Cmean
0.087

J
mole K

0.1

0.01

10

20

30

40
T

15-7.
1.
2.
3.

130

50

60

70

. 15 /
Q

1.

:

.
L, k,
[] [C].
.

.
.
.
.
.
H (J/s W):

H=

d
dt

H = k A

TH TC
L

k: E W/mK.
k, k.

k :

k Al = 205.0

TH

TC

k Fe = 50.2

W
m K
W

m K


k Pb = 34.7

W
m K

k :
k Styrofoam = 0.01

(Styrofoam)

k = 0.024

k = 0.05

m K

W
m K

W
m K

dT/dx (K /m).
R ( m2 K / W ).

R=

2.

L
k

:

. (
). .
2. :
( ,
).
2. :
(
).
131

. 15 /
Q

3.

:
(
). (m2 ) . H ( J/s
W) Stefan-Boltzmann.

132

. 15 /
Q

Stefan-Boltzmann

H = A e T

= 5.67 10

Stefan-Boltzmann:

m K

e
. .
.
.
.
: e = 1!


,
:
15-8.

H = A e T T

(IC)

chip Tc P
T. chip rth
.
Tc T
chip :
H=
rth
chip :

H=P

Tc = T + rth P

3
15-17 / 440 H. YOUNG
IC 40 /W.
120 C,
P 75 C;
:

P :=

Tc T
rth

Tc := ( 120 + 273 ) K
P = 1.125 W

T := ( 75 + 273 ) K
P=

9
8

K
rth := 40
W

IC,
chip
.

133

. 15 /
Q

134

. 17 .

17

17-1.

.

.

W Q.

.

.
:
) p (Pa = N/m 2 ),
) V (m3 )
) (K).
() : pV = nRT


.
p,
.

1. Q; :
2. Q; :
3.
4.

Q>0
Q<0

W; :
W < 0 ( )
W; : W > 0 ( )


: Q > 0
: W > 0



: W < 0
: Q < 0

W<0

W>0

Q>0

Q<0

17-2.

.

(p 1 , V1 ) (p 2 , V2 ).
:

135

. 17 .

dW = p dV

V
2

W=
p dV

(p 1 , V1 ) (p 2 , V2 ) :

V1

1
17-1 / 485 H. YOUNG

() .

1 (p1 , V1 ) 2 (p2 , V2 ). W
.
V

2 nRT
dV
W=

V
V

W :

V2
V1

W = n R T ln

V2

( Boyle):

p1
p2

( 2)


p1 > p2

p1
p2

W = n R T ln

(1) (2) :

V1


V2 > V1

( 1)

:
= 27 C

n := 1 mole

T := 300 K

R := 8.314

R :

1.

V1 := n R T

p1 := 3 10 Pa

p2 := 1 10 Pa

J
mole K
3

V1 = 8.314 10

p1

( Boyle):

V2 :=

p1 V1
p2

V2 = 2.494 10 cm


V2 > V1

2.

W :

2 nRT
dV
W :=

V
V

W = 2.74 10 J

W :

3.

V2
V1

W := n R T ln

p-V:

W = 2.74 10 J
V := V1 , 1.01 V1 .. V2

p ( V) := n R T

1
V

()
.


.
136

. 17 .

p = nRT

1
V

V1

3 .10

p (Pa)

1 (p1 , V1 )

V2

p1

.
p( V) 2 10

p2

2 nRT
dV
W=

V
V2
V
1
W = n R T ln
V1

1 .10

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

2 (p2 , V2 )

0.025

V
V (. )

17-3.

.


.
17-4. U
.
.
.
.
.
, ,
.
.
.
. U

.
U

U.
()
.

Q = U + W


(3) :

U =

3
2

n Cv T

: W = 0 Q = 0. U
.

137

. 17 .

17-5.

i.
( Poisson) Q = 0
:

p V = p V

T V

( 1)

= T V

T = T T

U = n Cv T

U = W

Cp

( 1)

Q = 0

( 1)

W =

= T

( 1)

p V p V

pV = nRT
S = 0

Cp = Cv + R

Cv

2
n := 1 mole

p := 3 10 Pa

J
Cv := 12.47
mole K

R := 8.314

T := 300 K

V :=

Cp := Cv + R

mole K

nRT

V = 0.008 m

:=

Cp
Cv

p
V := V
p

p := 1 10 Pa
T := T T
W :=

V
T := T
V

p V p V

p ( V) := p V

Q := U + W

Q = 0 J

p-V:

Poisson
V

3 .10

T = 193.314 K

U = 1.33 10 J

W = 1.33 10 J

V = 0.016 m
3

U := n Cv T

V := V , 1.001 V .. V

p (Pa)

( 1)

p = p V

p( V) 2 .10

W = n Cv T
V
2

1 .10

W =

nRT
V

dV
W =

0.008

0.01

p V p V

0.012

1
0.014

0.016

V
V (. )

ii. ( Boyle) = 0
:
p V = p V

pV = nRT

T = T
138

T = 0

U = 0

S 0

. 17 .

V
W = n R T ln
V

Q = W

p
W = n R T ln
p

3
n := 1 mole

R := 8.314

p := 3 10 Pa

J
mole K
nRT

T := 300 K

V :=

p := 1 10 Pa

p
V := V
p

T := T

T := T T

U := n Cv T

U = 0 J

V
W := n R T ln
V

V = 0.008 m

V = 0.025 m

T = 300 K

Q := U + W

Q = 2.74 10 J

Q := U + W

Q = 2.74 10 J

W = 2.74 10 J

p
W := n R T ln
p

W = 2.74 10 J

p-V:
V := V , 1.001 V .. V

p ( V) := p V V

Boyle
V

3 .10

p (Pa)

p = n R T

5
p( V) 2 .10

V
2

1 .10

W =

1
V
p

n R T

dV

0.01

V2
W = n R T ln
V1

0.015

0.02

0.025

V
V (. )

iii. ( Charles) V = 0
:
p
T

p
T

Q = U

pV = nRT

V = 0

V = V

U = n Cv T

139

W = 0

S 0

. 17 .

4
n := 1 mole

R := 8.314

p := 1 10 Pa

J
mole K

n R T

T := 100 K

V :=

p := 3 10 Pa

V := V

T :=

T := T T

U := n Cv T

U = 2.494 10 J

W := 0

W = 0

Q := U

p-T:
T := T , 1.001 T .. T

p ( T) :=

p
p
p

V = 0.008 m

T = 300 K

Q = 2.494 10 J

p
T
T

Charles

T p

3 .10

p (Pa)

4 .10

p=
p( T)

V = 0.008 m

p
T
T

2 .10

p
1 .10

50

100

150

200

250

300

T
()

iv. ( Gay-Lussac) p = 0
:
V
T

pV = nRT

Q = U + W

p = p

U = n Cv T

p = 0

S 0

W = p V

Q = n Cp T

5
n := 1 mole
5

R := 8.314

p := 3 10 Pa

p := p

J
mole K

T := 300 K

T := 2 T

V :=

V :=

T
T

n R T
p
V

V = 0.008 m
3

V = 0.017 m
140

T = 600 K

V := V V

. 17 .

T := T T

U := n Cv T

U = 3.741 10 J

W := p V

W = 2.494 10 J

Q := n Cp T

p-V:
V := V , 1.001 V .. V

p ( V) := p V

Gay-Lussac

p (Pa)


p = p V

5
3 .10

Q = 6.235 10 J

0
V

p( V) 2 .10

2 nRT

dV
W =

V
V

1 .10

W = p V

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

V
V (. )

141

0.016

0.018

. 17 .

142

. 18 E

18

18-1.

.
.
,
, , ,
.
:
...............
.

. .
.
, ,
.
p-V,
p-V
.
.
.
18-5.

" " Kelvin - Plank



,
, 100%.
;


,
100%.

" " Clausius


()
,

.
:
.
143

. 18 E

;

,
.

.
.
(
)
S.

.
. !

18-6.

CARNOT (1796-1832)

, , , ( )
:
.
.
.
.
1
18-3 / 518 / H. YOUNG
Carnot (bcd) :
n := 0.2 mole

J
Cv := 20.76
mole K

T := 400 K

T := 300 K

R := 8.314

J
mole K

Cp := Cv + R

:=

Cp
Cv

) .
1.

b T :
5

p := 10 10 Pa

V :=

Vb := 2 V

pb :=

Tb := Tb T

n R T
p
n R T
Vb

V = 6.65 10

Tb := T

Ub := n Cv Tb

T := T

pb = 5 10 Pa
Ub = 0 J
144

Vb = 1.33 10

Tb = 400 K

. 18 E

Vb
Wb := n R T ln
V

Wb = 461.026 J

Qb := Ub + Wb

Qb = 461.026 J

2.

bc:
1

Tc := T

Tb
Vc := Vb
Tc

Tbc := Tc Tb

Wbc :=

( 1)

pc :=

n R Tc
Vc

Ubc := n Cv Tbc

Vc = 2.728 10

Ubc = 415.2 J

pc Vc pb Vb

Wbc = 415.2 J

Qbc := 0
3.

pc = 1.828 10 Pa

Qbc = 0

cd T :

d :
1

Td := T

T
Vd := V
Td

Tcd := Td Tc

( 1)

pd :=

n R Td

Ucd := n Cv Tcd

Vd

pd = 3.657 10 Pa

Ucd = 0 J

Vd
Wcd := n R T ln
Vc

Wcd = 345.77 J

Qcd := Ucd + Wcd

Qb = 461.026 J

4.

Vd = 1.364 10

d:
1

T := T

T
Vd := V
Td

Td := T Td

Wd :=

Qd := 0

pd :=

Ud := n Cv Td

p V pd Vd
1

( 1)

n R Td
Vd

Ud = 415.2 J

Wd = 415.2 J
Qd = 0
145

pd = 3.657 10 Pa

Vd = 1.364 10

. 18 E

p-V:

n R T

1. b

pb Vb :=

2. bc

Vb
pbc ( Vbc) := pb
Vbc

3. cd

pcd Vcd :=

4. d

Vd
pd ( Vd) := pd
Vd

1.2 .10

1 .10

8 .10

n R T

Vcd := Vd , 1.1 Vd .. Vc

Vcd

Vd := V , 1.1 V .. Vd

Vc

1. . . b

Vbc := Vb , 1.1 Vb .. Vc

6 .10

4 .10

CARNOT

p (Pa)

( )

Vb := V , 1.1 V .. Vb

Vb

pb

4. . . d

2. . . bc

pd

d
2 .10

3. . . cd
0.001

0.0015
0.002
V (. )

0.0025

0.003


.
) :
Qh
.
W .

e .
3600 min P ;

Qh := Qb

Qh = 461.026 J

W := Wb + Wbc + Wcd + Wd

W = 115.257 J

W
e :=
Qh

e = 0.25

146

T
e := 1
T

e = 0.25

. 18 E

:=

3600 2 rad

60
s

T. :=

T. = 0.017 s

P :=

P = 6.915 10 W

T.

) U
W :
p V p V

W=

W = U

W=

Cv

W = n Cv T T

p V p V
R

p V

W = n Cv

W=

nR

p V
nR

p V p V
1

)
Carnot .

bc:

Wbc :=

d:

Wd :=

pc Vc pb Vb
1
p V pd Vd
1

) (

1
Wbc + Wd =
p V pb Vb + p V pd Vd

(1 ) c c

) (

1
Wbc + Wd =
p V pb Vb + pc Vc pd Vd

(1 )
1
Wbc + Wd =
( 0 + 0)
(1 )

Boyle

Wbc + Wd = 0

:

(!) Carnot.
Stirling.
p-V
.
18-7.


.
dS S
dQ
.

dS =

dQ
T

( )
147

. 18 E


.
S S Q
.

S =

Q
S2 S1 =
T

( )


( ).

( ).

, ,
urms .
.
SI J/K.

2
18-5 / 521 / H. YOUNG
0 C .
.
o:
Lf :

5 J
Lf := 3.34 10
kg

m w :

mw := 1 kg

Tw := 273 K

Q
:

Q := Lf mw

S S :

S :=

Q
Tw

Q = 3.34 10 J
S = 1.223 10

3 J

S
() .
0 C S
.

S
1, 2 ( 1, 2)
.
dQ
. S S :

S =

1
T

dQ

(1, 2 )



( urms), .
148

. 18 E

,
.

( )
( ).

( )
( ).

3
18-6 / 521 / H. YOUNG
0 C 100 C.
.
o:
cw :

c w := 4190

m w :

mw := 1 kg

T1 := 273 K

J
kg K

T2 := 373 K

S S :

S =

2 c m
w w
dT
S :=

T
T

1
T

dQ

S = 1.308 10

3 J

()

18-5 1 kg .
0 C 100 C
:
3 J

Stotal := 1.308 10

3 J

+ 1.223 10

3 J

Stotal = 2.531 10

Carnot
Carnot . :
SCarnot = S.. + S.. + S.. + S..
SCarnot =

Q
T

+0+

Q
T

+0

Carnot :

Carnot :

Q
T

Q
T

=0

SCarnot = 0


Carnot.
.
aba

aba,
.

ab
ba.
149

Sb = 0

Sb = Sb

. 18 E



, S. H
. Boltzmann,
S:
S = K ln ( P)


.
V p .
.
( ).
(Q = 0, W = 0, U = 0, T = .)

V
p
T

V
p
T

V > V
p < p
T = T




.



,
(
)
.

.
. .

.
.
.
:

S =

Q..
T

p , V , T

V
V

n R T ln

S =

p , V , T

V
V

S = n R ln

S > 0

.
.

b ( )
.
( )
.
.
.
150

. 18 E

( )
( )
.

.
,
.
.



.
4
(p1 , V1 , T1 )
(p2 , V2 , T2 ).
U S.

1, 2
. 1, 3 3, 2. U
S
.
3, 2:

U32 = n c v T2 T1

p1 V1
U32 =
T2 T1
( 1 ) T1

R
U32 = n
T2 T1
( 1)

p1 V1 T2

U32 =

( 1 ) T1

( 1)

S32 = 0

Poisson
2 3 :

p1

( 2)

T 1 > T2

T2

p2 V2

T1

p3 V3

( 4)

(3) (4) :

p2
0

( 3)


2 3 :

p3

p2 V2 = p3 V3

2
V1

V3

V2
151

T2
V3 = V2
T1

( 1)

( 5)

. 18 E

1, 3 T 1 = T3 :

V3
V1

( 1)
p1 V1 V2 T2

S13 =
ln

T1
V1 T1

( 5)

S13 = n R ln

( 6)

U13 = 0

( 8)

..

( 7)

1, 2:
( 2)
S12 = S13 + S32

S12 =

p1 V1

( 7)
( 1)
U12 = U13 + U32

T1

V2
T2
1
+
ln
V1 ( 1) T1

ln

p1 V1 T2

U12 =

( 1 ) T1

( 8)

p1 V1

1, 2 ()
:

S. =

1, 2 ()
:

S =

152

T1

( 1)

p1 V1
T1

V2
V1

ln

1
( 1)

T2
T1

ln

. 19

19

19-1.

)

( )

f
:
i) ( )
ii) ( )
:
i)
ii)
iii)
)
) -
19-2.


= f

:
19-3.

y ( t) = A sin 2
T

t x

y ( x , t) = A sin 2

( )
x .

( ).
t

y ( t) = A sin 2
T

t

, (t-)
:

t x

T T

(t )

t x

y ( x , t) = A sin 2

y ( x , t) = A sin 2

y ( x , t) = A sin 2


k:

k=

153

( 1)

( 2)

. 19

(2)
:

2
k

= k

y ( x , t) = A sin ( t k x)

(1)
(3):

( 3)

( 4)


x (1) (4)
t ( ).
.
t (1) (4) ( )
, x ( ).

.

.
.
. :
,
.
.

. . (
- - 8 .. ).
,
,
.
(3):

t
x,
y:

t

x, y:

y ( x , t) = A sin ( t k x)
y =

y =

y ( x , t)
t

( x , t)
t

y = A cos ( t k x)

y( x , t)
2

= A sin ( t k x)

( 5)

( 6)

(4), t (
), ( ).
x

x
:
x :

y ( x , t)
x

= k A cos ( t k x)

y( x , t)
2

= k A sin ( t k x)

( 7)

( 8)

x
2

y( x , t)

(6) (8) :

y ( x , t)
2

.
, y(x, t)
( !) x
.

154

( 3)

. 19

y( x , t)
2

y( x , t)
2

( 9)


:
( ) .

rad.
.
.

()

()

()

x
()

()

()

t
yO ( t) = A sin 2
T

yO ( t) = A sin ( t)

t x
y ( t) = A sin 2
T

y ( t) = A sin ( t k x)

:
H .

rad.

.

()

()

()

()

()

x
155

()

. 19

t
yO ( t) = A sin 2
T

yO ( t) = A sin ( t)

t x
y ( t) = A sin 2 +
T

y ( t) = A sin ( t + k x)

()

k
P

t z
y ( t) = A sin 2 +
T

t
yO ( t) = A sin 2
T

()

t x
y ( t) = A sin 2
T

1
:
:

A := 0.01 m

T := 0.5 s

:= 2 m

:=

() ():

x := 0 m , 0.001 m .. 2

t
(
):

t := 0 s , 0.001 s .. 2 T

():

y ( x , t) := A sin 2

(),
() x ()
P (P)

z = x ():

x := m
2

t x

x , t := 2 +
T

x := 0 m

t x

x , t := 2

T

x :=
2

x , t :=

0 if

t x
otherwise

156

=4

m
s

t x

. 19

(rad) - t (s)

12.57
T

x , t

x , t

9.42

x , t

6.28

3.14

0.25

0.5

0.75

3.14
t

()
()
()

y (),
y () x ()

z = x ():

yP (P)

( (

( (

y x , t := A sin x , t

))

y x , t := A sin x , t

y x , t :=

0 if

t
T

( (

))

A sin x , t

))

otherwise
(m) - t (s)

0.02

y x , t

() () ,
().

0.01

y x , t

y x , t

0.25

0.5

0.75

0.01

0.02
t

(m) () (s)
(m) () (s)
(m) () (s)

157

. 19

19-4.


( ) ,
F.
.
( H. Young . 544-556 Halliday - Resnick . 8 .
" " . 69).

F ,
,
.
F := 25 N

:= 0.25

kg

: :=

= 10

m
s


.
.


( y
z), , /2.
x
.
2
A := 0.01m

y ( x) :=

T := 0.5 s

:= 2 m

:=

t x if 0 x 2

A sin 2

= 12.566

z ( x) :=

0 otherwise

x := 0 ,

1000

0.005

0.005

z( x)

0.005

0.005

0.01

0.01
x

x := 0 ,

1000

.. 2

158

.. 3

t x + if 0 x 2

T 2

A sin 2

0.01

t := 2 T

t := 2 T

0 otherwise

0.01

y( x)

rad

. 19

0.005
z( x)
0.01

0.005

0.005

0.01

0.005

y( x)

y( x)
H ( x) := z ( x)
x

x0 := 0

: xgrid := 200

x1 := 3

C := CreateSpace ( H , x0 , x1 , xgrid)

19-5.


( ) ( )
.
.
( H. Young . 549-550 . " " . 79-83).

B ,
,
.

:
T
:

B=

p
V
Vo

: p V/Vo
. (-)

.

159

. 19


( ) Young .

.
( H. Young . 549-550 . " " . 79-83).

Y ,
,
.


.
F

:
Young
:

Y=

l
lo

:
l, l ( ) F
.
F
l/lo.

2
19-29 / 561 H. YOUNG
y(x, t)
x
= /k.
y ( x , t) = A cos ( t + k x)
y ( x , t)
t

y ( x , t)
x

= A cos ( t + k x)

t
2

y( x , t)

= k A sin ( t + k x)

= k A cos ( t + k x)

y( x , t)
2

y( x , t)

= A sin ( t + k x)

2 2
y ( x , t)

2
k
x

y( x , t)
2

y( x , t)
2

3

x.
SI.
y ( x , t) := 10

cos 100 t +

A := 10
k :=

2 rad

2
20

:= 100
T :=

160

rad
s

:= 20 m

T = 0.02 s

. 19

y ( x , t) = A cos ( t + k x)

x.

t ( m = 10 -6 kg)
x = 2.5m (2) .

xo := 2.5 m

xo , t := t + k xo

( t = 0) :

:= xo , 0 s

a := 0 s

= 0.785 rad

b ( a)

t := a , a +

b := 2 T

1000

.. b

T
10

xo , t

xo , t = t + k xo

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

t y ( m = 10 -6 kg)
x = 2.5m (2) .

y xo , t := A cos t + k xo
0.001

T
5 .10

y xo , t

0
5 .10

0.01

0.02

0.001
t

161

0.03

0.04

. 19

t y ()
( m = 10-6kg) x = 2.5m
(2) . = 0.0175s , : ) , )
) , .

) t
x, y:
y ( x , t) := A cos ( t + k x)

y =

y ( x , t)

y ( x , t) := A sin ( t + k x)

) t
x, y:
y =

( x , t)

y ( x , t) := A cos ( t + k x)

o := 0 s

xo , o = 0.785 rad

y xo , o = 7.071 10

m
y xo , o = 0.222
s

m
y xo , o = 69.789
2
s

:= 0.0175 s

xo , = 6.283 rad

y xo , = 1 10

m
y xo , = 0
s

m
y xo , = 98.696
2
s

1
T

103 y

4
0.5

10-3 y
0

y
0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.5

(m), (m/s) (m/s 2 ) - (s)

) , .
.

162

. 19

m := 10

kg

y ( x , t) := A cos ( t + k x)

y ( x , t) := A sin ( t + k x)

max := A

Kmax :=

E := Kmax

Umax := Kmax

1
2
K xo , t := m y xo , t
2

1
2
2
U xo , t := m y xo , t

K xo , = 0 J

1
2

m max

max = 0.314

E = 4.935 10

((

))

U xo , = 4.935 10

163

. 19

164

. 20 .

20


20-0.



.
.
.
.
.
Hooke .


. :
) ( ) 1 2
.
) (
).
)
.
y (t)

2 A cos 2

(x 1 x 2) sin 2 t
2

x 1 + x 2

y 1 (t)

t x 1

x1

y 2 (t)

1
y 1 ( t )

x2

A sin 2

A sin 2

x 2

A sin 2

T
t

y 2 ( t )

A sin 2


1 2 :

A := 0.001 m

1 2 :

f := 10 Hz

1 2 :

T :=

1 2 :

y ( t) := A sin 2
T

u := 10

u :

165

T = 0.1 s

m
s

. 20 .

:=

x1 1 :

x1 := 0.5

1 :

1 :=

y2 ( t) :=

y1 ( t) otherwise

As := 2 A cos 2

b := 2 + 2T

t := a , a +

0 if t < 2

d = 0.75 m

sin 2 t x1 + x2

2
2
T

y ( t) := 2 A cos 2

s ()
( ):

0 if t < 1

2 = 0.125 s

d := x1 x2

d :

y1 ( t) :=

x2

t x2

y2 ( t) := A sin 2
T

2 :

2 :=

2 :

() ( ):

1 = 0.05 s

x2 := x1 + 1.5
2

x2 2 :

a := 0 s

x1

t x1

y1 ( t) := A sin 2
T

1 :

= 1m

2
d

b ( a)
1000

.. b

y ( t) :=

0 if t < 1
y1 ( t) if 1 t 2

y2 ( t) otherwise

y ( t) otherwise

1

As

0.001
y1( t)
y2( t)
0

y( t)

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
A

0.001

() . . 1
() . . 2
()
166

. 20 .

x2 := x1 + 2
2

x2 2 :

d := x1 x2

d :

y1 ( t) :=

0 if t < 1

b := 2 + 2T

y2 ( t) :=

y1 ( t) otherwise

As := 2 A cos 2

s ()
( ):

t := a , a +

d = 1 m

sin 2 t x1 + x2

2
2
T

y ( t) := 2 A cos 2

() ( ):

2 = 0.15 s

t x2

y2 ( t) := A sin 2
T

2 :

a := 0 s

x2

2 :=

2 :

2
d

b ( a)
1000

0 if t < 2

.. b

y ( t) :=

0 if t < 1
y1 ( t) if 1 t 2

y2 ( t) otherwise

y ( t) otherwise
As


0.002
1

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.002

() . . 1
() . . 2
()

x2 2 :

x2 := x1 + 1
2

2 :

2 :=

x2
u

2 = 0.1 s

t x2

y2 ( t) := A sin 2
T

2 :
167

. 20 .

:
d := x1 x2

d :

() ( ):

a := 0 s

y1 ( t) :=

0 if t < 1

t := a , a +

0 if t < 2

y1 ( t) otherwise

As := 2 A cos 2

b := 2 + 2T

y2 ( t) :=

sin 2 t x1 + x2

2
2
T

y ( t) := 2 A cos 2

s ()
( ):

y2 ( t) otherwise

d = 0.5 m

2
d

b ( a)
1000

.. b

y ( t) :=

0 if t < 1
y1 ( t) if 1 t 2
y ( t) otherwise

0.0011
1

As
0

0.13

0.25

A
0.0011

() . . 1
() . . 2
()
20-1.

) .
.
.
)
.
( )
.

:
i. ,
ii. ,
.
168

. 20 .

20-2. [ ]

. :
)
1 2 .
) (
).
)
.
SI. :
- .
: d = 2k./2, : t = 2k.T/2
1 2 :
1 2 :

A := 0.001 m

1 2 :

f := 10 Hz

1 2 :

T :=

1 2 :

y ( t) := A sin 2
T

u :

u := 10

:=

d 1 2 :

d := 10

x1 1 :

x1 := 3

1 :

1 :=

T = 0.1 s

m
s

x1

1 = 0.3 s

t x1

y1 ( t) := A sin 2
T

1 :
x2 2 :

x2 := d x1

2 :

2 :=

0 if t < 1
y1 ( t) if 1 t < 2

a := 0 s

2 = 0.7 s

d := x1 x2

d :

y ( t) :=

x2

t x2

y2 ( t) := A sin 2
T

2 :

() ( ):

y ( t) := 2 A cos 2

b := 2 + 2T

y1 ( t) + y2 ( t) if t 2
169

d = 4 m

sin 2 t x1 + x2

2
2
T
d

t := a , a +

b ( a)
1000

.. b

. 20 .

: d = 2k /2

2 A cos 2

0.002

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.002


1 2
()
-
: d = (2k+1) ./2, : t = (2k+1) .T/2
x1 := 3.75

1 :=

x1

1 = 0.375 s

t x1

y1 ( t) := A sin 2
T
d := x1 x2
y ( t) :=

x2 := d x1

2 :=

x2
u

2 = 0.625 s

t x2

y2 ( t) := A sin 2
T

d = 2.5 m

y ( t) := 2 A cos 2

0 if t < 1

sin 2 t x1 + x2

2
2
T
d

y1 ( t) if 1 t < 2
y1 ( t) + y2 ( t) if t 2
: d = (2k+1) /2
1

0.001

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9
A

0.001


1 2
()
170

. 20 .

20-3.
, L, .

().
()

. L
/2.
2L

n =

fn = n

2L

L = n

n = 1 , 2 , 3 , ....

n = 1 , 2 , 3 , ....



f1 :

f1 =

2L

f1 =

1
2L

1

.
.
A := 0.001 m

f := 10 Hz

T :=

T = 0.1 s

:= 10

m
s

:=

k :=

:
A
y3 ( x) := sin ( 3k x)
2
3

y1 ( x) := A sin ( k x)

A
5

sin ( 5 k x)

y ( x) := y1 ( x) + y3 ( x) + y5 ( x)

:
L := 1

y5 ( x) :=

x := 0 , 0.001 L .. L
0.0015

y1 ( x)

5 .10

0.001
4

y3 ( x)
0

y5 ( x)
y( x)

5 .10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

A
0.001

0.0015


.
Fourier.
x

171

. 20 .




.
.

A := 1 m

T :=

1
50

l(t)

:= 6 m

= y

t := 0 s , 0.0001 T .. T
2

l ( t) = ( ) + ( )

4 A sin 2

l ( t) :=

T
= 2.5 m
4

2T = 1.5 m

16
T
t

3T
= 2.5 m
4

4T = 1.5 m

2.4

/4

2 T

2.5m

2.2

l( t)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.5m

0.005

0.01
t
t s

172

0.015

0.02

. 21

21

21-1.

,
. .
: 20 Hz .
. .
: 20 Hz 20 kHz (
). .
: 20 kHz .
600 Hz,
5x10 -5 cm, !
, , ,
(-)
. :
: ( ), p
t.
y
t.
.
.

.
: ( ),
p t.
.
, Fourier
.

.
: ( ), p
t. .
: ( ), p
. .

. .
1. . .
. .
2. .
. , ,
.
3. .
.
i
.

( ) ( )
.
173

. 21

y = A sin ( t k x)

:

.
p
.
:

p = B

dV

y x
t , :

(4) (1) :

( 2)

( 3)

x
y

( 4)

p = k B A cos ( t k x)

( 5)

2
pmax =
B A

( 6)

pmax = k B A

(5) :

dV

p = B

(2) (3) :

( 1)


.
21-2.



. .

:

y = A sin ( t k x)

( 7)

uy = A cos ( t k x)

( 8)

dS :



p (
) y.

( p dS) uy = k B A ( cos ( t k x) )

( 9)

( 5)


(9).
cos 2 ()

( p dS) uy

0.5:

2
2

( cos ( ) ) d = 0.5

( 10)

I=

1
2

k B A

( 11)

1
21-5 / 602 H. YOUNG
(11) : I =

1
2

B A

I=

1
2

B A

I=

1
2

B A

( 12)

pmax

I = B
2
k B

(12) (6)
:

I=

1
2

k B

pmax
( k B)

I =

B pmax

B
2 k B
174

pmax

I = k B
2
k B
1

I =

pmax

B 2 k B

. 21

I=

1 pmax
I =
2 k B

pmax

I=

I=

pmax

pmax

( 13)

2 k B

I=

( 15)

I=

pmax

pmax

2 B

( 14)

2 B

( 16)

1.
2.

10 -5 W.
3x10 -2 W.
, 100 W,
.

[ r2, I2 ]

[ r1, I1 ]

P .
I r
:
I=

:
2

4 r

I1
I2

r2

r1


.
decibel (dB)
, '
.
:

Io

= ( 10dB) log

, :

12 W

Io = 10

1 kHz.
decibel (db).
175

. 21

( )


(dB)

I
(W/m2 )

120

70

10 -5

50

10 -7

20

10 -10

10

10 -11

( 1 kHz)

10 -12

Io := 10

12 W

I dB

Io

( I) := 10 log

a := 10

12 W

b := 1

W
m

I := a , a +

b ( a)

.. b

10

150
10

10

(dB)

10

W
m

100
( I)
70
120
50
20

0
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10 1 .10
I
I (W/m^2)

0.01

0.1

2
21-6 / 591 H. YOUNG

I1
Io

1 = 10 log

I2
2 = 10 log
Io

(-)

I2
2 1 = 10 log
I1
I2
I1

r1
r2

r1
2 1 = 10 log
r2

r1
2 1 = 20 log
r2

( dB)
n ,
r2 = n r1
:
:

176

1 ( 1 ) = 0

( n) := 20 log

(dB)

. 21

40
1

. 21-6 . 591 . Young

20

( n )

( 1)

( 2)

20

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

n, 1
n

n = 2 ( W/m2 )
6.021 dB.

( 2 ) = 6.021 dB

1 = 6.021 dB

n = 1/2 ( W/m2 )
6.021 dB.
21-3.

,
, .
: SI.
:
:

A := 0.01 m

T1 :=

T1 = 0.2 s

f1

f1 := 5 Hz

1 := 2 f1

x1 ( t) := A sin 2 f1 t

1 = 31.416 Hz

:
:

:= 0

A := 0.01 m

f2 := 6 Hz

T2 :=

2 := 2 f2

f2

T2 = 0.167 s

x2 ( t) := A sin 2 f2 t +

x :

)
(

x ( t) := A sin 2 f1 t + A sin 2 f2 t +

1 2
1 + 2
t sin
t
2

x ( t) := 2 A cos

2 = 37.699 Hz

177

. 21

""

1 2
t
2

A ( t) := 2 A cos


"" . :

1 2
t = 0
2

cos

1 2

t = ( 2 k + 1)

t1 t2 "" ,
:
1 2
2
1 2
2

t1 =

t2 =

2
3

t1 =

t2 =

1 2

( 3)

3
1 2

T =

( 4)

1 2

T = t 2 t 1

T =

1
1
2

T =

f1 f2

f := f1 f2

f = 1 Hz

T :=

T = 1 s

x t
.
:

a := 0 s

t := a , a +

b := T

b ( a)
1000

.. b

: -
0.02

T
2

x1( t)

0.01

x2( t)
0

x( t)

0.5

0.01
2 A
0.02
t
178

. 21

21-3.

DOPPLER

DOPPLER
Doppler
(Listener) L S
L. (), S (fS, S) L
(fL, L).
. , :
fL =

fS

: , .
fS := 1000 Hz

:= 340

m
s

. S - L

( )

fL L :=

+ L

fS

S := 0

L := 0 , 0.1

m
s

.. 300

m
s

2000

1750

( )

fL L 1500
1250

1000

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

. S - L

( )

fL L :=

fS

S := 0

L := 0 , 0.1

m
s

.. 300

m
s

1000

750

( )

fL L 500
250

30

60

90

120

150
L
179

180

210

240

270

300

. 21

. S - L

fL S :=
f
S S

( )

L := 0

S := 0 , 0.1

m
s

.. 300

m
s

1 .10

7500

( )

fL S

5000

2500

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

240

270

300

270

300

. S - L

fL S :=
f
+ S S

( )

L := 0

S := 0 , 0.1

.. 300

m
s

1000
850

( )

fL S 700
550
400

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

. S - L
+ L
fL S :=
f
S S

( )

L := 30

m
s

S := 0 , 0.1

m
s

.. 300

m
s

1 .10

7500

( )

fL S

5000

2500

30

60

90

120

150
S
180

180

210

240

. 21

. S - L
L := 30

fAA ( x) :=

f ( x) :=

S := 30

s
+ L
S

d := 1000 m

fS

fAB ( x) :=

x := d .. d

f
+ S S

fAA ( x) if d x < 0
fAB ( x) otherwise
1400

1200

f ( x)

1000

800

600
1000

500

500

1000

3
S h = 80m S = 100m/s,
fs = 1000Hz. L
. S
L d = 120m.
t fL L
.
= 340m/s.

(d-x)

(x-d)

S
fs

fL
L
181

fs

. 21

:= 340

s := 100

t := 0 s , 0.001

d
s

.. 2

h := 80 m

d
s

cos2 ( t) :=

s cos1 ( t)

fs if t =

x ( t) d
2

( x ( t) d) + h

( d x ( t) ) + h

fL ( t) :=

fs := 1000 Hz

x ( t) := s t

d x( t)

cos1 ( t) :=

d := 120 m

fs if 0 s t <

d
s

+ s cos2 ( t)

fs if

d
s

< t 2

= 803.393 Hz

fL ( 0 s ) = 1.324 10 Hz

fL 2

1400
d

d
s

1200
fL ( t)
fs

1.324 10 Hz1000
803.393Hz
800

600

0.5

1.5

2.5

DOPPLER
To Doppler
.

. ,
, .
.
:
:

1.
.
fL = fS 1

Doppler
.. .
182

. 21

2.
.
2. :

fL = fS

2. :

fL = fS

1+
1
1
1+

Doppler

..
.

DOPPLER

Doppler
.
.
.
,
.

.
Doppler
.
().
.
Doppler .
( a)

.
.
.
,
. " " ( Doppler)
.
.

4
.
fo = 5.08x1014 Hz. :
a) . b) . ;
8 m

14

fS := 5.08 10 Hz
a.

c := 3 10

fL := 2 fS

fL = fS

1+

fL
=
1 fS

1+

fL
1 + = (1 )
fS
:= c

= 0.6

f 2
L
+
fS

f 2

L
1 = 1
fS

= 1.8 10

8m

s
183

:=

fL
1
fS
2

fL
+1
fS

. 21

b.

fL := 0.5 fS

fL = fS

fL
1 = (1 + )
fS
:= c

= 0.6

fL
=
1 + fS

fL
1
fS

1+

f 2
L
+
fS

f 2

L
1 = + 1

fS

= 1.8 10

8m

:=

fL
+1
fS

21-25 . 604.
21-6.

.
, .
.

.
.
() (C) 262 Hz.
. ,
, 2x262 Hz = 524 Hz.

184

. 22

22

, , :

1. S. I. : , , , , ,
, , : , .
2. 10 -15 m,
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

10 -10 m.
.
, .
m ,
F , F = bt, b
. .
. .
90
.
, .

.
1. .
2. , Coulomb, Hooke
.
3. .
4. ,
.
5. ,
.
6. .
7. ()
().
8. ,
.
9.
, .
10. , '
, .
11. '
U(x). (
), x
U(x).
, U(x)
. , U(x) min
, U(x) max
.

185

. 22


1. O 2 Newton :
" ,
() ".
2. () :
" ,
".
3.
.
4.
.
5. ,
.
6. .
7.
.
8.
(). , ,
.
9.
().
,
.
10.
().
,
.
11.
().
,
. .
12. (CM) .
13. (CM)
.
14. (CM) .
15. .
16. .
.
1.
, .
2. .
3. .
4. L p .
5.
.
6. xx.

xx.
.
7. z.
. : = bt 2 , b = 2rad/s 3 .
t = 1s , (2/3)rad.

186

. 22

1. Newton
().
2. R ,
u .
3.
.
4. .
u p ,
. L
.
5. , .
,
.
6. 2 Kepler : " ,
".
7. , e
. .
0.017!
.
8.
( ).
9. .

1. .
2. : 2 = 2 (2 -x2 )
.
.
3. .
, .
4. ( - )
.
5.
.
6.
.
().
7. ()
.
8.

.
(-bu) b
. b,
.
9.


.
.
"".
10. .

187

. 22

1. ,
.
2. x ()
t ( ).
.
3. t (..
) , x ( ).

.
4. .
, y(x, t)
( !!) x
.
5. .
.
Hooke .
6. 1 2
,
.
7.
.
8. , : " ";
; .

1. .
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

7.
8.
9.

10.
11.
12.

13.
14.
15.

: J/mol .K
: ) , ) ) .
()
, ,
.

, ,
( ),
( ).
:
"
,
, 100%".
Carnot :
, , , .
: Q = 0, W = 0, U = 0, T = ., S > 0
p-V.
.
b
( )
.
( )
.
.
( )
( )
.
.
,
.
.

188

. 23

23

1
( ) m = 2Kg,
( , uo = 0), 15s, F
, ( SI).

(m 1 )

x
F ( t) = + t

m = 2 kg

= 2 N

= 1

) dp/dt dL/dt
2s.
) 2s.
) F 2s.
) F 2s.

m := 2 kg

t1 := 2 s

d
dt

:= 2 N

:= 1

N
s

p = F ( t)

( )

F t1 = 6 N

t := 0 .. 5 s

d
dt

p = 6

kg m

F ( t) := + t

dL/dt
.
u o :

m
uo := 0
s

u :

u ( t) := uo +

F ( t)
m

dt

10 m
u t1 =
3 s

P t1 = 20 W

Pmean = 5.556 W

( )

0 s

t = 2s :

Pmean :=

( )

( ) ( )

P t1 := F t1 u t1 cos ( 0 deg)

2
1

m u t1 0
t1 2

( ( ))

189

( )

. 23

2
m = 1kg .
k = 200/m . F
( ) Str max = 100.
, :
F(x) = a +bx2 ,
: a = 60, b = 4.000N/s x .
) W F F .
) u ;
) ;

(m )
(k)

F
x

a := 60N

b := 4000

N
m

F ( x) = a + b x

1
b ( a Strmax ) 2
b

1
1
2
b ( a Strmax )
b

Str max := 100 N

a + b x Strmax = 0

F ( x) := a + b x
1
2

m u +

1
2

b a Strmax

k xo = WF

2
1 m k x 2 2 W
F
m o

2
1
2
m k xo 2 WF

xo = 0.1 m

1
2
xo := b a Str max

0 m

k := 200

x
o
WF :=
F ( x) dx

m := 1 kg

= 0.1 m

WF = 7.333 J

1
2
1
2
uo :=
m k xo 2 WF

1
2
uo :=
m k xo 2 WF

190

m
uo = 3.559
s

m
uo = 3.559
s

. 23

:=

= 14.142

2
2
2
2
u0 + xo

2
2
2
2
u0 + xo

rad

u0 = B x0

u 2 + 2 x 2
o
o
A :=

A = 0.271 m

F(N) - x (m)

120

xo

F ( x) = a + b x

100N
100
F( x)

x
o
WF =
F ( x) dx

80

0 m


F

60

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

3
m :

r = cos ( t) x + sin ( t) y
: , , , , t ,

x y .
x y
) (x, y).
)
a.
)
( ) , .
) F .
.

) :

r = cos ( t) x + sin ( t) y

191

. 23

x = cos ( t)

y = sin ( t)
2

x = ( cos ( t) ) 2

= cos ( t)

= sin ( t)

(0, 0).
M 2 (xx') 2 (yy').

=1

) :

r = cos ( t) x + sin ( t) y

d
= r
dt

= sin ( t) x + cos ( t) y

d
a=
dt

2
2
a = cos ( t) x sin ( t) y

2
a = r


L = r p


L = m r

L = m 0 x + 0 y + z

Lx = 0

F = m a


= r F
d
L=0
dt

) p = m p = m sin ( t) x + cos ( t) y

y = ( sin ( t) ) 2

Ly = 0

x
y

L = m
cos ( t)
sin ( t)

sin ( t) cos ( t)

z
0

Lz = m z

2
F = m r


2
= r m r

L =

( )

2
= m r r

=0


.
' L = mur
.
, r
p .

L = r m u

L = m u r sin

192

. 23

4
' m
U(r) ( r > 0) :

r 2
o
U ( r) = Uo
+
r

ro

U o ro r > 0
.
) F(r). .
) .
) ( ).
r
U(r).
) .
) ( ) r o , 1.5ro 2ro
r = 0.
)
, .
) m = 1kg
(r = ro ).
(r = 2ro ). ;

r 2
o
U ( r , Uo , ro) := Uo
+
r

3
r 2
ro
o
F ( r , Uo , ro) Uo 2
3 3 4
r
r

ro

d
F r , Uo , ro := U r , Uo , ro
dr

3
r 2
ro
o
F ( r) = Uo 2
3 3 4
r
r

F = F ( r) r

.
) F(r) :

= r F

= r r. F r.

d
= L
dt

D1 ( r) =

dr

U r , Uo , ro

=0

L =

r 2 r 3
o
o
) U ( r , Uo , ro) := Uo
+

r r

3
r 2
ro
o
U ( r , Uo , ro) Uo 2
3 3 4
dr
r
r

3
r 2
ro
o
Uo 2
3 3 4 = 0
r
r

r01 .
193

3
r01 = ro
2

. 23

) U(r) :
i) , U(r) min
ii) , U(r) max .
3
3

r 2
r 2
ro
ro
o

Uo 2
3 3 4 Uo 6 4 + 12 5
dr
r
r
r

2
3

ro
ro
3

D2 ro = Uo 6
+ 12

4
5
2
3 r
3 ro
o
2
2

3 32 Uo
D2 ro =
2 81 r 2
o

3
D2 ro < 0
2

U(r) , U(r)
max .
) ( )
r = 0.

F ( r , Uo , ro) := U ( r , Uo , ro)
dr

3
r 2
ro
o
F ( r , Uo , ro) Uo 2
3 3 4
r
r

3
r 2
ro
o
F ( r) = Uo 2
3 3 4
r
r

r00 = ro

( )

F r00 < 0

( )

F r01 = 0

( )

F r02 > 0

Uo
F r00 =
ro

( )

. .

3
r 2
ro
o

F ( r00 ) = Uo 2
3
r 3
4
(ro)
( o)

r01 = ro
2

2
3

ro
ro

F ( r01 ) = Uo 2
3
3
3
4
3 r
ro
o
2
2

, .

r02 = 2 ro

2
3

ro
ro

F ( r02 ) = Uo 2
3
2 r 3
4
(2 ro)
( o)

1 Uo
F r02 =

16 ro

( )

. .

) (
).
ro := 10 m

Uo := 20 J

a := 0.8 ro
194

b := 3 ro

r := a , a +

b ( a)
1000

.. b

. 23

r 2 r 3
o
o
U ( r) := Uo
+

r r

3
r 2
ro
o
F ( r) := Uo 2
3 3 4
r
r

4
3

r
2 o

ro
2
U ( r)
F( r)

10

15

20

25

30

4
r

) , r
.
B (r = 1.5ro ) max.
.
KA + UA = KB + UB

r 2

o
m uA + Uo
+
2

ro
1

ro
ro

r 2
o

m uA = Uo
+
2

1.5 ro
1

1
2
m uA = Uo
+
2
1.5
2

1
2
= 2 m 0 +

ro
1.5 ro

3
1

1.5

r 2

o
+
Uo 1.5 r
o

r 2

o
+
Uo r

o

1
2

m uA =

ro
ro
4
27

ro
1.5 ro

Uo

uA =

Uo

27 m

.
KA + UA = K + U

r 2

o
m uA + Uo
+
2

ro
1

ro
ro

1
2
= 2 m u +

195

r 2

o
+
Uo 2 r

ro
2 ro

. 23

r 2

o
m u = m uA + Uo
+

2
2
ro

1
2
1
2

m u =

m u =

2
1
2

ro
ro

r 2

o
+
Uo 2 r
o

2
1
m uA + Uo ( 0 ) Uo

Uo

27 m

27 Uo
32 Uo
2
u =

108 m
108 m

2 Uo
8 Uo
2
u =

27 m
8 m

Uo

ro
2 ro

Uo
8 Uo
2
u =

27 m
4 m
5

u =

Uo

108 m

5
U(x) F(x)
( Morse - " " . 376):

2 o z

U z , o , Uo := Uo e

o z

2 e

o , Uo z .
SI.
) U(z).
) ( ).
) .

2 o z

U e

Given

o z

=0

2 e

( )

zo o =

Find ( z )

ln ( 2 )
o

ln ( 2 )
o

) ( ).

D1 z , o , U :=

d
dz

U z , o , U

D1 z , o , U U 2 o exp 2 o z + 2 o exp o z
Given

U 2 o exp 2 o z + 2 o exp o z

))

)) = 0

( )

Find ( z ) 0

( )

z1 o = 0

z 1 o := 0

z1 .
196

. 23

) .
U(z) :
a) , U(z) min
b) , U(z) max .
2
2
D1 ( z , o , U) ) U 4 o exp ( 2 o z ) 2 o exp ( o z )
(

dz

D2 z 1 , o , U = U 4 o exp 2 o z 1 2 o exp o z 1

D2 z 1 , o , U = U 4 o exp 2 o 0 2 o exp o 0

( )

z1 o = 0

D2 z 1 , o , U = U 4 o 1 2 o 1

D2 z 1 , o , U = U 2 o

D2 z 1 , o , U > 0

U(z) , U(z)
min .

( 2 x 2 e x)

U x , , Vo := Vo e

F x , , Vo := Vo ( 2 exp ( 2 x) + 2 exp ( x) )
x0 ( ) :=

ln ( 2 )

Vo := 10

a := 1.8 x0 ( )

2 .10

b := 10 x0 ( )

(
)
F( x , , Vo)

x0 ( ) = 0.693

x := a , a +

b ( a)
1000

U x , , Vo 1 .10

5 .10

5 .10

.. b

x0( )
1.5 .10

:= 1

3
x

197

. 23

6

:

V ( x) = C

12

C x .
m
. +x.
) V(x).
) , x.
) x = 2;

) :
1)

lim
x0

V ( x) =

2)

V () = 0

3)

minV ( x) =

4)

lim

x=

C
4

V ( x) = 0

) :

F ( x) = C 6

+ 12

12

13

) x = 2.
7
m = 2kg, x
( S.I.):
2

V ( x) = x ( x 4 )

) F(x) .
V(x), .
) .
) = 8J, V(x)
x ( ).
) x = 0,
x = 4m.

) F(x) :

F ( x) = 4 x + 24 x 32 x

) :

min: V ( 4 ) = 0 J

) .

198

V ( 0) = 0 J

max: V ( 2 ) = 16 J

. 23

) :

u = 4

m
s

8
m = 1kg, x :
2

V ( x) = k 1 x k 2 x
:

k1 = 1

k2 =

1
3

) V(x) .
;
) F(x)
.
) x = 1m u = -1m/s (
), ;

) V(x) :
min ( ):

V ( 0) = 0 J

max ( ):

V ( 2) =

V ( 0) = 0 J

4
3

J
V ( 3) = 0 J

) F(x) :
2

F ( x) = 2x + x

F (0) = 0 N

F (2) = 0 N

min:

F ( 1 ) = 1 N

) x = 0.
9
m, x :

2 x xo

V ( x) = D e

) 2 e ( xxo)

xo , D .
) ;
) V(x) x (- ) (+ )
.
) ;
.
) ;

.

( )

) min ( ):

V xo = D
199

. 23

) V(x) x (- ) (+ )
.
lim
x

) :

xo

V ( x) =

V ( 0) = e

=0

V xo

ln ( 2 ) = 0

lim
V ( x) = 0
+
x


x o .

D E 0

) :
:

(De2 2)

u = 0

10
, ( ), ( R),
.
, m H
.
go. G.
) p :
p = m R

g
( R + H)

) = 0,
.
)
;

m gH = m

( R + H)

gH = g

R
2
g
=u
( R + H)

T =

2 R
R

( R + H)

( R + H)

( R + H)

p = m R

( R + H)

mE
2

T = 2

4
3
G R
3

g
( R + H)

u = R

T =

3
G

) ()
.

11
, , L, ,
x, : = + x ( kg/m3 ) ( kg/m 4 ) .
(CM).
200

. 23

y
dx
O

x
A
L

M=

Given

( o + x) dx

Find ( M) o L +

M = Lo +

1
2

1
xcm =
x dm
M 0

Given

xcm =

1
1

Lo + L
2

2 L + 3 o
1
Find xcm L
3
2 o + L

( )

x o + x dx

2 L + 3 o
1
xcm = L
3
2 o + L

12
, , L,
x, : = (1+x/L).
( kg/m3 ). (CM).

y
dx
O

x
A

201

. 23

M=

Given

+ x dx
o o
L

Find ( M)

1
xcm =

3
2

oL

M=

3
2

oL

x dm

x o + o
xcm =
dx

3
L

o L 0
2
1

Given

5
Find xcm L
9

( )

5
xcm = L
9

13
= 2.5 kgm 2
. = - t2
: = 1000 rad/s, = 400 rad/s 3 . :
) to
t o .
) L, , , dL/dt,
Kn, dKn/dt
to /2.

:= 400

rad
s

o t = 0

5 s

0 s

t2 dt
o

I := 2 kg m

Find ( t ) ( 5 s 5 s )

( t) := o t

L t o /2:

L ( t) := I ( t)

( t) := o t

to := 5 s

to:

rad

to :

Given

o := 10000

to

= 1.5 10

2
4 kg m

to /2:

202

( )

to = 3.333 10 rad

. 23

= o t

d
dt

d
dt

( t) := 2 t

to

3 rad
2

= 2 10

to/2:

( t) := I 2 t

to

= 4 10 N m

dL/dt t o /2:

L ( t) = ( t)

to

dt 2

= 4 10 N m

Kn dKn/dt
t o /2:

Kn ( t) :=

Kn' ( t) :=

1
2

I ( t)

d
dt

Kn ( t)

Kn' ( t) :=

d
dt

Kn ( t)

( t) := o t

t
3

Kn' ( t) :=

Kn ( t) :=

to

Kn

1
2

d
dt

Kn ( t)

I o t

= 5.625 10 J

Kn' ( t) := ( t) ( t)

( t) := 2 t

203

to

Kn'

= 3 10 W

( t) := o t

to

Kn'

Kn' ( t) := 2 I o t

= 3 10 W

t := 0 s , 0.01 s .. to

. 23

4 .10

3 .10
( t)
( t) 4

2 .10

( t) 10
4

1 .10

14 * *
, .
) x

.
) ;
) m << M,
()<<,
.
) " ".
; ;

;

204

. 23

x
g y

g
r=

x +

g x

) .

r=

x +

cos ( ) =

x +
gx = g cos ( )

G M
gx =

2
2
x +

g =

G M

g =

x
x +

x +

G M

G M

gx =

(x2 + 2)

g y .
x

gx = G M

(x2 + 2)
) :

gx ( x) = G M

x
3

(x2 + 2)

2
2
g'x ( x) = ( G M) x +

3
2

3 x2 + 2
2

+ x

5
2

2 x

(x2 + 2)

3
2

x=

3 x2 + 2
2

+ x

2
2

2
2

205

5
2

2 x = 0

. 23

11 N m

M := 10 kg

G := 6.67259 10

:= 1 m

x := 2 , 1.99 .. 2

kg

gx ( x) := G M

2
2
g'x ( x) := ( G M) x +

x
3

3
2

3 x2 + 2
2

+ x

5
2

2 x

(x2 + 2) 2

gx(x)

g x( x)

1.5

g'x( x)

1
2

2 m

2 .10

0.5

2 .10

4 .10

6 .10

8 .10

g x

2 m

1
2

2 m

g'x(x)

0.5

1.5
2
1

g x 2 m
2

gx ( x)

) m << M,
() << ,
.

gx ( x) := G M

(x2 + 2) 2
x << :

x
gx ( x) := G M
3

x
3

(x2 + 2) 2
206

. 23

1
:

( 2)
x
gx ( x) := G M
3

. . .

GM

f=

G M m

f:

F ( x) =

G M m

D=

F ( x) = gx ( x) m

( 3)

x + O x

f=

1
2

GM

= 2

GM

GM

t +
2
3

x = A sin

() = A << , :

D :=

m := 10

G M m

f :=

A := 10

F ( x) :=

G M m

D = 6.673 10

f = 4.11 10

11 N

:=

D
m

:=

Hz

1
f

F ( A) = 6.673 10

= 2.583 10

= 2.432 10 s

4 rad

207

15

. 23

F 10

() - x (m)
4

)
4

10

10

15
5 .10

F=

G M m

F( x)
5 .10

15

5 .10

5 .10

F 10

GM

t +
2
3

x ( t) := A sin

t := 0 s ..

x( m) - t (s)

4
1 .10

5
5 .10

1 .10

GM

t +
2
3

0
5

x = A sin

x( t)

5 .10

1.22 .10

2.43 .10

15 * *
.
Q , .
) x

.
) ;
) q << Q,

() << , .
.
) " ".
; ;

;
) , , Q.
.

208

. 23

16
R .
R/2, '
R/2 . ;

x=

R
6

17
, R .
R/2, '
R/2 .
. m , d
'. d > R.
. G.

7 d2 8 d R + 2 R2

R
8 d2 d

x = GM m

18
1 2 . 1
m k 1 , 2 m,
. :
) K 2 2 :

2
K2 = k 1

( 1 + )

) , i j : i j = 1, K2 2 ,
.

2 = 2

j ( 1 + j)
( 1 + i)

i ( 1 + j) = j ( 1 + i)

i 1 + 2 j + j
2

) = j (1 + 2 i + i2)
2

( i j) ( i j) i j = 0

i + i j = j + j i

1 = 1
j 1 + j
1 + i

i 1 + 2 j + j

) = j (1 + 2 i + i2)

i + 2 i j + i j = j + 2 i j + j i

( i j) + i j2 j i2 = 0

( i j) (1 i j) = 0

i j = 1

-
19
) y(x, t)
x
=/k.

209

. 23

y ( x , t) = A cos ( t + k x)
)
.

y ( x , t)

y( x , t)

= k A sin ( t + k x)

= k A cos ( t + k x)

y( x , t)

2 2
y ( x , t)

2
k
x

l ( t) = ( ) + ( )

4 A sin 2

l ( t) =

= A cos ( t + k x)

y ( x , t)

y( x , t)

= A sin ( t + k x)

y( x , t)
2

T :=

1
50

y( x , t)
2

K
2

+
16
T
t


A := 1 m

l(t)

= y

:= 6 m

/4

t := 0 s , 0.0001 T .. T
2

4 A sin 2

l ( t) :=

T = 2.5 m
4

2T = 1.5 m
4

+
16
T
t

3T = 2.5 m
4

4T = 1.5 m
4

20
) :

(A )

( A 2)

=1

, , .
) .
)
( SI):
:

rad cos rad t + rad

2
10 s
10 s

( t) := ( 0.01 m)

210

. 23

t 1 = T/4
t2 = 2T/4.

x = A sin t +

) :

( 1)

= A cos t +
( 2)

(A )

( (

))2

( A 2)

= cos t +

( 3)

= A sin t +

( 2)

( (

(A )

( 3)

( A 2)

))2

=1

= sin t +

) .

t := 0 , 0.01 s .. 20 s

0.001

d
dt

( t)
0.004

0.002

0.002

0.004

0.001

( t)

) x t 1 = T/4
t2 = 2T/4:
A := 0.01 m

t1 :=

T
4

:=

t2 := 2

T
4

:=

rad

T :=

10

t
2

x :=
( t ) dt

t1

211

T = 20 s

x = 0.01 m

. 23

0.004
t1

t2

0.002
( t)
0

10

15

20

0.002

0.004
t

x ( t) := A sin t +

( ) ( )

x t2 x t1 = 0.01 m

21
P.
r . dB
;
21-6 . 591 . Young.

(-)

I1
1 = 10 log
Io

I2
2 = 10 log
Io

r1
2 1 = 10 log
r2

I2
2 1 = 10 log
I1

r1
=
I1 r2

I2

r1
2 1 = 20 log
r2

n , :

r2 = n r1

( dB) :

( n) := 20 log

n = 2 ( W/m2 )
6.021 dB.
n = 1/2 ( W/m2 )
6.021 dB.

212

1
n

( 2 ) = 6.021 dB

1 = 6.021 dB
2

( 1 ) = 0

. 23

22
.
f o = 5x1014 Hz. :
a) .
b) .
;
: c = 300.000km/s.

fS := 5 10
a)

14

8 m

Hz

c := 3 10

fL := 2 fS

fL = fS

1+

fL
=
1 fS

1+

fL
1 + = (1 )
fS

f 2
L

+

fS

:= c
b)

f 2
L

1 =
1

fS

= 0.6

:=

fL
1
fS
2

fL
+1
fS
= 1.8 10

8m

fL := 0.5 fS

f 2
L

+
fS

:= c

fL = fS

f 2
L

1 =
+1
fS

= 0.6

1
1+

fL
=
1 + fS

fL
1
fS

:=

fL
1 = (1 + )
fS

fL
+1
fS
= 1.8 10

8m

23
(molar) NaCl
Debye:

C = k

k := 1940

J
mol K

213

:= 281 K

. 23

) 10.0 K
60.0 ;
) 2.00 mole NaCl 10.0
60.0 ;
) ;

n := 2 mole

C ( T) := k

T1 := 10 K

T2 := 60 K

J
C T1 = 0.087
mole K

J
C T2 = 18.886
mole K

( )

dQ = C ( T) n dT

( )

T
2

Q :=
C ( T) n dT

Q = 566.138 J

Q
Cmean :=
n T2 T1

J
Cmean = 5.661
mole K

T1

24
) U = ncvT
W :

W=

p V p V
1

)
Carnot .

W = U

W=

Cv

W = n Cv T T

p V p V
R

bc:

Wbc =

d:

Wd =

p V

W = n Cv

W=

1
p V pd Vd
1

) (

( Boyle)

) (

Wbc + Wd =
p V pb Vb + pc Vc pd Vd

(1 )
1
Wbc + Wd =
( 0 + 0)
(1 )

Wbc + Wd = 0

214

p V
nR

p V p V

pc Vc pb Vb

1
Wbc + Wd =
p V pb Vb + p V pd Vd

(1 ) c c

nR

. 23

25
(Ag) (Fe)

. 1 Ag 0 C
100 C. Ag
(kAg = 11kFe). .
(25/3) C.

Ag

Fe

1 (T1 = 0C)

(T = xC)

2 (T2 = 100C)

k Ag = 11 k Fe
( W/s) :

k Fe S T2 T
L

) = kAg S (T T1)
L

T=

25 C

26
,
.
(cAmA) J/Co
: cA mA= 2c m .

, k W/mK
: k = kA.

,
.

;
) .
) .

A
= .

T = .

= .

:
O
,
.
T
:

215

. 23

k S

TA T
L

= k S

T T
L

k TA + k T
k + T

(1)

.
: ( +)/2 , : (+ )/2.
Q :

Q = c A TA + T + c T + T
Q=

1.
2.

3.

2 k + k

(1)

2 k c + k c + k c + 2 k c + k c + k c
) ( A ) ( )

. Q
.
k c
k c .
.

, R

.
k c = k c Q
.

216

1.

Universal Constants
Velocity of light in vacuum

c := 299792458

Permeability of vacuum

0 := 4 10

m
sec

7 newton

amp

12 farad

Permittivity of vacuum

0 := 8.854187817 10
11

Newtonian constant of gravitation

G := 6.67259 10

3
2

kg sec
34

Planck's constant (h)

h := 6.6260755 10

joule sec

Electromagnetic Constants
19

Elementary charge

e := 1.60217733 10

Magnetic flux quantum

0 := 2.06783461 10

Bohr magneton

9.2740154 10

Nuclear magneton

5.0507866 10

coul

15

weber

24 joule

tesla

27 joule

tesla

Electron
31

Electron mass

me := 9.1093897 10

Electron specific charge (electron charge


to mass ratio)

1.75881962 10

Electron Compton wavelength

2.42631058 10

Classical electron radius

re := 2.81794092 10
m
26 joule
928.47701 10

tesla

kg

11 coul

12

kg

m
15

Electron magnetic moment


Muon
Muon mass

m := 1.8835327 10

28

kg

Proton
Proton mass

mp := 1.6726231 10

Ratio of proton mass to electron mass

1836.152701

Proton Compton wavelength

1.32141002 10

15

217

27

kg

26 joule

Proton magnetic moment

1.41060761 10

Proton gyromagnetic ratio

26751.5255 10

tesla
rad

sec tesla

Neutron
Neutron mass

mn := 1.6749286 10

Neutron Compton wavelength

1.31959110 10

15

27

kg

Physico-Chemical Constants
1

23

Avogadro constant

NA := 6.0221367 10

Atomic mass constant

AMU := 1.6605402 10

Faraday constant

96485.309

Molar gas constant

8.314510

Boltzmann's constant

k b := 1.380658 10

mole

27

coul
mole
joule

mole K
23 joule

Molar volume of ideal gas at STP

22.41410

Stefan-Boltzmann constant

liter
mole

:= 5.67051 10

watt
2

m K
16

First radiation constant

3.7417749 10

Second radiation constant

0.01438769 m K

2.

Motion in One Dimension


Position
Average velocity
Velocity


r = rf ri

r
v =
t

v=
lim v
t 0

Speed

Average acceleration

v
a =
t

Acceleration

kg

a=

lim

t 0

218

watt m

Assuming Constant Acceleration (EOEK):


Position

1
2
x ( t) = x0 + v0 t + a t
2

Velocity

v ( t) = v0 + a t

v = v0 + 2a x x0

Motion in Two Dimensions


Position vector


r = x i + y j

Velocity vector

d d
v = x i + y j
dt
dt

Acceleration vector

d d
a = vx i + vy j
dt
dt

Projectile motion

ay = g

a0 = 0

( )

vx = v0 cos 0

( )

x = x0 + v0 cos 0 t

( )

vy = v0 sin 0 g t
1
2
y = y0 + v0 sin 0 t g t
2

( )

Centripetal acceleration

v
ac =
R

Newton's Laws of Motion


Second law

F = m a

Third law

Fab = Fba

Gravitational force on
Earth

Fe = m g

Weight on Earth

Fw = m g'

g' is the object's free-fall acceleration


2

Centripetal force

m v

F =

Newton's Law of
Universal Gravitation

F=

Velocity of an Earth satellite

v=

G m1 m2
2

G me
r

Work and Energy


f

Work

W = F dl

Hooke's Law

k is the spring's constant

Fx = k x
219

Kinetic Energy

K=

Power

P=

1
2
d
dt

m v

P = F v

Potential Energy
Gravitational

U = m gy

Elastic

U=

Gravitational between two objects

U=

Energy

E=K+U

1
2

k x

G M m
r

Momentum
Center of mass
mi ri

position

rcm =

velocity

vcm =

acceleration

acm =

Momentum

p = m v

Impulse

t
f

J=
F dt

M
mi vi
M
mi ai
M

ti

Torque


= r F

= r F sin ( )

Rotation
Angular velocity

z =

Angular acceleration

z =

dt
d
dt

dt

I = mi Ri

Angular momentum
of a particle

l = r p

p = m v

f
W = z d

Power to a rotating (rigid) object

( )2

Moment of inertia

Work done by a torque

P = tz z
220

( )

P = F v cos F , v

Simple Harmonic Motion


X - coordinate (position)

x = A cos ( t + )

Velocity

vx = A sin ( t + )

Acceleration

ax = A cos ( t + )

Angular frequency

= 2v =

Potential energy

U=

Kinetic energy

K=

v is the frequency, T is the period

k is the spring constant, m is the mass

m
1
2
1
2

k A ( cos ( t + ) )

2 2

m A ( sin ( t + ) )

3.

Celsius (C) scale:

TC = T 273.15

Fahrenheit (F) scale:

TF = 32 +

Absolute temperature (Rankine):

TR = TF + 459.67 R

9
5

TC

TR =

9 T R

5 K

4.
Inert
Gases

Alkali Metals
Alkaline Earth Metals

Nonmetals

Transition Elements (Heavy Metals)

Lanthanide Series
Actinide Series

221

Halogens

5.
d
dx

d
dx

c f ( x) = c

d
dx

( f ( x) + g ( x) ) =

y = f ( u)

d n
n1
x = nx
dx

f ( x)

d
dx

f ( x) +

d
dx

d
dx

( f ( x) g ( x) ) = f ( x)

d f ( x)
=
dx g ( x)

g ( x)

u = g ( x)

dx

f ( u) =

du

f ( u)

d
dx

g ( x)

d
dx

d
dx

g ( x) +

f ( x) f ( x)
g ( x)

d
dx
d
dx

f ( x) g ( x)

g ( x)

g ( x)


d
dx
d
dx

sin ( x) = cos ( x)

dx

cot ( x) = csc ( x)

dx

cos ( x) = sin ( x)

dx
d

sec ( x) = sec ( x) tan ( x)

dx

tan ( x) = sec ( x)

csc ( x) = csc ( x) cot ( x)


d
dx

ln ( x

dx

e =e

dx

a = a ln ( a)

a>0


d
dx

asin ( x) =

d
dx

1x

acos ( x) =

d
dx

1x

atan ( x) =

1
2

1+x

6.
n+1

x dx =

( f ( x) + g ( x) ) dx =

cos ( x) dx = sin ( x) + C

n+1

+C

n 1

f ( x) dx +

a dx = a x + C

g ( x) dx

222

1
x

dx = ln ( x

)+C

sin ( x) dx = cos ( x) + C

tan ( x) dx = ln ( sec ( x)

)+C

sec ( x) dx = ln ( sec ( x) + tan ( x)

cot ( x) dx = ln ( sin ( x)

)+C

)+C

a dx =

1
2

ln ( a)

dx =

a +x

+C

1
a

a>0a 1

u dv = u v

e dx = e + C

x + C
a

atan

x + C
a x dx = a x +
asin
2
2
a
2

csc ( x) dx = ln ( csc ( x) cot ( x)

v du

1
2

x + C
a

dx = asin

a x

1
2

dx =

a x

1
2 a

7.

Aluminum
Antimony
Beryllium
Bismuth
Cadmium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Gold
Iridium
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Molybdenum
Nickel
Niobium

(x 10-6ohmcm)
2.655
41.8
4.0
115
7.4
13
9
1.673
2.35
5.3
9.7
20.6
4.45
185
98.4
5.2
6.85

Osmium
Platinum
Plutonium
Potassium
Rhodium
Selenium
Silicon
Silver
Sodium
Tantalum
Thorium
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten
Uranium
Vanadium
Zinc

13
223

)+C

(x 10-6ohmcm)

9
10.5
141.4
7.01
4.6
12.0
100000
1.59
4.2
12.4
18
11.0
43
5.65
30
25
5.92

x+ a + C
x a

ln

8.

(grad oC)-1

Aluminum
Antimony
Beryllium
Bismuth
Cadmium
Cerium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Gold
Hafnium

0.004

Indium

(grad oC)-1

0.0039

0.004

Iridium
Iron
Lead
Lithium
Magnesium
Mercury
Molybdenum
Nickel
Niobium
Osmium
Palladium

0.005

Platinum

0.0039

0.0036
0.025
0.004
0.004
0.0009
0.003
0.006
0.004
0.0035

Rhenium
Rhodium
Silver
Tantalum
Thorium
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten
Vanadium
Zinc
Zirconium

0.006
0.004
0.005
0.003
0.0009
0.004
0.006
0.004
0.004
0.0035

9. ( )
(K)

(K)

Aluminum
Antimony
Beryllium
Bismuth
Cadmium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Gold
Iridium
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Molybdenum
Nickel
Niobium

Osmium
Platinum
Plutonium
Potassium
Rhodium
Selenium
Silicon
Silver
Sodium
Tantalum
Thorium
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten
Uranium
Vanadium
Zinc

933
903
1558
544
594
2133
1768
1357
1336
2723
1809
600.7
923
1517
234.29
2893
1726
2740

224

3298
2043
913
336.5
2238
490
1684
1234
370.98
3253
2023
505
1943
3673
1405
2173
692.7

(grad oC)-1
0.004
0.0045
0.0038
0.0035
0.003
0.00045
0.0035
0.0045
0.003
0.004
0.0044

10. (kg/m 3 ) 300

Acetic acid
Acetone
Alcohol, ethyl
Alcohol, methyl
Alcohol, propyl
Ammonia (aqua)
Benzene
Carbon disulfide
Carbon tetrachloride
Castor oil
Chloroform

1049

Decane
Dodecane
Ether
Ethylene glycol
Fl refrigerant R-11

726.3

784.6
785.1
786.5
800.0
823.5
873.8
1261
1584
956.1
1465

754.6
713.5
1097
1476

Fl refrigerant R-12
Fl refrigerant R-22
Glycerine
Heptane
Hexane
Kerosene
Linseed oil
Octane
Phenol
Propane
Propylene

1311

Propylene glycol
Sea water
Toluene
Turpentine
Water

965.3

1194
1259
679.5
654.8
820.1
929.1
698.6
1072
493.5
514.4

1025
862.3
868.2
997.1

11. 25 oC

Acetic acid
Acetone
Alcohol, ethyl
Alcohol, methyl
Alcohol, propyl
Ammonia (aqua)
Benzene
Bromine
Carbon disulfide
Carbon tetrachloride
Chloroform

6.15
20.7
24.3
32.6
20.1
16.9
2.2
3.20
2.64
2.23
4.8

Decane
Ether
Ethylene glycol
Fl refrigerant R-12
Glycerine
Heptane
Iodine
Phenol
Propane
Toluene
Watera

2.0
4.3
37.7
2.0
40
1.92
11
9.8
1.27
2.4
78.54

The dielectric constant of water near the freezing point is 87.8; it


decreases with increase in temperature to about 55.6 near the boiling point.

225

12. (m/s)
25 oC ( )

Acetic acid (50C)


Acetone
Alcohol, ethyl
Alcohol, methyl
Alcohol, propyl
Benzene
Carbon disulfide
Carbon tetrachloride
Castor oil
Chloroform

1909

995

Glycerine
Heptane
Hexane
Kerosene
Mercury
Octane
Phenol (100C)
Seawater
Toluene (30C)
Turpentine

985

Water

1498

1584
1174
1144
1103
1205
1298
1149
924
1474

Ether
Ethylene glycol

1138
1203
1320
1450
1171
1274
1535
1275
1240

1644

13.
( 1 Mz)
12 farad

0 := 8.854187817 10

asphalt := 2.58 0

asphalt = 2.284 10

coul

11

newton m

Aluminum oxide

8.80

Polycarbonate

3.02

Asbestos fiber

3.1

Polyester, cast resin, rigid

2.8

Asphalt

2.58

Polyethylene

2.35

Beeswax, yellow

2.53

Polypropylene

2.25

Lucite

2.63

Porcelain (dry process)

5.08

Magnesium oxide

9.65

Rubber, modified, isomerized 2.4 to 2.7

Mica, ruby

5.4

Shellac, natural

3.47

Neoprene

6.26

Teflon FEP

2.1

Nylon 66

3.33

Urea-formaldehyde

6.0

Plexiglass

2.76

Vinylite QYNA

2.88

226

to 4.1

14. ( )

Acetylene

0.90

Hydrogen (H2)

Air (mixture)

1.00

Hydrogen chloride (HCl) 1.26

Ammonia (NH3)

0.59

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

1.18

Argon (Ar)

1.38

Krypton (Kr)

2.89

Butadiene (C4H6)

1.87

Methane (CH4)

0.554

n-Butane (C4H10)

2.07

Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) 1.74

1-Butene (butylene) C4H8

1.94

Neon (Ne)

0.697

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

1.52

Nitric oxide (NO)

1.04

Carbon monoxide (CO)

0.967

Nitrogen (N2)

0.967

Chlorine (Cl 2)

2.45

Nitrous oxide (N 2O)

1.52

Deuterium (D2)

0.070

Oxygen (O2)

1.105

Ethane (C2H6)

1.04

Ozone (O3)

1.66

Ethyl chloride (C2H5Cl)

2.23

Propane (C3H8)

1.52

Ethylene (ethene) C2H4

0.969

Propylene (C3H6)

1.45

Fluorine (F 2)

1.31

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

2.21

Helium (He)

0.138

Xenon (Xe)

4.53

0.070

15. (m/s)
25 oC ( )

Acetylene

343

Hydrogen (H2)

Air (mixture)

346

Hydrogen chloride (HCl)310

Ammonia (NH3)

415

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) 302

Argon (Ar)

322

Krypton (Kr)

223

Butadiene (C4H6)

226

Methane (CH4)

446

n-Butane (C4H10)

216

Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) 251


227

1315

1-Butene (butylene) C4H8 222

Neon (Ne)

454

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

270

Nitric oxide (NO)

341

Carbon monoxide (CO)

352

Nitrogen (N2)

353

Chlorine (Cl 2)

215

Nitrous oxide (N 2O)

268

Deuterium (D2)

930

Oxygen (O2)

329

Ethane (C2H6)

316

Propane (C3H8)

253

Ethyl chloride (C2H5Cl) 204

Propylene (C3H6)

261

Ethylene (Ethene) C2H4 331

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

220

Fluorine (F 2)

290

Xenon (Xe)

177

Helium (He)

1015

16.
16.1

C =

16.2

C =

16.3

2 d

r2
r1

ln

C = 4 r

228

16.4

C =

4
1
r1

1
r2

17. . rad/s.
17.1

17.2

17.3

RC Phase Shift

Gain requirement:

Av

Gain requirement:

Av M

Gain requirement:

Av

( R C)2

1
6RC
Tuned Output

1
L1 C1
Colpitts

C1 + C2
L C1 C2

229

)2 29

5 R C

C2
C1

17.4

17.5

Clapp

Av

Gain requirement:

Av

Gain requirement:

Av 1

C1

1
L C3
Hartley

L1 + L2 + 2 M

(L1 + L2 + 2 M) C

17.6

Pierce

C2

Gain requirement:

1
LC

Mathad 2001 Professional

230

L2

231



....
2006
2006
: ( - )
:...............................................................ONOMA:..........................................
:.............................................................................:.....................................
:..............................................
1
, ,
:
1. .
2.
.
3. Carnot :
i) , ii) , iii) ,
iv) .
4. .

b (
) .
5.
.
: 5 x 0.2 = 1)
.
2
m1 = 2Kg, ( , uo = 0),
15s, F ,
( SI):

(m 1 )

F = c t

c = 2

N
s

5s, :
) u ,
) .
(:1 + 0.5 = 1.5)
232

3
) y(x, t)
x
= /k.
y ( x , t) = A cos ( t + k x)

(: 1.5)

4
Yukawa
. ro Uo .

r0
U ( r) =
U e
r 0

r
r0

15

r0 = 1.5 10

) F(r).
) ( ).

U0 = 50 MeV

(: 0.7 + 0.3 = 1)

5
, ( ), ( R),
.
, m
H .
go. G.
) p .
) = 0,
(: 0.5 + 0.5 = 1)
.

233

19

eV = 1.6 10

1
4 -
2
Newton :

c := 2

m1 := 2 kg

F ( t) := c t

a ( t) :=

u ( t) = uo + a ( t) dt

u :

c
m1

u ( t) :=

m
uo := 0
s

t + uo
2 m 1

u ( 5 s) = 12.5

P ( t) := F ( t) u ( t) cos ( 0 deg)

m
s

P ( 5 s) = 125 W

3
y ( x , t)

= A sin ( t + k x)

y ( x , t)

= A cos ( t + k x)

y ( x , t)

= k A sin ( t + k x)

y ( x , t)

= k A cos ( t + k x)
2

y ( x , t)
2

y ( x , t)

2
k
x

y ( x , t)

1 y ( x , t)

2
2

F ( r) = U0

( r0 + r)

exp

r0

5
)

m gH = m

( R + H)

gH = g

R
2
g
= u
( R + H)

T =

2 R
R

( R + H)

( R + H)

( R + H)

p = m R

mE
2

T = 2

4
3
G R
3

234

( R + H)

g
( R + H)

u = R

T =

3
G



....
2006
2006
: ( - )
:...............................................................ONOMA:..........................................
:.............................................................................:.....................................
: 26 2006
1
, ,
:
1. .
2. .
3.
.
4. xx.

xx.

.
5. 2 Kepler : " ,
".
(: 0.2 x 5 = 1)
2
(
) (m, r, u) xx'.
:

L = r m u

: " L
(: 1)
".
3
(molar) NaCl
Debye:
C = k

k := 1940

:= 281 K

mol K

) 10.0 K
60.0 ;
) 2.00 mole NaCl 10.0
60.0 ;
) ;
(: 0.4 + 0.4 + 0.2 = 1)
235

4
, , L, ,
x, : = + x , ( kg/m3 ) ( kg/m4)
. ) ) (CM).
(: 0.7 + 0.8 = 1.5)
y
dx
O

x
A

5
m = 1kg .
k = 200/m . F
( ) Strmax =
100. F,
: F(x) = a +bx2, : a = 60, b = 4.000N/m2 x .
) .
) WF, F,
.
(: 0.5 + 1 = 1.5)

(m )
(k)

F
x

236

1
2, 5 -
2
L :


L = rp

L = r m u

( 1)

(1) :

L = r m u


d d

d
L = r m u + r m u
dt
dt
dt


u u = 0

d
L = r m lin
dt

d
L = rF
dt


d
d
L = m u u + r m u
dt
dt

d
L=
dt

( 2)

" L
".

3
)

n := 2 mole

C ( T) := k

T1 := 10 K

T2 := 60 K

J
C T 1 = 0.087
mole K

J
C T 2 = 18.886
mole K

( )

dQ = C ( T ) n dT

( )

2
Q := C ( T ) n dT
T

Q = 566.138 J

Q
Cmean :=
n T 2 T 1

J
Cmean = 5.661
mole K

4
:
L

Given

M=
0

( o + x) dx

Find ( M) o L +

xcm =

M = L o +

x o + x dx
0

L o + L
2

2 L + 3 o
1
Find xcm L
3
2 o + L

L
1
xcm =
x dm
M 0

Given

2 L + 3 o
1
xcm = L
3
2 o + L

237

1
2

1
xcm = L
2

= 0, :

5
)

a := 60N

b := 4000

Strmax := 100 N

m := 1 kg

k := 200

Hooke .
: F = 60N. :

:=

a
m

= 60

m
2

s
2

F ( x) = a + b x

a + b x Strmax = 0

1
2

b b ( a Strmax)

1 b ( a Strmax) 2

b

1
2
xo := b a Strmax
b

F ( x) := a + b x

xo = 0.1 m

1
2
b a Strmax = 0.1 m
b

o
WF :=
F ( x) dx
0 m

238

22
WF =
J
3

N
m



....
2006
2006
: ( - )
:...............................................................ONOMA:..........................................
:.............................................................................:.....................................
:..............................................

:...............................................

1
, ,
:
1. .
2. ( ) .
3. .
4. m ,
, F ,
F = bt, b .
.
5. ,
' .
.
(: 0.2 x 5 = 1)
2
m :

r = cos ( t) x + sin ( t) y

: , , , , t ,

x y .

(x, y).
(: 1)
3
y(x, t)
x
= /k.
y ( x , t) = A sin ( t k x)

(: 2)

239

4
(Ag) (Fe)

. 1 Ag 0C
100C. Ag
(kAg = 11kFe).
.
(25/3)C.
L

Ag
1 (T1 = 0C)

Fe
(T = xC)

2 (T2 = 100C)

(: 1)

5
' m
U(r)
( r > 0) :

r 2 r 3
o
o
U ( r) = Uo
+
r r

Uo ro r > 0
.
F(r).
(: 1)

240

1
1, 3, 5 -
2

r = cos ( t) x + sin ( t) y

) :

x = cos ( t)

y = sin ( t)

(0, 0).
M 2 (xx') 2 (yy').

= 1

y =

( x , t)

y = ( sin ( t) ) 2

= sin ( t)

y ( x , t) = A sin ( t k x)

y ( x , t)

x = ( cos ( t) ) 2

= cos ( t)

y =

y ( x , t)
2

y ( x , t)

y = A cos ( t k x)

t
2

= A sin ( t k x)

t
2

y ( x , t)

k A cos ( t k x)

= k A sin ( t k x)
2

x
2

y ( x , t)
2

y ( x , t)

y ( x , t)
2

4
kAg = 11 kFe
( W/s) :

kFe S T2 T
kAg S T T1
=
L
L

T=

25 C

r 2 r 3
o
o
U ( r , Uo , ro) := Uo
+
r r

d
F r , Uo , ro := U r , Uo , ro
dr

3
r 2
ro
o
F ( r , Uo , ro) Uo 2
3 3 4
r
r

3
r 2
ro
o
F ( r) = Uo 2
3 3 4
r
r

241

1 y ( x , t)
=

2
2


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, , 1996.
9. . , . , . , . , . ,
, 2005.
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New York, 1996.
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. . , , 1983.
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. . , .
17. . . , - , , , 2003.
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242