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MBA (H.R.)





I do hereby declare that the summer project entitled TRAINING AND DEVALOPMENT is submitted by me to the company is under the supervision of MRS.RACHNA CHOUBEY, HR Officer of USHA MARTIN. This is the Original project report which is completely on my own work, experience in the past one and half months in yours organisation .This is not copy & paste and is not Published in any other organization.



The summer project at Usha Martin Company has been a very memorable and unique experience to me. I am giving finishing touch to the present piece of my work and look back to catalogue my feelings towards all those who have helped me in endeavour, I first begin the acknowledgement with a prayer to god as we must all say almighty be praised for he saw us through every crucial task. I am expressing my deep gratitude to USHA MARTIN COMPANY for giving me opportunity to do a project o satisfaction level of retailers from the service provided by the company and study under them I would like to thank Mr Navin Kumar (chief trainer H.R) and Mrs Rachna choubey for assisting and guiding me throughout the training program I am also thankful to my project guide Mrs Rachna (H.R Officer) I am very gratful to RCM for providing me the opportunity of taking up such a firsthand experience.



This is to certify that Miss Prity kumari, a student of Regional College of Management Autonomous, Bhubaneswar undergoing summer training, has completed 6 weeks of training in our organization from 27.05.2011 to 07. 07. 2011 during which period she was placed in the HR department under the guidance of Mrs. Rachna Choubey (H.R Officer of USHA MARTIN COMPANY). The conduct and response of Miss Prity Kumari during the training period has found to be good. Miss Prity Kumari has now submitted a copy of her project report on the topic of TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.

Place: Date:

Signature of the Company Guide


This is to certify that Miss Prity Kumari bearing registration number 1006247093 of REGIONAL COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT AUTONOMOUS has successfully completed the project work titled TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION prescribed by the REGIONAL COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT AUTONOMOUS.

This project is the record of authentic work carried out during the academic Year (2010-2012).

Place: Guide Date

Signature of the Faculty (..................................) faculty of HR

Chapter 1

Executive summary

Introduction of the study

The training and development is one of the most important elements to keep the technologies progress at a sustainable status and to fulfil its business objectives. Training and development is one of the most important elements of HRD which improve skills, knowledge, work efficiency of the worker but also provides sufficient opportunities to understand the organisation but to enhance its own capability. India proves to be a very fastest growing nation in the field of steel production and similar other allied production position in the world trade market. So in order to meet these all challenges almost each and every sector whether is public sector, private sector or a corporate sector each of them are strengthening, modifying and restructuring their old and traditional management system and there has been a great transformation of new technologies and management as a whole. HRD training and development activities at USHA MARTIN LIMITED, Jamshedpur, plays a vital role towards the fastest development of skills of the employees so that they can very well understand the importance of their knowledge matching to the requirements of the organisation. Since, there has been an integrated approach for managements change and conceptional change, HR function has been introduced in UML Jamshedpur for top to grass wood level employees so that they can meet the challenges and understand the complexity of the changing environment. The HRD approach at UML Jamshedpur has bought significant changes in the field of production, productivity, cost conscious, personality development and at last but not the least what the HRD training and development programme has done in UML Jamshedpur is that it has rapidly increased the work efficiency and employees has given a remarkable achievement during a last couples of years. In this study it would be tried to analyze all these elements in to different prospective and favourable and unfavourable, if they, exists in the organisation. Convergence of the theory into practice has its mere objectives that it should provide resultant factor as a desired factor. Observing certain perceptions through practical trainings is the domain of the management course and it has its very strong and vital importance. It exposes the potential manager towards the actual work situation and gives to the students, some inferences and implication of the various process that travel in the manufacturing

industry and service industry. Sixty days practical training is through obligator requirements of masters of business administration, yet it played a very advantageous role to me. Practical training in UML (Steel Industry) has been an excellent learning to me. There have been considerable changes n the technology, operation and structure of steel manufacturing industry due t the globalisation, merger environmental issues and available sources. The new challenges being posed by changing customer satisfaction level and multiple market requirements are forcing the manufacturing industry to adopt new solutions in the said industry.


Training is concerned with imputing and developing and developing specific skills for a particular purpose. Flippo has defined training as the act of increasing the skills of employees for doing a particular job thus is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. This behaviour, being programmed, is relevant to specific phenomenon, that is, a job.

The scope of present project is to study training and development activities/procedures at Usha Martin Limited, Jamshedpur. It includes: A scientific methods of training process Periodical training of employees Quality manpower Workforce motivation Development of team work

The strength of any organization is its people. If people are attended to properly by recognizing their talents, developing their capabilities and utilizing them appropriately, organizations are likely to be dynamic and grow fast. Ultimately the variety of task in any organization has to be accomplished by the people. Some of them have capabilities to do certain tasks better than other tasks, and some of them may not have capabilities to do the task assigned to them. In any case one of the important process goals of any dynamic organization is to assure that its people are capable of doing the variety of tasks associated their role/position.


The objectives of this project are: To secure optimal contribution from employees Prepare the worker for the higher level job Enables employees to use his skills, knowledge, ability to fulfil their aspirations Enables the employee to do his job in an efficient and effective manner This project will help the employers to identify each and every b individuals need of trainings. After identifying trainings need they can also provide a required trainings to them. To impart need based trainings that enhances performances and leads to achievements of quality objectives. To identify and access the training need of an employees To evaluate training and maintains records To prepare training calendar To understand the training and development activities of the company. To find out the impact on the performance of the individual after training. Report the feedback of the employees of the training activity carried on. To know the training methods used in the organization. To know the reasons for employees training and development.

Chapter 2

Company profile

Company profile Inception

Started in 1961 in Ranchi, Jharkhand as a wire rope manufacturing company, today the Usha Martin Group is a Rs. 3000 crore conglomerate with a global presence. The group has set new standards in the manufacture of wire rods, bright bars, steel wires, speciality wires, wire ropes, strand, conveyor cord, wire drawing and cable machinery. With continuous growth in both the domestic and international markets, Usha Martin, the Groups flagship company has emerged as Indias largest and the worlds second largest steel wire rope manufacturer. For Usha Martin, the path to sustainable growth was long; the management constantly tried out innovative business practices. With initiative to diversify the customer base by venturing into the international markets, moving up the value chain and fully integrating its business process to maximize stakeholder value.

Thinking big
In 1979, the company set up a steel plant with wire rod rolling mill at Jamshedpur, to benefit from business integration. This ensured a steady supply of steel for the manufacture of value added products. Today, the Jamshedpur unit has a truly integrated speciality steel manufacturing facility of 400,000 MT per annum. Out of which, about 50% is consumed internally by its plant in Ranchi, Hoshiarpur & Bangkok, producing steel wire, steel strand, steel cords, bright bar and steel wire ropes. All its manufacturing facilities are ISO 9000 certified and the steel plant was Indias first to receive the TPM Excellence Award from JIPM, Japan

Looking forward
With local success come global aspirations. Currently, the company has overseas manufacturing operations in Thailand, UK, USA and Dubai. Besides a vast network of distribution centres and marketing offices spread across the globe to support an ever growing worldwide customer base. The company exports over 60% of the wire rope output and about 20% of the total wire rods produced

Evolution of the company

Mr.B.K.Jhawar, the chairman, established Usha Martin Limited in 1960 with the wire Ropes plant at Ranchi .The firm was initially called Usha Martin Black as it started with collaboration between M/s. Martin Black, Scotland and Usha Automobile & Engineering Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta in 1960.

In 1965, it backed Usha Ismal Ltd. to manufacture rope Accessories & Splicing equipment which merged with it in 1990. In 1969, it promoted Usha Breco Ltd. T1o design, construct and erect Aerial Ropeways. The collaboration with Martin Black Ended in 1975 and the company was thereafter called Usha Martin Industries. The company set up an Electrical furnace steel plant at Jamshedpur in 1973, followed by a Rod Mill in 1976.

In 1980, it promoted Usha Siam Steel Industries Ltd., Thailand to produce wire, wire ropes & Auto Control Cables. It set special products Division to produce Hi-tech wire cables.

In 1986 UML promoted Usha Beltron Ltd., Ranchi in alliance with AEG cable of Germany and Bihar State Electronics Corporation to produce Jelly filled Telecommunication cables. In 1994, it set up Software Division to provide IT solutions for communication application and Usha Martin Ltd., a distribution centre at Glasgow, UK .

Usha Martin Ltd., merged with Usha Beltron Group in 1999 and was renamed as wire & wire Rope Division within which following six companies are included: JFTC Ranchi, wire & wire Rope Division- Ranchi, Usha Ismal Division -Ranchi Usha Alloy & Steel DivisionJamshedpur, Usha Machinery Division Bangalore and Rod Mill Division- Agra.


Steel Division A backward integration initiative, the Usha Alloys & Steel Division (USAD) at Jamshedpur is one of the largest amongst Secondary steel manufacturers of speciality steel long products in India. With ISO 9002 certified facilities, USAD has pioneered the unique process of steel making through Mini Blast furnace Arc Furnace route, which ensures superior quality of steel at a lower cost. USAD serves a range of industries like automobile, general engineering, fasteners, railways, defence & power. The steel Division of Usha Martin was born in 1974-75 as a Mini steel plant with annual capacity of 25000 tons.

The integration also includes: Captive railway siding for logistics Captive coal based thermal power plant Waste heat power plant Blast furnace & DRI for iron making, supported by gas based power plant, captive lime and oxygen plant. Two electric arc furnace Ladle furnaces Vaccum furnace State of the wire rod mill Straight bar mill supported by heat-treatment facilities for annealing of coil and bars World class bright bar plant.

Machinery Division

This ISO 9001 unit was setup in 1974 at Bangalore to manufacture wire Drawing and allied machines. Over the years, the division has added a wide range of wire, wire rope and cable Machinery to its product range and is now the leader in this field in India. The division started with technical collaboration with M/s Marshall Richards Barcro of UK and subsequently has collaborated with internationally reputed firms like De-Angeli Industries SPA, Italy, Stumberger Maschinenfabrik, Germany, Hi-Draw Machinery Ltd., UK and Redaelli Techna Meccanica, Itali. Company has been shifted to Ranchi in 2005 for manufacturing machines required for wire Drawing and Stranding Applications.

Usha Ismal Division

This unit having manufacturing unit in Ranchi (Eastern India), is the leader in the field of preStressing equipment & accessories and also executes pre-Stressing job on turnkey basis. Besides, it provides services for jointing of reinforcement bars by mechanical splicing. All major civil Contractors of National Highway authority of India, Indian Railways, and PWD are regular users of these products and services. It also offers hydraulic presses & accessories for manufacturing mechanically spliced wire rope slings, machine for proof load testing of wire rope slings, and die-less hand operated hydraulic crimping tools. These products find wide application with steel Plants, Port Trusts, Oil Sector, Heavy Engineering Industry, Electricity Boards, Electrical contractors, Factories etc.

Cable Division Under UM cables

The cable division of Usha Martin Limited has emerged as a leading manufacturer of jellyfilled underground & fiber optic telecommunition Cables in India the sophisticated manufacturing facilities are located in Silbasa. The company integrates technology from KABEL RHEYDT (formerly AEG KABLE), GERMANY, a member of Alcatel Group is rated as one of the most efficient plant in the country and a benchmark in the industry. The plant includes computer-controlled critical equipments, imported from International Leaders in cable technology.

This business is under a divestment process in order to concentrate management focus on its main business and core competence.

Wire &wire ropes Division

Introduction The ISO 9001- certified 100,000MT/annum manufacturing facilities at Ranchi (Eastern India) is 2nd largest producer of ropes in the world. Since its inception, the division has continuously developed and expanded its range of product offering and is considered a pioneer in certain classes of products in India. Steel Wire ropes manufactured by the division find wide applications in Oil exploration, Mining, Elevatores, Cranes, Fishing, construction, Load transportation and General Engineering Sectors. It find varied use in different parts of the

World known for their excellent quality, long life and low maintenance, and are the preferred choice of customers across nations. Ropes, ranging from 2mm to 100mm diameter find varied applications. The wide ranges of products are used in underground mining, surface mining, mooring, onshore and offshore drilling, fishing, elevators, cranes, aerial haulage and track installation besides various general engineering applications. Pre-stretched ropes, locked coil wire ropes and spiral strands made in Usha Martin are used in suspension bridges, antenna masts etc.

Finished Products Rope General Engineering Rope Flattened Strand Elevator Rope Non-Rotating Rope Fishing Rope Mining Rope Hyflex Rope Locked Coil winding Traced Rope Wire Auto spoke Cycle Spoke PC Strand Rolling Shutter ACSR PC wire indexed & plain

Fine Cord The company has collected a pool of experience in rope making technology towards manufacturing of Fine cords. Usha Martin Fine Cords find application as the inner element for the Automotive control Cables and also in boring applications and as Pull Cord Cables for laying of Television cables.

Size Range The Size range for overall diameter of finished cord is 1.20mm to 6.00mm

Construction UML can provide fine cords in the following construction: 7* 7 7/19 1/7 1/19

Low Relaxation Prestressed Concrete (LRPC) Strands In keeping with the demands of the international market, UML has introduced Low Relaxation Prestressed Concrete (LRPC) strands for the construction industry in 2001.A steel member that is prestressed and embedded in concrete loses the initially applied stress exponentially with the passage of time. The single most important factor attributing to this loss in stress relaxation property of the steel itself. By treating the steel through a thermo mechanical process known as stabilizing, the propensity of the steel to relax under a stressed condition is controlled to a great extent

Applications Pre-stressed concrete girders for road, river & railway bridges and flyovers, pre-stressed concrete domes, slabs, silos, hangers, aqueducts, viaducts & railway sleepers.

Quality & Testing Wire and strands hold a premier position in the domestic market and are also exported to different part of the world. Used for different purpose across a gamut of industries, its wires & strands are continuously put through rigorous and demanding conditions. To ensure that companys offering match the international standards, they have set high internal quality standards. Plant located at Ranchi has been awarded ISO 9001 due to emphasis on maintaining global quality standards. Their Products confirm to many international standards, some of which are listed below: IS JIS British ASTM DIN Specifications Specifications Specifications Specifications Specifications

Tested using the best modern facilities our wires are produced to ensure that they match the quality for which UML is renowned.

Aerial Ropes UML is the undisputed leaders in the domestic Aerial Rope Sector. The product offering include Aerial haulage ropes, material handling ropes, rope for their low maintenance, long life, excellent quality and strength.

Steel cord for conveyor Belts Conveyor belts-One of the most popular means for bulk material handling finds widespread application in mines, cement and coal industries, Ports & terminals, power stations etc. When reinforced with steel cord these belts last longer, allow higher operating speed and offer better shock and rupture resistance then conventional fibre reinforced belts. In addition very low elongation and absence of creep, makes steel cord the ideal reinforcement for long haul, high strength belts (from 500 to 2000 N per mm of belts width).

Social Commitment through Krishi Gram Vikash Kendra Management commitment and support since 1977 In every village where hunger persists, human being must be empowered to discover their own vision expresses their own leadership; create their own solutions and work together to achieve their own success.


The company is guided by the following vision statements in our chosen business, we shall retain market leadership in india and shall be GLOBALLY through customer orientation and excellence in quality, innovation and technology

MISSION Enriching lives

Usha martin is doing their best to provide products and services, which will uplift life styles of their users

Quality is the first priority

Their aim is to achieve customer satisfaction by producing quality products. No ale is good sale unless it fulfill our customers expectations

Their word is their bond

Their dealer is their partner. They endeavour to practice this golden rule in all their relation with other

Integrity is their commitment

They conduct their companys affairs must be pursued in a manner that command for honesty and integrity

Corporate Social Responsibility

The Company has continued strong belief and commitment towards its' corporate social responsibility which is accepted as an important part of business philosophy. The Company has promoted Krishi Gram Vikas Kendra (KGVK), as its' social arm to take appropriate initiatives in various areas which affect health, social life and economic well being of people for a period of over 35 years. Presently, KGVK reaches out to about one lac households of tribal people and weaker sections of society in over 700 villages across 6 districts in the state of Jharkhand.

In addition to the various normal activities in field of basic health, hygiene and sanitation, education, women empowerment, community development, agriculture, integrated watershed development, micro enterprise development, capacity building and need based training to generate self employment and sustainable income for weaker sections of society, KGVK has undertaken key initiatives for management of natural resources [five Js Jal (water), Jameen (land), Jangle (forests), Janwar (animals) and Jan (people)] and social capital. During the year KGVK has formulated a holistic concept namely Total Village Management (TVM) for integrated village development, with ownership of every aspect of socio-cultural and economic life, incorporating the tested tools of Total Quality Management and Total Productivity Management at the Company's plants. In the same direction, KGVK has set up 'TVM Gurukul' for training barefoot managers and entrepreneurs to own and lead the TVM movement. The other initiatives taken by KGVK include on natural resource management, empowering communities, facilitating implementation of programs under National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2006 and renewable energy systems. Your Directors express their profound appreciation to all the agencies, institutions and government authorities and its' employees for supporting KGVK's initiatives.


1974 1979 1981 1991 1993 1994 1995

Steel melting shop Wire rod mill (50,000 MT capacities) Steel melting shop and wire rod mill modernization Wire rod moll revamping Steel melting shop (population control measures) ISO 9002 Certification Mini blast furnace & captive power plant set up (backward integration)

1997 1988 1999

TPM introduced TPM kick off Mini blast furnace modernisation (liquid fuel and Oxygen enrichment) Captive power plant- 1000Sm3/hr

2000 2001 2001

25 MV captive power plant, bell annealing furnace TPM Excellence award Expansion of steel melting shop(SMS) new caster for Bloom size( 150*150-improved quality)

2001 2002

Oxygen plant- cost reduction FEB TPM kick off phase 2 (Award for excellence Consistent TPM commitment- 1st category

2003 2004 2004

Sponge iron & 10 MV power plant project APR PRE PREAUDIT for TPM special award Initiation for TPM deaming prize

Group Profile

Usha martin group of industries is in to manufacturing of steels, wires and ropes with an annual turnover of US$ 300 million. Its manufacturing and marketing activities incorporated in 1960 by Mr.B.K.Jhawar, the present Chairman, it started to manufacture steel wire and wire rope in collaboration with Martin Black of Scotland. As a joint venture. This company has been merged with usha Beltron limited from April 2001 the name was changed to Usha Beltron limited(Wire & Rope Division).Wires, wires ropes and Strands are the Core business of Usha Martin. The ISO 9001 certified manufacturing unit is at Ranchi and is a modern facility in the field. Usha Martin is worlds largest manufacturer of wire, wire rope and strands, Successfully servicing a variety of areas. Industries such as automobile, general engineering, power, infrastructure and construction and speciality products have been using products. With its state of arts manufacturing unit at Ranchi and its extensive market reach, the company has been a significant player in the wire market. The ISO -9000 certified manufacturing units conforms to the best practices and reliable quality system. Due to its internationally recognized system and standards Usha Martin wires and strands have made a mark for themselves the world over. Wire rope division based at Ranchi is required to produce 80,000 MT of steel wire rope annually. Its wire rope used in different parts of the world, known for their excellent quality, long life and low maintainance,its ropes are the preferred choice of customers across nations. Usha rope, ranging from 2mm to 116mm diameter find varied applications .Usha Martin Ltd. is undisputed market leading in the wire & wire rope of domestic market. It manufactures wire &wire rope for national and international specification and standards. Usha Martin produces different wire & wire rope products, which are used in underground mining, surface mining, onshore and offshore drilling, fishing elevators, cranes, aerial haulage and track installations besides various general engineering applications. Usha Martin pays substantial revenue to the government and provides employment to about 5000 persons.

Organizational structure

key Department & their functions

Planning Department:
Mainly concern with production programme schedule, which incorporate following function;1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Receives orders Scrutinize orders Tally with request of purchase order Check stocks of available them allocates. Check capacity/capability Club similar Orders Book capacity Schedule job Monitor and control.

Production Department:
This department is concerned with following activities: Assessment followed by allocation of load to machine New product development R & D

Marketing and Sales co-ordination Department:

This department is concerned with following activities Responding to customers requirement and enquiry Making offer to tender Participation in bidding and negotiating the deal Packaging Arranging and coordinating external and third party inspection Preparation of invoice, Pre-shipment, Document etc. Interaction with transporters, their performance, evaluation and allocation of orders.

Quality Assurance Department:

This department is concerned with following activities: Identifying and checking the quality aspects of the material Quality testing of wire/ropes Issuing testing certificate for final dispatch

Technical services Department:

The main function of technical service department is to facilitate in installing its product and conducting regular inspection through making visits. The other aspects includes: Conducting demonstrations and seminars Complaint holding and analysis Suggestions to customers Site inspection and providing Feedback

Safety Department:
Being very crucial in present scenario, due to continuously increasing importance of resources, safety is that part of industrial set up which requires a lot of attention. Most of the organizations, owning to its factual significance, have dedicated separated department for safety. The setting up of special department for taking care and account for all safety measures, following the statutory requirements, in the present business environment with ongoing trend of downsizing as leaning down of organization itself shows the relative significance of it .Broadly, it is the process, approach & methods following some set of predefined rules, to protect the organizational resources from any kind of mishap (accident).

Personnel and Administration Department

One of the many indicators of the HR efficiency of Usha Martin Limited is the existence of a dedicated and & hyperactive HRD department. The HRD in any organization is mainly responsible for the overall development of the human resource of that organization. This development is done by providing proper training opportunity to each and every employee so that they are equipped with so many skills and traits which not only help them performing their current job efficiently but also make them a treasure or wealth for the organization. This helps the employees earn their best currently and will helping their career planning.

Chapter 3

Review literature


Human Resource Management (HRM), a relatively new term, that emerged during the 1930s. Many people used to refer it before by its traditional titles, such as Personnel Administration or Personnel Management. But now, the trend is changing. It is now termed as Human Resource Management (HRM). Human Resource Management is a management function that helps an organization select, recruit, train and develops. Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. All the activities of employee, from the time of his entry into an organization until he leaves, come under the horizon of HRM. The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll, Performance Management, Training and Development, Retention, Industrial Relation, etc. Out of all these divisions, one such important division is training and development.

Training and Development is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioural change takes place in structured format. Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. It is application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behaviour. It attempts to improve their performance on their current job and prepare them for an intended job. Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance, but also which bring about the growth of the personality; help individuals in the progress towards maturity and actualization of their potential capabilities so that they become not only good employees but better men and women. In organizational terms, it is intended to equip person to earn promotions and hold greater responsibility. Training a person for a bigger and higher job is development. And this may well include not only imparting specific skills and knowledge but also inculcating certain personality and mental attitudes Training is the main function of HR. To enhance the Corporation's growth and keep the Corporation ready to anticipate all types of competition and face it too, there is a need that Human Resource should play more active role for overall progress of the Corporation. The impact of training programme is to mould the employees attitude and help them to synergies individual goals with organizational goals. It also helps in reducing dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism and labour turnover.


TRADITIONAL APPROACH Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. MODERN APPROACH This of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.

Meaning of training
Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development. It refers to the process of imparting specific skills. An employee undergoing training is presumed to have had some formal education. No training program is complete without an element of education. Hence we can say that Training is offered to operatives.

Training is primarily concerned with preparing people for certain activities delineated by technology and by the organization and settings in which they work. Education helps students to choose their activities. Training helps participants to improve their performance. Education deals mostly knowledge and understanding. Training deals mostly with understanding, skill and action. Training embraces an understanding of the complex processes by which various factors that make up a situation interact. Training is the most important activity or plays an important role in the development of human resources. To put the right man at the right place with the trained personnel has now become essential in todays globalize market.

No organization has a choice on whether or not to develop employees. Therefore training has nowadays become an important and required factor for maintaining and improving interpersonal and inter- group collaboration. Human resource is the life blood of any organization. Only through well-trained personnel, can an organization achieve its goals.

Definition of training
It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behaviour. Its not what you want in life, but it knows how to reach it. Its not where you want to go, but it knows how to get there Its not how high you want to rise, but it knows how to take off It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome Its not what you dream of doing, but its having the knowledge to do it It's not a set of goals, but its more like a vision Its not the goal you set, but its what you need to achieve it


Training is planned, organized and controlled activity designed to express some aspects of present job performance .Training is skill oriented and it is usually intended for the short run welfare of the company. Training is also a key ingredient in the motivation of individuals. An untrained, unskilled employee feels very insecure, lacking the self-confidence necessary for comfortable group relations - Elmer H. Burack and Robert D. Smith Training may be defined as any organizationally planned effort to change the behavior or attitude of employees so that they can perform jobs on acceptable standards. Training provides knowledge and skills required to perform the job. - Prof. A. M. Sharma

Development describes the growth of humans throughout the lifespan, from conception to death. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual, and personality development. The scientific study of development is important not only to psychology, but also to sociology, education, and health care. Development does not just involve the biological and physical aspects of growth, but also the cognitive and social aspects associated with development throughout life. It means those learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow. Development is not primarily skills oriented. Instead it provides the general knowledge and attitudes, which will be helpful to employers in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities such as those supplied by management development programs are generally voluntary in nature. Development provides knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of a company. Advantages of development:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Making them Self-starters Committed Motivated Result oriented Sensitive to environment Understand use of power Creating self awareness Develop inspiring leadership styles Instill zest for excellence Teach them about effective communication To subordinate their functional loyalties to the interests of the organization

The study of human development is important in a number of subjects, including biology, anthropology, sociology, education, history, and psychology. Most important, however, are the practical applications of studying human development. By better understanding how and why people change and grow, we can then apply this knowledge to helping people live up to their full potential.

The overall training objective is to develop required knowledge, skills and attitudes of our employees so that they can perform more productively and achieve the business goals. It is recognized that the employees learn primarily from on-the-job experience. Therefore, in achieving this objective, the primarily contribution is from on-the-job training and supporting contribution from the formal training effort.

1. 2. 3. 4.

To impart basic knowledge and skill to new entrants and enable them to perform the job well. To equip employee to meet the changing requirement of the job and organization. To teach the employees the new technique and ways of performing the job or operations. To prepare employees for higher level task and build up a second line of competent managers.

Training has always played an important and integral part in furthering many kinds of human learning and development. However, the fact that training can make an important, if not crucial, contribution to organizational effectiveness is only now being recognized fully. Companies, organizations and government are beginning to appreciate the value of adequate, consistent and long term investment in this function.

Principles of Training Activity

1. To Raise Productivity Levels:Increased performance and productivity, because of training, are most evident and . effective ways of performing their jobs

2. To Improve Quality in Work:Improvement in quality may be in relation to companys product/services or employment atmosphere.

3. To assist a company in fulfilling its Future:Organization that has a good internal educational programme will have to make less drastic manpower changes and adjustment in the event of sudden personnel alternations.

4. To Improve Health and Safety:Proper training can help prevent industrial accidents. A safer work place leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of employees.

5. Prevention of Obsolescence:Training and Development programmes foster the initiative and creativity of employees and help to prevent manpower.

6. To improve Organizational Climate:An endless chain of positive reactions results from a well-planned training programme Production and product quality may improve, financial incentives may increase less. supervisory pressures may results

7. To Promote Personal Growth:Management development programmes seems to give participants a wider awareness, an enlarged Skill, and enlightened altruistic philosophy, and make enhanced personal growth possible

Training needs assessment:



Training need can be identified by deducting the exiting skills from the job requirements. A training need exists when there is a gap between what is required of a person to perform his/her work competently and what he/she knows.

Hence a well planned and executed training programme should result in: Reduction in waste and spoilage. Reduction in learning time. Reduction in supervisory burden. Reduction in accident rates. Reduction in machine brokerage and maintenance cost. Improvement in methods of work. Improvement in quality of products and production rate. Improvement in morale and reduction in grievances. Increase in productivity. Improvement in Organizational Climate. To help company in fulfilling its future Personnel Needs.

Improvement in Health and Safety. Obsolescence Prevention.

Functions of Training: According to Miller, Training involves following five functions:

RESEARCH: It offers the training systems with necessary information for upgrading them. ANALYSIS: It helps in identifying training needs and specifying' behavioural objectives.

DEVELOPMENT: It prepares the necessary teaching material and specific methods so that effective learning occurs.

OPERATION: It assists in the selection of suitable training methods and identifying the required training aids. It helps in the smooth functioning of the training program.

EVALUATION: It monitors the effectiveness of the trainers in meeting their goals, success of programs and the organizational impact of training.

Types of training
A well organized training programme gives the management an opportunity to explain its policies, rules, procedures, regulation, objectives of the employees. These employees include unskilled, semiskilled worker, salesman, supervisor, etc Considering the need of employees training, different types of training programmes can be organized. Following are some of such type of programmes.

Induction Training: It is the initial training provided to the employees on their admission to an organization. The basic objective of such training is to introduce the employee to the organization in order to explain them condition of services, rules, nature of job or work to be done etc. Such type of training is generally given during probation period and under study schemes.

Job Training: Job training programme help the newly recruited employees to know and learn various technical aspects of their jobs. Such programme helps the employees to get the exact idea about handling of material equipment necessary for performing their jobs.

Training for Promotions: Such types of training programmes are obviously organized for the purpose of promotions of the employees. Many times some vacancies are filled in through promotions. When the employees are to be promoted to occupy superior position in the organizations, it becomes necessary to provide them some sort of training so that they are well prepared to shoulder their view responsibilities.

Supervisory Training: As supervisors from a very important link in the chain of administration, the training to supervisors is considered very important and the areas of their training are generally as planning, allocation, and control of work and employees.

Management Development Training: This type of training proves to be very useful for the people at different management levels. Such training helps to improve decision making skills and bring about favorable changes in the attitude of management people.


The need for the training of employees would be clear from the observations made by the authorities 1. To Increase Productivity: Instruction can help employees increase their level of performance on their present assignment. Increased human performance often directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit. Again, increased performance and productivity, because of training, are most evident on the part of new employees who are not yet fully aware of the most efficient and effective ways of performing the jobs. 2. To Improve Quality: Better informed workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. Quality increase may be in relationship to a company product or service, or in reference to the intangible organizational employment atmosphere.

3. To Help a Company Fulfill its Future Personnel Needs: Organisations that have a good internal education programme will have to make less drastic manpower changes and adjustments in the event of sudden personnel alterations. When the need arises, organizational vacancies can more easily be staffed from internal sources if a company initiates and maintain an adequate instructional programme for both its nonsupervisory and managerial employees.

4. To Improve Organizational Climate: An endless chain of positive reactions results from a well planned training programme. Production and product quality may improve; financial incentives may then be increased, internal promotions become stressed, less supervisory pressure ensure and base pay rate increase result. Increased morale may be due to many factors, but one of the most important of these is the current state of an organizations educational endeavour.

5. To Improve Health and Safety: Proper training can help prevent industrial accidents. A safer work environment leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of employees. Managerial mental state would also improve if supervisors know that they can better themselves through through company designed development programmes 6. Obsolescence Prevention: Training and development programmes foster the initiative and creativity of employees and help to prevent manpower obsolescence, which may be due to age, temperament or motivation, or the inability of a person to adapt him to technological changes. 7. Personal Growth: Employees on a personal basis gain individually from their exposure to educational experiences. Again, Management development programmes seem to give participants a wider awareness, an enlarged skill, and enlightened altruistic philosophy, and make enhanced personal growth possible.


OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources technical and behavioural skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. . DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS OF EMPLOYEES Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. PRODUCTIVITY Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. TEAM SPIRIT Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and interteam collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. ORGANIZATION CULTURE Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. ORGANIZATION CLIMATE Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. QUALITY Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.

HEALTHY WORK-ENVIRONMENT Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. HEALTH AND SAFETY Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. MORALE Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. IMAGE Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. PROFITABILITY Training and Development leads to improved profitability and towards profit orientation. more positive attitudes

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AIDS IN ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT I.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies


Training is shortterm process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which nonmanagerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a defined purpose. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. It is not primarily skill oriented. Instead it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions.

Training is skills focused

Development is creating learning abilities

Training is presumed to have a formal Development is not education dependent education Training needs depend upon lack or deficiency Development depends on personal drive and in skills ambition Trainings are generally need based Development is voluntary

Training is a narrower concept focused on job Development is a broader concept focused on related skills personality development Training may not include development Development necessary includes training wherever

Training is aimed at improving job related Development aims at overall personal efficiency and performance effectiveness including job efficiencies


The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal. INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization. ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. FUNCTIONAL OBJECTIVES maintain the departments contribution at a level suitable to the organizations needs. SOCIETAL OBJECTIVES ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.


Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives: 1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. Designer 4. Evaluator TRAINER The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training

TRAINEE The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise. Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainees mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training.

DESIGNER The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then hell buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation

Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately. EVALUATOR It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.


Any training and development program must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasis on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision making and problem solving capabilities.

SKILLSTraining is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to use machine and other equipment with least damage or scrap; this is basic without which a worker is not able to work on machines. Same way employees like supervisors, executives needs interpersonal skills, popularly known as people skills. Interpersonal skills are necessary to understand oneself and others too and act accordingly. EDUCATIONThe purpose of education is to teach theoretical concept and to develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. HR specialists understand the importance of education in any training and development program. Many times organizations encourage employees to do a course on a part time basis.

DEVELOPMENTAnother component of a training and development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. ETHICSThere is a need for imparting ethical orientation to a training and development programme. There is on denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in business. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. This does not mean that the HR manager is absolved of the responsibility. If the production, finance or marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need for the ethical behaviour.

Roles of training and development

Training imparts skills and knowledge to the employees in order that they contribute to the organizations efficiency of changing environment. The primary concern of an organization is its viability, and hence its efficiency. Thus training can help an organization in following manner:-

Increase in Efficiency Training plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of the company as employees are then capable of their job in a better way. They are imparted with the knowledge, application and implementation of new emerging and changing technology and other business concepts. Hence, training helps the company to maintain the minimum level of output.

Increase in Morale of Employees Training increases morale of employees by relating their skills with their job requirements. Trained employees can see the jobs in more meaningful way now and this high morale is evidenced employee enthusiasm, voluntary confirmation with regulations, and willingness to co-operate with others to achieve organizational objectives. Better Human Relations Various human relation trainings can overcome the problems related to social and psychologi cal nature coming up with increasing complexity in the structure of the organization. Reduced Supervision Trained employees need less supervision and want autonomy and freedom. Also the supervisor can increase his span of supervision.


A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organizations requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.


There are numerous sources of on-line information about training & development. Several of these sites (they are listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons included

Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees Increased employee motivation Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods Increased innovation in strategies and products Reduced employee turnover Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training(not a good reason for ethics training Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training

Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). The three model of training are: 1. System Model 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional model


The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on regular basis tomake further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1. Analyze It means to identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc. The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 2. Design It provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. 3. Develop - This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 4. Implementing It is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 5. Evaluating - Each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.


Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favourable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. Analysis This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis. 2. Planning This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behaviour of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc. It is all about deciding in advance what is to be done in future. It is the one of the most important function of every management, without which future goal cannot be achieved.

3. Development This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.

4. Execution This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories. 5. Evaluation The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.

Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed. Vision focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time.

A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. Mission explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders. Values is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implementation.


There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioural methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: Lectures Demonstrations Discussions Computer based training (CBT) Intelligent tutorial system(ITS) Programmed instruction (PI) Virtual reality

Behavioural methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioural approach allow the trainee to behaviour in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development.

The various methods that come under Behavioural approach are: Games and simulations Behavior-modeling Business games Case studies Equipment stimulators In-basket technique Role plays Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.


The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to install sound reasoning processes. Management development method is further divided into two parts: On the job training Off the job training


These methods are generally applied on the workplace while employees is actually working. Following are the on-the-job methods. Advantages of On-the-Job Training: It is directly in the context of job It is often informal It is most effective because it is learning by experience It is least expensive Trainees are highly motivated It is free from artificial classroom situations

Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training: Trainer may not be experienced enough to train It is not systematically organized Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards


1. Job Rotation: In this method, usually employees are put on different jobs turn by turn where they learn all sorts of jobs of various departments. The objective is to give a comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments. Advantage employee gets to know how his own and other departments also function. Interdepartmental coordination can be improved, instills team spirit. Disadvantage It may become too much for an employee to learn. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities. Employees basic talents may remain under utilized. 2. Job Coaching: An experienced employee can give a verbal presentation to explain the nitty-grittys of the job 3. Job Instruction: It may consist an instruction or directions to perform a particular task or a function. It may be in the form of orders or steps to perform a task.

4. Apprenticeships: Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to learn the functions of job. 5. Internships and Assistantships: An intern or an assistant are recruited to perform a specific time-bound jobs or projects during their education. It may consist a part of their educational courses.


These are used away from work places while employees are not working like classroom trainings, seminars etc. Following are the off-the-job methods;

Advantages of Off-the-Job Training: Trainers are usually experienced enough to train It is systematically organized Efficiently created programs may add lot of value

Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training: It is not directly in the context of job It is often formal It is not based on experience It is least expensive Trainees may not be highly motivated It is more artificial in nature


1. Classroom Lectures: It is a verbal lecture presentation by an instructor to a large audience. Advantage It can be used for large groups. Cost per trainee is low. Disadvantages Low popularity. It is not learning by practice. It is One-way communication. No authentic feedback mechanism. Likely to boredom . 2. Audio-Visual: It can be done using Films, Televisions, Video, and Presentations etc. Advantages Wide range of realistic examples, quality control possible,. Disadvantages One-way communication, No feedback mechanism. No flexibility for different audience. 3. Simulation: Creating a real life situation for decision-making and understanding the actual job conditions give it. Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation and trainer is supposed to analyze and give his conclusions in writing. The cases are generally based on actual organizational situations. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data.

Role Plays: Here trainees assume the part of the specific personalities in a case study and enact it in front of the audience. It is more emotional orientation and improves interpersonal relationships. Attitudinal change is another result. These are generally used in MDP.

Sensitivity Trainings: This is more from the point of view of behavioral assessment, under different circumstances how an individual will behave himself and towards others. There is no preplanned agenda and it is instant. Advantages increased ability to empathize, listening skills, openness, tolerance, and conflict resolution skills. Disadvantage Participants may resort to their old habits after the training.

4. Programmed Instructions: Provided in the form of blocks either in book or a teaching machine using questions and Feedbacks without the intervention of trainer. Advantages Self paced, trainees can progress at their own speed, strong motivation for repeat learning, material is structured and selfcontained. Disadvantages Scope for learning is less; cost of books, manuals or machinery is expensive. 5. Computer Aided Instructions: It is extension of PI method, by using computers. Advantages Provides accountabilities, modifiable to technological innovations, flexible to time. Disadvantages High cost.

Training benefits the organization in manifold ways: -

1. Benefits to organization: Leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes toward profit orientation Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. Improves the morale of the workforce. Helps people identify with organizational goals. Helps create a better corporate image. Fosters authenticity, openness, and trust. Aids in organizational development. Learns from the training. Helps keep costs down in many areas, example production, personnel, administration etc. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable.

Improves labour management relations. Helps employee adjust to change. Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension.

2. Benefits to the individual which in turn ultimately benefit the organization: Helps the individual in making better decisions an effective problem solving. Through T&D, motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalized. Aids in encouraging and achieving self development and self confidence. Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict. Provides information for improving leadership knowledge, communication skills and attitudes. Increase job satisfaction and recognition. Satisfy personal needs of the trainer. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new task.

3. Benefits in personnel and human resources: Improves communication between groups and individual. Aids in orientation for new employees and those taking new jobs through transfer and promotion. Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action. Improves inter personal skills. Improves morale. Builds cohesiveness in groups. Provides a good climate for learning, growth and co ordination. Makes organization policies, rules and regulations viable. Makes the organization a better place to work and live.

1) Identify training needs: - These are certain steps that are performed for training the employees. The first step is to identify T&D needs. In this step we arrange and obtain support for the contribution of T&D to organizational strategy. Then we identify organizational T&D needs. Thereafter we agree priorities for developing the T&D function. These sub steps are followed by identifying the current competence of individuals of individuals and agreeing individuals and group priorities or learning 2) Design T&D strategies and plans: - The second step is to design T&D strategies and plans. In this step first we identify resources required to implement a strategic plans and specify an operational plan that meets organizational requirements and further designing learning programs that meet learning needs and test, adapt and agree learning program designs. 3) Provide learning opportunities resources and support: - The third step is to provide learning opportunities resources and support. In this we obtain and allocate resources to meet the requirement of Training and development plans. Then prepare and present demonstrations and information to co-ordinate and assist the preparation and delivery of learning opportunities.

4) Evaluate effectiveness of T&D:-Fourth step in training is to evaluate the effectiveness of T&D, which involves plan setup, evaluate, and modify the learning plans. Then assess, co-ordinate, verify and identify previously acquired competence.

5) Support T&D advances and practice: - And last step is to support T&D advances and practice. This includes evaluating and disseminating advances in T&D. Then we administer training facilities and after that establish and maintain information system.


Identify organizational requirements for T&D Identify Training and Development Needs Identify the learning needs of individuals and groups.

Design T& D strategies and plans.

Design organizational T&D strategies and plans Design strategies to assist individuals and groups to achieve their objectives.

Provide learning opportunities, resources and support

Obtain and allocate resources to deliver T&D plans Provide learning opportunities and support to enable individuals and groups to achieve their objectives

Evaluate the effectiveness of T& D

Evaluate the effectiveness of T&D Evaluate individual and group achievements against objectives.

Assess achievements for public certification.

Support T &D advances and practice.

Contribute to advances in T&D

Provide services to support T&D practice.

Chapter - 4

Training system at usha martin

Training System;The whole Training System in Usha Martin Limited is mainly divided in to three broad processes:-

Training Need Recognition:This process includes everything which is aimed towards identification of training needs of employees based on the requirement of the organization, position and the individual.

Organizational Need Analysis:The Organizational analysis is done taking the companys mission and vision in to Account.

Position Need Analysis:In this step it is assessed that what are the requirements of the concerned position or responsibility. It is very similar to job specification and many a times the job analysis data is also used for doing this analysis.

Individual Need Analysis:In this step every employee performing any kind of job in the company is assessed for the skills, abilities and competencies that he is having and then it is compared to the expected level of skills and competencies as per the organizational and positional analysis. This comparison leads to the revelation of gap, which in turn will suggest the type and intensity of training programme required for the individual.

Expected Level (Organizational & Positional Analysis)

Need Type Types & Intensity of Training Program

Actual Level (Skill Mapping)

Skill Mapping:-

It is a method of individual training need assessment. Basically, we try to find out the existing skills in the person whose skills are to be mapped. It is done for three different sets of skills:

Operation & Maintenance Skills Quality Checking Skills Safety Skills

These three sets of skills comprise many basic skills of the person which are mapped. On the basis this of this skill mapping, skills matrix is prepared which is used to prepare radar chart for every worker before and after training, which indicates the effectiveness of the training programme, along with the skill level of the concerned employee.

On the basis of skill mapping, skill matrix is prepared which is generally like this:-



Skill 1

Skill 2 L2 L2 L4 L4

Skill 3 L3 L3 L4 L4

Skill 4 L1 L4 L2 L4

Skill 5 L1 L2 L3 L4

Skill 6 L4 L2 L1 L4

Skill 7 L2 L3 L1 L2

Skill 8 L3 L4 L1 L3

Ram Rahim

1111 2222

L1 L2 L1 L2

Gurmeet 3333 Victor 4444

In preparing skill matrix, various skills of employee are categorized as L1, L2, L3, and L4, Which spells the extent to which skills is being possessed by employee. Meaning of L1 to L4 is as follows:L1 - Cannot do. L2 - Can do L3 - Can do well L4 - Can teach On the basis of this skill matrix, radar chart is prepared to check the present status of each employee with regard to various skills. The Process of doing skill mapping, skill matrix and radar chart is repeated after completion of training programme to measure the effectiveness of training.

Before Training

After Training

Radar chart as formulated above gives an idea that after training programme employee,s all the skill have improved to great extent, except for the skill 7, for which he should be given further training if felt important.

Types of Training Programmes organized by HRD, Usha Martin Limited.

In house Programmes. On the job Programmes. Orientation programmes up to M4 grade. Mass coverage training. Nomination to external Institution.

INTERNALTRAINING Asst. Manager HR coordinates the entire training activity by providing suitable place for training, infrastructure & other necessary arrangements. HR maintains a monthly record of such training along with the attendance of training.

EXTERNAL TRAINING (Training outside UASD) The nomination received from respective HOD is confirmed to the external agency / faculty / coordinator and assistance is provided to the participants wherever required for attending their programme. HR also maintains a monthly record of such training.

ON THE JOB TRAINING / INTRA- DEPARTMENTAL TRAINING On the job training / Intra-Departmental training is identified at the departmental level where training is imparted to the individuals at the shop floor or by respective departments. Any assistance required by the department is provided by the HR towards the conduct of training programme. The respective departments maintain the record of such trainings and HR for records receives a copy of the training.

EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION / INDUCTION When a new employee joins in the officer cadre, he undergoes an orientation programme wherein he is exposed to the various process / systems that are linked and integrated to our systems.


Feedback on training programmes is obtained from the participants as well as faculty or through post-training test / examination to measure its effectiveness wherever required. Sr. Manager HR & IR along with Asst. Manager HR reviews the compliance of the training schedule during various interaction / departmental meetings.

Implementing the adequate training programme required for Personnels Based on the above mentioned process, the training need is identified and then on the basis of of all this training plan is prepared for the whole year and for all the training months in that year, in order to meet the identified training needs effectively. Appropriate training is then organised by the HRD department.

Annual Plan Preparation. Monthly Plan Preparation. Organization of training programmes.

Steps during the process of implementation of training programmes:-

Based on the training needs identified, head HRD decides the mode of training to be imparted to the concerned employee. The training is designed by the concerned authority.

In case of in house training HOD designs the training. In case of mass coverage training Head, HRD does this. In case of off the job training head, HRD does this In case of nomination to any external agency, the selection of authority is done by head, HRD.

In case of on the job/in house programme, the training is imparted within the department and the attendance record is sent to the HRD for their reference. The design of in house training programme is to be approved by head,HRD

Faculty for imparting training

Internal resource Person:- The person from inside the organization, who by the virtue of his knowledge and experience on the topic, can take the responsibilities of imparting training to the required group of people, is called Internal Resources person. External Faculty:- Many a times expert people of different fields or for the sake of some mass training requirement of employees, faculties are invited from outside to take special sessions. They are termed as external Faculties.

Approval for internal resources person:-

Head , HRD review the Bio-data, Qualification, experience profile of resource person as declared by them in the prescribed format F/Qp-2-27/04 and approves their engagement as faculty members for any given topic/title/session or programme as he decides fit.

Approval For External resources person:-

In the case of resource persons availed from external sources, organization and/or institutions, their selections are based on their reputation and by the virtue of their selection, their engagement stands approved.

Approval of training provided :-

The training programme will not be as per requirements until and unless its efficacy is measured and tried to be maintained at its peak. The four method of getting feedback about the training provided so as to assess the efficacy of training system are:-

Participants feedback:-

In case of In-house programme the feedback is obtained by the head, HRD from the participant on the voluntary basis without the need of disclosing the identity for all programmes exceeding duration of two days. In case of external programmes participants are required to furnish post programme feedback in the prescribed format F/QP-2-27/05

Pre-training and post-training test:-

Pre-test and post-test are conducted to know the efficacy of all the technical training exceeding the duration of two days. This enables the HRD department to asses the utility and penetration of the training concerned.

1. Departments Feedback The HOD of the person getting the training will also assess the efficacy of training to which his personnel have been exposed. He analyses whether the concerned personnel is adequately meeting the desired expectation and/or the performance of such personnel has not improved consequent to training. If he is not satisfied with the improvement he can indicate the need of re-training and/or corrective actions. 2. Survey: Many a times, surveys are conducted to assess the effectiveness of training imparted especially in the case of Mass coverage training.

On the basis of all these feedback or responses to the training organized, effectiveness of training imparted is assessed and if it is not found effective enough to meet the training objectives, a new or modified training programme is developed and organized for the purpose.

This procedure covers training need identification based on competency mapping and imparting training to all employees of UASD and monitors its effectiveness to ensure personnel performing work affecting product quality are competent on the basis of: Education / Qualification Experience / Skill Training









*RECEIVE FEEDBACK (wherever applicable)




Annual Training Programme Data 2010-2011

Sl. No. Prog. Code Programme Name Duration For Whom Venue

MECHANICAL Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers


Industrial Hydraulics

3 Mondays



Industrial Pneumatics Mech. Transmission & its Allignment Plain & Roller Contact Bearing & their Applications

2 Mondays



2 Mondays



2 Mondays



Lubrication & Tribology

2 Mondays


M/6 & M/7

Pumps & Compressors

1 Monday



Fans & Blowers

1 Monday



D.G. Sets CBM (Vibration / SPM / Oil Test / Alignment)

1 Monday



1 Monday




Tolerance , Allowance & Limits Keys, Couplings, Splines & Shafts Boiler (Boiler Accessories, Mounting & Water Quality) Turbo Generator (Turbine / Generator Operation, Function & Types) Heat Balance

2 Mondays




2 Mondays




2 Mondays


13 14

OM/34 OM/35

2 Mondays 1 Monday

Officers, Staff & Workers Officer


ELECTRICAL Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers



EOT Crane (Elect.) Transformer / Testing & Use of Instrument Transformer

2 Mondays




2 Mondays




AC & DC Motors

2 Mondays




Protective Relays

1 Monday




LV Switch Gear

1 Monday




DC Drives Measuring Instrument & Testing Electrical Equipments Power Factor & Power Factor Improvement

2 Mondays




1 Monday




1 Monday




V/F Drives Siemens

2 Mondays




HT Switch Gear

2 Mondays


ELECTRONICS Instrumentation , Measuring & Control System Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers



1 Monday





2 Mondays




P / PI / PID Controller Instrumentation (Control Valves, I/P Controller & Calibration)

1 Monday




2 Mondays


GENERAL TRAINING PROGRAMMES 29 OM/32 7 QC Tools, PDCA & 5'S' 2 Mondays Officers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers UMTI



TPM Awareness Programme Awareness - ISO 9001:2000 QMS System

2 Hrs.




2 Hrs.




Awareness - TS 16949:2002

2 Hrs.

Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers




TPM Refresher Programme Attitudinal Development Programme

2 Hrs.




6 Mondays


INTERNAL (SAFETY) TRAINING PROGRAMMES Some important Statuatory Provisions Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers



2 Hrs.




Gas Cutting & Welding Operations

2 Hrs.




Lifting Chains & EOT Cranes

2 Hrs.




Hand Tools

2 Hrs.




Electrical Safety

2 Hrs.




5 'S' & Safety Hygenic conditions & Mess & Canteens

2 Hrs.




2 Hrs.




Fire Prevention & Fire Fighting

2 Hrs.




Fuel Oil Systems - Safety Aspects

2 Hrs.




Safety Appliances & their use.

2 Hrs.




Road Safety

2 Hrs.




Safety in Construction Jobs

2 Hrs.




Guarding of Machines & Equipments

2 Hrs.




Handling Liquid Metal & Slag

2 Hrs.




Safety in Rolling Operations

2 Hrs.





2 Hrs.

Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers




Materials Handling

2 Hrs.




Gas Safety General Safety Awareness Programme

2 Hrs.




2 Hrs.


INTERNAL (EMS) TRAINING PROGRAMMES Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers



EMS Awareness Programme

2 Hrs.




EMS Policy

2 Hrs.




Aspect Impact Analysis

2 Hrs.




Operational Control Procedure

2 Hrs.




Environment Management Plan

2 Hrs.




Rain Water Harvesting

2 Hrs.




Register of Regulations Water Audit as a tool of Water Conservation Environ. Mgmt. - Promotes Business, Improves Work Environment Hazardous Waste - Waste Mgmt. Handling, Utilization & Control Awareness Training on "Man of the Year" EMS Audit / Model Area Audit /

2 Hrs.




2 Hrs.




2 Hrs.

Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff




2 Hrs.


64 65

EMS/11 EMS/12

2 Hrs. 2 Hrs.




CDM EMS Internal Auditors - Refresher Progamme.

2 Hrs.

Officers, Staff & Workers Officers, Staff & Workers




2 Hrs.


MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES Motivational Skills 68 69 70 71 72 73 MDP/1 MDP/2 MDP/3 MDP/4 MDP/5 MDP/6 Assertiveness Training Basic Leadership Skills Group Dynamics for Dynamic Groups Interpersonal Communication Skills Interpersonal Relational Skills Mind Set Management Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Stress Management Time Management & Delegation Skills Art of Managing People Cost Customer Change Effective Supervision Goal Setting Workshop Leadership through People & Performance Planning & Organising Skills Problem Analysis & Decision Making Transactional Analysis Finance for Non-Finance I day I day I day I day I day I day I day I day Officers I day I day Officers I day I day I day I day I day Officers I day I day I day I day Officers Officers Officers Officers UASD UASD UASD UASD UASD Officers Officers Officers Officers UASD UASD UASD UASD UASD Officers UASD UASD Officers Officers Officers Officers Officers Officers Officers UASD UASD UASD UASD UASD UASD UASD

74 75


76 77 78 79 80

MDP/10 MDP/11 MDP/12 MDP/13 MDP/14

81 82 83 84 85

MDP/15 MDP/16 MDP/17 MDP/21 MDP/22

86 87

MDP/23 MDP/24

Emotional Intelligence Team Building Managing for Results thru Cost Competitiveness

I day I day I day

Officers Officers




Officers I day Officers, Staff & Workers




MDP on "Behavioural Safety" I day Managerial Effectiveness thro. Common. & Leadership Skills





Research Methodology (R.M.)

RM has many dimensions and research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology. RM is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as the science of studying how research is done scientifically. The study of research methodology gives necessary training in gathering material and managing or card indexing them, participation in the field works when required and also training in technique for the collection of data appropriate particular problem in the use of statistics. Questionnaires and controlled experimentation and in recording evidence, sorting it out and in interpreting it. Knowledge of research methodology is helpful in various fields. R.M plays a key role in project work. It consists of series of sections or steps necessary to effectively carry at research and desired sequencing of these steps.

Data collection Method :-

Data is collected from both primary and secondary sources. 1) Primary Data Sources : Discuss with human resources head of department and collect primary data Question. Methods and discussion with HR, HODs of different organizations used to collect primary data.

2) Secondary Data Sources : The secondary data sources were collected from the company manuals, Handbook and management books and are edited to suit the purpose and comparing all data during project period.

A. Sources of Data :

1. Primary data 2. Secondary data

Questionnaire Books, Journals, Magazines, website (

B. Sampling Design :

1. Questionnaire administers to

Both Executive & Non-Executive of different Department.

2. Sample population 3. Sample size 4. Sample unit

25 Managers 25 UML, Jamshedpur (Purchase, Store & Wire Rod Mil (W.R.M) Department)

C. Tools & Technique of Data Collection : 1. Data collection method: Collected individually, through Questionnaire. 2. Plan of analysis: The sources obtained from questionnaire are summed up by Percentile techniques analysis

Finally general inference is arrived at. Conclusion and recommendation are made to improve the present policy and procedure at Usha Martin Limited, Jamshedpur

Data Interpretation & Analysis

Data Interpretation The data analysis is a technique or more accurately is a family of technique which has an aim to simplify complex sets of data by analyzing the correlation between them. Data analysis is a design to simplify training programmes conducted by UML, Jamshedpur. This questionnaire aims at findings out of your views about the prevalent training system in your company. The answers will be treated as confidential:-

For managers & Officers

1. How long have you been in your present job?

Options A. Less than 1 Year B. Between 1-5 year C. More than 5 year TOTAL Frequency 05 11 09 25 Percentage 20% 44% 36% 100

36% 20% A. Less than 1 year B. Between 1-5 years 44% C. More than 5 years

1. Is training important?
Options A. Yes B. No Total Frequency 25 0 25 Percentage 100 0 100


A. YES 100% B. NO

3. How frequently training is conducted?

Option A.As per the need B. Monthly C. Ones in a year Total

Frequency 15 09 01 25

Percentage 60% 36% 04% 100

26% 3% 71% B. Monthly C. Ones in a year Total

4. Which method is used for training?

Options A. On the job B.Off the job Total

Frequency 20 05 25

Percentage 80 20 100

20% A. On the job 80% B.Off the job

5. What are the methods used to train fresher?

Options A. On the job B.Off the job Total

Frequency 15 10 25

Percentage 60% 40% 100

40% 60% A. On the job B.Off the job

6. How training need is identified?

Options A. Through performance appraisal B.Compentency mapping need assessment as per need D.Any other method Total

Frequency 01

Percentage 04%

10 14

40% 56%

00 25

00 100

0% 4%

A. Through performance appraisal 40% B.Compentency mapping need assessment as per need D.Any other method


7. Who are the people concerned for providing training?

Options (A)Department head (B) External faculty (C)HR department (D) UMTI Total

Frequency 14 02 01 08 25

Percentage 56% 08% 04% 32% 100

32% 56% 4% 8% (A)Department head (B) External faculty (C)HR department (D) UMTI

8. After training is provided to the trainee is he/she able to implement his/her training at the work place?

Options A.Yes B.No C.Partial Total

Frequency 20 01 04 25

Percentage 80% 04% 16% 100

4% 16% A.Yes B.No 80% C.Partial

In Usha Martin Limited, Jamshedpur there are 20% managers who have been on their present job for less than 1 years, and 44% of the of managers are on their present job for between1to5 years. 36% of managers are on their present job for more than 5 years and 10 . Means there is a good combination of younger and older manager, which is good for any organization. 4% of managers are think that the company carried out training need of employees through Performance Appraisal and 40% think through Competency Mapping. Whereas 56% of managers think that training need of the managers are carried out by only as per requirement.

100% of the managers have attitude about training that training is beneficial for them as well as their organization.60% of the officers think that on the job training programmes are good for freshers and 40% think that off the job training is good for fresher.

In Usha martin 56% of managers think that the Departmental head should give the training need, and 12%think that external faculty and hr department should provide training and 32% think that UMTI should provide training.80% says that after training they are able to implement their training in work place , 4% says no , and 16% says that it partially helps.

Overall all managers attitude towards training is positive and they implement their training , which is given to them , in work place . This is cause of their development and also for organization.

Chapter 4

Conclusion & suggestion

This study has revealed that how the HRD practices are successfully functioning in UML giving maximum satisfaction to each and every customer according to the HRD elements. UML is an integrated steel plant with different several departments and their functions and when they have to work together they come across with number of difference in their working system which many times brings conflicts among themselves.

The company is having a very good corporate image, owing to the reliable growth history in the recent years. The way in which HR practices is designed, it gives maximum satisfaction to the customer so that, the level of motivation of people is maintained consistently as psr the environmental condition and situation.

It is an organisation with fairly structured management hierarchy. UML group is privileged by many competitive advantages in the market which makes it 2nd largest players in the field of wire and wire rope.

It is very difficult to fully satisfy the entire workers as per customer satisfaction norms. Because the customer index is an ever changing process, which is dominated by numbers of internal and external forces and which directly or indirectly affects the level of satisfaction of the customer. Usha Martin group has received ISO 14000 certification for having good and environment friendly policies and processes.

The overall HRD function in UML is functioning very well with effective coordination and ratio between the employees and the management and with the result of these efforts it can be considered that the level of customer satisfaction is very high and HRD functionaries are giving excellent services to peoples.

UML is deeply related with the number of welfare activities which is quite a rational approach to brig sustainable motivation to the organisation. With the held of HRD practices the employees of UML have succeeded to understand the organisation vision i the changing environment and how to fulfill and face the challenges with the help of HRD practices

Although there is much scope for such type of studies yet it can be conclude that the HRD practices in UML have set a landmark on the path of progress and prosperity of people as well as of the organisation

the function of personnel and administrative department can be made more accurate , timely and user friendly

In UML, HRD is working more efficiently and is upto the mark in main respect. but
scope of the development also lies with it.

Each trainees should be trained to develop the personnel under him. Employees
should be given proper chance to identify their own training needs, as nobody can understand S deficiencies and weaknesses better than one self. need, recognition should be introduced so as to encourage the employees participation in the organisation

Therefore , some system of voluntary self

Training must be more necessary for the non executive for their overall development.
Since they are playing major role in the production and & performance

Training should aim at improving the skills of the employees and so that
should be practically given by imparting it on the job.


Training is much more necessary for non-executives for their overall development. Since they are playing major role in production & performance. Each executive should be trained to develop the personnel under him.

Employees should be given proper chance to identify their own training needs, as nobody can understand ones deficiencies and weaknesses better than oneself. Therefore, some system of voluntary self need recognition should also be introduced so as to encourage the employees participation in the process.

This, in turn, also increase the efficiency of training programme as employees will feel more involved and hence will find the training process more useful for themselves. Currently, in UML the system used for skill mapping through skill matrix and radar charts can be extended in its scope to define broader training objectives. The same skill matrix can generate skill wise radar charts which can be interpreted to assess the level of acquaintance of employees to that particular skill, and then many crucial decisions can be taken easily such as decisions regarding reinforcement, redesigning, change or modification of faculty or course material/ structure etc.

Putting proper reward/punishment in place for good/poor performance. There is need to upgrade the infrastructure facilities to meet the future needs of competency improvement of employees.

Information system in HRD will give more electronic and functioning paperless.

Chapter - 5 limitation


Despite being, very cooperative, generous and respective, concerned executives were always short of time, owing to their workload and sincerity towards that. The report is based on the questions asked by Officers, staffs and workers, so the report shows what they responded. Owing to organizational policies of UML, we could not get some of information which according to the organization was confidential. Being trainees, we did not have the capacity to enquire crucial details

Chapter- 6



Organizational Behaviours

Stephen Robbins

Managing People


Magazines & Journals

Usha Martin Limited