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City University

What is reflection?
Reflection is a major part of the experiential learning cycle referred to as processing the stimuli that the learner receives from the wider culture (Jarvis 1988), therefore reflection is the process of learning from experience. This is illustrated simply by Kolb and Fry' (1975) learning s cycle.

The Experiential Learning Cycle or Kolb and Fry' (1975) s Learning Cycle
Concrete Experience
'doing'

Testing implications of Concepts of new Situations


'what do I need to do to do it better next time'

Observation & Reflections


'how did I do'

Formulation of Abstract Concepts & Generalisations


'what did I learn from that'

Reflection is an important human activity. Boud et al (1985) state that reflection is when ' people recapture their experiences, think about it, mull it over and evaluate it' . This conscious reflectivity allows us to make active aware decisions about our learning. Boud et al (1985) go on to state that, Consideration of the affective dimension of the experience enhances insight and learning gained through reflection, therefore, turning experience into learning.

Mark Jones Adult Nursing

City University Reflection In Action (Boud et al 1985).


Experience Reflective Process - returning to the experience - Behaviour - Ideas - Feelings - utilising positive feelings - removing obstructing feelings - re-evaluating experience Outcomes - new perspectives on experiences - change in behaviour - readiness for application - commitment to action

Mark Jones Adult Nursing

City University A model for Structured Reflection (Johns 1995).


Aesthetics What was I trying to achieve? Why did I respond as I did? What were the consequences of that for: The patient? Others? Myself? How was this person feeling (or these persons)? How did I know that? Personal How did I feel in this situation? What internal factors were influencing me? Ethics How did my actions match my beliefs? What factors made me act in congruent ways? Empirics What knowledge did or should have informed me? Reflectivity How does this connect with previous experiences? Could I handle this better in similar situations? What would be the consequences of alternative actions for: The patient? Others? Myself? How do I feel about the experience? Can I support myself and others better as a consequence? Has this changed my ways of knowing?

Mark Jones Adult Nursing

City University

Atkins and Murphy (1994) Reflective Tool. 1) Be aware of uncomfortable thoughts and feelings. 2) Describe the situation, including thoughts and feelings. 3) Analyse the feelings and knowledge relevant to the situation. 4) Evaluate the relevance of the knowledge. 5) Identify any new learning that has occurred. 6) Put it into action in a new situation.

The Nursing Process, (A Systematic Approach to Care).

A process of decision-making
Assess (Nursing Diagnosis)

Evaluate

Plan

Implement

Mark Jones Adult Nursing

City University

References Atkins S, Murphy K (1994) Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard 8 (39) 49-56. Boud D, Keogh R and Walker D (1985) Promoting Reflection in Learning: A Model in Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. New York: Kogan Page Edwards M (1996) Patient-nurse relationships: using reflective practice. Nursing Standard 10 (25) 40-43. Greenwood J (1993) Reflective Practice: A critique of the work of Agyris and Schon Journal of Advanced Nursing 18 (1183-1187) Jarvis P (1988) Adult and Continuing Education. London, Routledge Johns C (1995) ' Framing Learning Through Reflection with Carper' Fundamental s Ways of Knowing in Nursing.'Journal of Advanced Nursing 22 (226-234) Kolb D and Fry R (1975) ' Towards an applied theory of experiential learning'in Theories of Group Processes (Cooper C ed.). Chichester, John Wiley.

Mark Jones Adult Nursing

City University

Describe what happened

Action If it arose again, what would you do?

Gibbs (1988) Reflective Cycle

Feelings What were you thinking and feeling? What do you think the patient/family were feeling?

Conclusion What else could you have done?

Analysis What sense can you make of the situation? Why did the nurse make the decisions s/he did.

Evaluation What was good and bad about the experience?

Mark Jones Adult Nursing

City University

Nursing involves highly complex interacting elements and the one way of clarifying what nurses do is to reflect on what has happened. Ashcroft (1994) describes reflection as an active process of learning from experience and evaluating your ideas, feelings and behaviour in the light of supporting evidence and discussion. Although you may not be taking the lead in the care of the patient it is important for you to analyse what has taken place leading to a greater understanding of the process of nursing and working within a team. References
Ashcroft K Foreman L (1994) Managing teaching and learning in further and higher education. London, Falmer Press. Gibbs G (1988) Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. London, FEU.

Mark Jones Adult Nursing