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The "greenhouse effect" often gets a bad rap because of its association with global warming, but the

truth is we couldn't live without it. What Causes the Greenhouse Effect? Life on earth depends on energy from the sun. About 30 percent of the sunlight that beams toward Earth is deflected by the outer atmosphere and scattered back into space. The rest reaches the planet's surface and is reflected upward again as a type of slow-moving energy called infrared radiation. The heat caused by infrared radiation is absorbed by "greenhouse gases" such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone and methane, which slows its escape from the atmosphere. Although greenhouse gases make up only about 1 percent of the Earth's atmosphere, they regulate our climate by trapping heat and holding it in a kind of warm-air blanket that surrounds the planet. This phenomenon is what scientists call the "greenhouse effect." Without it, scientists estimate that the average temperature on Earth would be colder by approximately 30 degrees Celsius (54 degrees Fahrenheit), far too cold to sustain our current ecosystem. How Do Humans Contribute to the Greenhouse Effect? While the greenhouse effect is an essential environmental prerequisite for life on Earth, there really can be too much of a good thing. The problems begin when human activities distort and accelerate the natural process by creating more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere than are necessary to warm the planet to an ideal temperature.

Burning natural gas, coal and oil -including gasoline for automobile engines-raises the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Some farming practices and land-use changes increase the levels of methane and nitrous oxide. Many factories produce long-lasting industrial gases that do not occur naturally, yet contribute significantly to the enhanced greenhouse effect and "global warming" that is currently under way. Deforestation also contributes to global warming. Trees use carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in its place, which helps to create the optimal balance of gases in the atmosphere. As more forests are logged for timber or cut down to make way for farming, however, there are fewer trees to perform this critical function. Population growth is another factor in global warming, because as more people use fossil fuels for heat, transportation and manufacturing the level of greenhouse gases continues to increase. As more farming occurs to feed millions of new people, more greenhouse gases enter the atmosphere.

Ultimately, more greenhouse gases means more infrared radiation trapped and held, which gradually increases the temperature of the Earth's surface and the air in the lower atmosphere.

The Average Global Temperature is Increasing Quickly Today, the increase in the Earth's temperature is increasing with unprecedented speed. To understand just how quickly global warming is accelerating, consider this: During the entire 20th century, the average global temperature increased by about 0.6 degrees Celsius (slightly more than 1 degree Fahrenheit). Using computer climate models, scientists estimate that by the year 2100 the average global temperature will increase by 1.4 degrees to 5.8 degrees Celsius (approximately 2.5 degrees to 10.5 degrees Fahrenheit). Not All Scientists Agree While the majority of mainstream scientists agree that global warming is a serious problem that is growing steadily worse, there are some who disagree. John Christy, a professor and director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville is a respected climatologist who argues that global warming isn't worth worrying about. Christy reached that opinion after analyzing millions of measurements from weather satellites in an effort to find a global temperature trend. He found no sign of global warming in the satellite data, and now believes that predictions of global warming by as much as 10 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the 21st century are incorrect.

What is the Greenhouse Effect?


The Effects of Global Warming
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(Continued from Page 1) Scientists agree that even a small increase in the global temperature would lead to significant climate and weather changes, affecting cloud cover, precipitation, wind patterns, the frequency and severity of storms, and the duration of seasons.

Rising temperatures would raise sea levels as well, reducing supplies of fresh water as flooding occurs along coastlines worldwide and salt water reaches inland. Many of the worlds endangered species would become extinct as rising temperatures changed their habitat. Millions of people also would be affected, especially poor people who live in precarious locations or depend on the land for a subsistence living. Certain vector-borne diseases carried by animals or insects, such as malaria, would become more widespread as warmer conditions expanded their range.

Carbon Dioxide Emissions are the Biggest Problem Currently, carbon dioxide accounts for more than 60 percent of the enhanced greenhouse effect caused by the increase of greenhouse gases, and the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing by more than 10 percent every 20 years. If emissions of carbon dioxide continue to grow at current rates, then the level of the gas in the atmosphere will likely double, or possibly even triple, from pre-industrial levels during the 21st century. Climate Changes are Inevitable According to the United Nations, some climate change is already inevitable because of emissions that have occurred since the dawn of the Industrial Age. While the Earths climate does not respond quickly to external changes, many scientists believe that global warming already has significant momentum due to 150 years of industrialization in many countries around the world. As a result, global warming will continue to affect life on Earth for hundreds of years, even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced and the increase in atmospheric levels halted. What is Being Done to Reduce Global Warming? To lessen those long-term effects, many nations, communities and individuals are taking action now to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and slow global warming by reducing dependence on fossil fuels, increasing the use of renewable energy, expanding forests, and making lifestyle choices that help to sustain the environment.

Whether they will be able to recruit enough people to join them, and whether their combined efforts will be enough to head off the most serious effects of global warming, are open questions that can only be answered by future developments.

Global warming
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For scientific and political disputes, see Global warming controversy, Scientific opinion on climate change and Public opinion on climate change. For past climate change see Paleoclimatology and Geologic temperature record. For the Sonny Rollins album see Global Warming (album).

1880-2009 global mean surface temperature change relative to the 19611990 average. Source: NASA GISS

Comparison of ground based (blue) and satellite based (red: UAH; green: RSS) records of temperature variations since 1979. Trends plotted since January 1982.

Mean surface temperature change for the period 2000 to 2009 relative to the average temperatures from 1951 to 1980.[1]

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. According to the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global surface temperature increased 0.74 0.18 C (1.33 0.32 F) during the 20th century.[2][A] Most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century has been caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result from human activity such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation.[3] Global dimming, a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric aerosols that block sunlight from reaching the surface, has partially countered the effects of warming induced by greenhouse gases. Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 C (2.0 to 11.5 F) during the 21st century.[2] The uncertainty in this estimate arises from the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations and the use of differing estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropical deserts.[4] Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects include changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, species extinctions, and changes in agricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, though the nature of these regional variations is uncertain.[5] As a result of contemporary increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the oceans have become more acidic, a result that is predicted to continue.[6][7] The scientific consensus is that anthropogenic global warming is occurring.[8][9][10][B] Nevertheless, political and public debate continues. The Kyoto Protocol is aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration to prevent a "dangerous anthropogenic interference".[11] As of November 2009, 187 states had signed and ratified the protocol.[12] Proposed responses to climate change include mitigation to reduce emissions, adaptation to the effects of global warming, and geoengineering to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or block incoming sunlight.

Contents
[hide]

1 Temperature changes 2 External forcings o 2.1 Greenhouse gases o 2.2 Aerosols and soot o 2.3 Solar variation 3 Feedback

4 Climate models 5 Attributed and expected effects o 5.1 Natural systems o 5.2 Ecological systems o 5.3 Social systems 6 Responses to global warming o 6.1 Mitigation o 6.2 Adaptation o 6.3 Geoengineering o 6.4 UNFCCC 7 Views on global warming o 7.1 Politics o 7.2 Public opinion o 7.3 Other views 8 Etymology 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Temperature changes
Main article: Temperature record

Two millennia of mean surface temperatures according to different reconstructions, each smoothed on a decadal scale, with the actual recorded temperatures overlaid in black.

Evidence for warming of the climate system includes observed increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level.[13][14][15][16][17] The most common measure of global warming is the trend in globally averaged temperature near the Earth's surface. Expressed as a linear trend, this temperature rose by 0.74 0.18 C over the period 19062005. The rate of warming over the last half of that period was almost double that for the period as a whole (0.13 0.03 C per decade, versus

0.07 C 0.02 C per decade). The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for about 0.002 C of warming per decade since 1900.[18] Temperatures in the lower troposphere have increased between 0.13 and 0.22 C (0.22 and 0.4 F) per decade since 1979, according to satellite temperature measurements. Temperature is believed to have been relatively stable over the one or two thousand years before 1850, with regionally varying fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age.[19] Estimates by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the National Climatic Data Center show that 2005 was the warmest year since reliable, widespread instrumental measurements became available in the late 19th century, exceeding the previous record set in 1998 by a few hundredths of a degree.[20][21] Estimates prepared by the World Meteorological Organization and the Climatic Research Unit show 2005 as the second warmest year, behind 1998.[22][23] Temperatures in 1998 were unusually warm because the strongest El Nio in the past century occurred during that year.[24] Global temperature is subject to short-term fluctuations that overlay long term trends and can temporarily mask them. The relative stability in temperature from 2002 to 2009 is consistent with such an episode.[25][26] Temperature changes vary over the globe. Since 1979, land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as ocean temperatures (0.25 C per decade against 0.13 C per decade).[27] Ocean temperatures increase more slowly than land temperatures because of the larger effective heat capacity of the oceans and because the ocean loses more heat by evaporation.[28] The Northern Hemisphere warms faster than the Southern Hemisphere because it has more land and because it has extensive areas of seasonal snow and sea-ice cover subject to ice-albedo feedback. Although more greenhouse gases are emitted in the Northern than Southern Hemisphere this does not contribute to the difference in warming because the major greenhouse gases persist long enough to mix between hemispheres.[29] The thermal inertia of the oceans and slow responses of other indirect effects mean that climate can take centuries or longer to adjust to changes in forcing. Climate commitment studies indicate that even if greenhouse gases were stabilized at 2000 levels, a further warming of about 0.5 C (0.9 F) would still occur.[30]

External forcings
External forcing refers to processes external to the climate system (though not necessarily external to Earth) that influence climate. Climate responds to several types of external forcing, such as radiative forcing due to changes in atmospheric composition (mainly greenhouse gas concentrations), changes in solar luminosity, volcanic eruptions, and variations in Earth's orbit around the Sun.[31] Attribution of recent climate change focuses on the first three types of forcing. Orbital cycles vary slowly over tens of thousands of years and thus are too gradual to have caused the temperature changes observed in the past century.
Greenhouse gases Main articles: Greenhouse effect, Radiative forcing, and Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Greenhouse effect schematic showing energy flows between space, the atmosphere, and earth's surface. Energy exchanges are expressed in watts per square meter (W/m2).

Recent atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increases. Monthly CO2 measurements display seasonal oscillations in overall yearly uptrend; each year's maximum occurs during the Northern Hemisphere's late spring, and declines during its growing season as plants remove some atmospheric CO2.

The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface. It was proposed by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896.[32] Naturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33 C (59 F).[33][C] The major greenhouse gases are water vapor, which causes about 3670 percent of the greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes 926 percent; methane (CH4), which causes 49 percent; and ozone (O3), which causes 37 percent.[34][35][36] Clouds also affect the radiation balance, but they are composed of liquid water or ice and so have different effects on radiation from water vapor. Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide. The concentrations of CO2 and methane have increased by 36% and 148% respectively since 1750.[37] These levels are much higher than at any time during the last 650,000 years, the period for which reliable data has been extracted from ice cores.[38][39][40] Less direct geological evidence indicates that CO2 values higher than this were last seen about 20 million years ago.[41] Fossil fuel burning has produced about three-quarters of the increase in CO2 from human activity over the past 20 years. Most of the rest is due to land-use change, particularly deforestation.[42]

Over the last three decades of the 20th century, GDP per capita and population growth were the main drivers of increases in greenhouse gas emissions.[43] CO2 emissions are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change.[44][45]:71 Emissions scenarios, estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases, have been projected that depend upon uncertain economic, sociological, technological, and natural developments.[46] In most scenarios, emissions continue to rise over the century, while in a few, emissions are reduced.[47][48] These emission scenarios, combined with carbon cycle modelling, have been used to produce estimates of how atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases will change in the future. Using the six IPCC SRES "marker" scenarios, models suggest that by the year 2100, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 could range between 541 and 970 ppm.[49] This is an increase of 90-250% above the concentration in the year 1750. Fossil fuel reserves are sufficient to reach these levels and continue emissions past 2100 if coal, oil sands or methane clathrates are extensively exploited.[50] The destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons is sometimes mentioned in relation to global warming. Although there are a few areas of linkage, the relationship between the two is not strong. Reduction of stratospheric ozone has a cooling influence.[51] Substantial ozone depletion did not occur until the late 1970s.[52] Ozone in the troposphere (the lowest part of the Earth's atmosphere) does contribute to surface warming.[53]
Aerosols and soot

Ship tracks over the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. The climatic impacts from aerosol forcing could have a large effect on climate through the indirect effect.

Global dimming, a gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface, has partially counteracted global warming from 1960 to the present.[54] The main cause of this dimming is aerosols produced by volcanoes and pollutants. These aerosols exert a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight. The effects of the products of fossil fuel combustionCO2 and aerosolshave largely offset one another in recent decades, so that net warming has been due to the increase in non-CO2 greenhouse gases such as methane.[55] Radiative forcing due to aerosols is temporally limited due to wet deposition which causes aerosols to have an atmospheric lifetime of one week. Carbon dioxide has a lifetime of a century or more, and as such, changes in aerosol concentrations will only delay climate changes due to carbon dioxide.[56]

In addition to their direct effect by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, aerosols have indirect effects on the radiation budget.[57] Sulfate aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei and thus lead to clouds that have more and smaller cloud droplets. These clouds reflect solar radiation more efficiently than clouds with fewer and larger droplets.[58] This effect also causes droplets to be of more uniform size, which reduces growth of raindrops and makes the cloud more reflective to incoming sunlight.[59] Indirect effects are most noticeable in marine stratiform clouds, and have very little radiative effect on convective clouds. Aerosols, particularly their indirect effects, represent the largest uncertainty in radiative forcing.[60] Soot may cool or warm the surface, depending on whether it is airborne or deposited. Atmospheric soot aerosols directly absorb solar radiation, which heats the atmosphere and cools the surface. In isolated areas with high soot production, such as rural India, as much as 50% of surface warming due to greenhouse gases may be masked by atmospheric brown clouds.[61] Atmospheric soot always contributes additional warming to the climate system. When deposited, especially on glaciers or on ice in arctic regions, the lower surface albedo can also directly heat the surface.[62] The influences of aerosols, including black carbon, are most pronounced in the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly in Asia, while the effects of greenhouse gases are dominant in the extratropics and southern hemisphere.[63]
Solar variation Main article: Solar variation

Solar variation over thirty years.

Variations in solar output have been the cause of past climate changes.[64] The effect of changes in solar forcing in recent decades is uncertain, but small, with some studies showing a slight cooling effect,[65] while others studies suggest a slight warming effect.[31][66][67][68] Greenhouse gases and solar forcing affect temperatures in different ways. While both increased solar activity and increased greenhouse gases are expected to warm the troposphere, an increase in solar activity should warm the stratosphere while an increase in greenhouse gases should cool the stratosphere.[31] Observations show that temperatures in the stratosphere have been cooling since 1979, when satellite measurements became available. Radiosonde (weather balloon) data from the pre-satellite era show cooling since 1958, though there is greater uncertainty in the early radiosonde record.[69]

A related hypothesis, proposed by Henrik Svensmark, is that magnetic activity of the sun deflects cosmic rays that may influence the generation of cloud condensation nuclei and thereby affect the climate.[70] Other research has found no relation between warming in recent decades and cosmic rays.[71][72] The influence of cosmic rays on cloud cover is about a factor of 100 lower than needed to explain the observed changes in clouds or to be a significant contributor to present-day climate change.[73]

Feedback
Main article: Climate change feedback

Feedback is a process in which changing one quantity changes a second quantity, and the change in the second quantity in turn changes the first. Positive feedback amplifies the change in the first quantity while negative feedback reduces it. Feedback is important in the study of global warming because it may amplify or diminish the effect of a particular process. The main positive feedback in global warming is the tendency of warming to increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, a significant greenhouse gas. The main negative feedback is radiative cooling, which increases as the fourth power of temperature; the amount of heat radiated from the Earth into space increases with the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere. Imperfect understanding of feedbacks is a major cause of uncertainty and concern about global warming. A wide range of potential feedback process exist, such as Arctic methane release and ice-albedo feedback. Consequentially, potential tipping points may exist, which may have the potential to cause abrupt climate change.[74]

Climate models
Main article: Global climate model

Calculations of global warming prepared in or before 2001 from a range of climate models under the SRES A2 emissions scenario, which assumes no action is taken to reduce emissions and regionally divided economic development.

The geographic distribution of surface warming during the 21st century calculated by the HadCM3 climate model if a business as usual scenario is assumed for economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. In this figure, the globally averaged warming corresponds to 3.0 C (5.4 F).

The main tools for projecting future climate changes are mathematical models based on physical principles including fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer. Although they attempt to include as many processes as possible, simplifications of the actual climate system are inevitable because of the constraints of available computer power and limitations in knowledge of the climate system. All modern climate models are in fact combinations of models for different parts of the Earth. These include an atmospheric model for air movement, temperature, clouds, and other atmospheric properties; an ocean model that predicts temperature, salt content, and circulation of ocean waters; models for ice cover on land and sea; and a model of heat and moisture transfer from soil and vegetation to the atmosphere. Some models also include treatments of chemical and biological processes.[75] Warming due to increasing levels of greenhouse gases is not an assumption of the models; rather, it is an end result from the interaction of greenhouse gases with radiative transfer and other physical processes.[76] Although much of the variation in model outcomes depends on the greenhouse gas emissions used as inputs, the temperature effect of a specific greenhouse gas concentration (climate sensitivity) varies depending on the model used. The representation of clouds is one of the main sources of uncertainty in present-generation models.[77] Global climate model projections of future climate most often have used estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). In addition to human-caused emissions, some models also include a simulation of the carbon cycle; this generally shows a positive feedback, though this response is uncertain. Some observational studies also show a positive feedback.[78][79][80] Including uncertainties in future greenhouse gas concentrations and climate sensitivity, the IPCC anticipates a warming of 1.1 C to 6.4 C (2.0 F to 11.5 F) by the end of the 21st century, relative to 19801999.[2] Models are also used to help investigate the causes of recent climate change by comparing the observed changes to those that the models project from various natural and human-derived causes. Although these models do not unambiguously attribute the warming that occurred from approximately 1910 to 1945 to either natural variation or human effects, they do indicate that the warming since 1970 is dominated by man-made greenhouse gas emissions.[31]

The physical realism of models is tested by examining their ability to simulate current or past climates.[81] Current climate models produce a good match to observations of global temperature changes over the last century, but do not simulate all aspects of climate.[42] Not all effects of global warming are accurately predicted by the climate models used by the IPCC. Observed Arctic shrinkage has been faster than that predicted.[82] Precipitation increased proportional to atmospheric humidity, and hence significantly faster than current global climate models predict.[83][84]

Attributed and expected effects


Main articles: Effects of global warming and Regional effects of global warming

Global warming may be detected in natural, ecological or social systems as a change having statistical significance.[85] Attribution of these changes e.g., to natural or human activities, is the next step following detection.[86]
Natural systems

Sparse records indicate that glaciers have been retreating since the early 1800s. In the 1950s measurements began that allow the monitoring of glacial mass balance, reported to the WGMS and the NSIDC.

Global warming has been detected in a number of systems. Some of these changes, e.g., based on the instrumental temperature record, have been described in the section on temperature changes. Rising sea levels and observed decreases in snow and ice extent are consistent with warming.[17] Most of the increase in global average temperature since the mid-20th century is, with high probability,[D] attributable to human-induced changes in greenhouse gas concentrations.[87] Even with current policies to reduce emissions, global emissions are still expected to continue to grow over the coming decades.[88] Over the course of the 21st century, increases in emissions at or above their current rate would very likely induce changes in the climate system larger than those observed in the 20th century. In the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, across a range of future emission scenarios, model-based estimates of sea level rise for the end of the 21st century (the year 2090-2099, relative to 1980-

1999) range from 0.18 to 0.59 m. These estimates, however, were not given a likelihood due to a lack of scientific understanding, nor was an upper bound given for sea level rise. Over the course of centuries to millennia, the melting of ice sheets could result in sea level rise of 46 m or more.[89] Changes in regional climate are expected to include greater warming over land, with most warming at high northern latitudes, and least warming over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean.[88] Snow cover area and sea ice extent are expected to decrease. The frequency of hot extremes, heat waves, and heavy precipitation will very likely increase.
Ecological systems

In terrestrial ecosystems, the earlier timing of spring events, and poleward and upward shifts in plant and animal ranges, have been linked with high confidence to recent warming.[17] Future climate change is expected to particularly affect certain ecosystems, including tundra, mangroves, and coral reefs.[88] It is expected that most ecosystems will be affected by higher atmospheric CO2 levels, combined with higher global temperatures.[90] Overall, it is expected that climate change will result in the extinction of many species and reduced diversity of ecosystems.[91]
Social systems

There is some evidence of regional climate change affecting systems related to human activities, including agricultural and forestry management activities at higher latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.[17] Future climate change is expected to particularly affect some sectors and systems related to human activities.[88] Low-lying coastal systems are vulnerable to sea level rise and storm surge. Human health will be at increased risk in populations with limited capacity to adapt to climate change. It is expected that some regions will be particularly affected by climate change, including the Arctic, Africa, small islands, and Asian and African megadeltas. In some areas the effects on agriculture, industry and health could be mixed, or even beneficial in certain respects, but overall it is expected that these benefits will be outweighed by negative effects.[92]

Responses to global warming


Mitigation Main article: Climate change mitigation See also: Fee and dividend

Reducing the amount of future climate change is called mitigation of climate change. The IPCC defines mitigation as activities that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, or enhance the capacity of carbon sinks to absorb GHGs from the atmosphere.[93] Many countries, both developing and developed, are aiming to use cleaner, less polluting, technologies.[45]:192 Use of these technologies aids mitigation and could result in substantial reductions in CO2 emissions. Policies include targets for emissions reductions, increased use of renewable energy, and increased energy efficiency. Studies indicate substantial potential for future reductions in

emissions.[94] Since even in the most optimistic scenario, fossil fuels are going to be used for years to come, mitigation may also involve carbon capture and storage, a process that traps CO2 produced by factories and gas or coal power stations and then stores it, usually underground.[95]
Adaptation Main article: Adaptation to global warming

Other policy responses include adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate change may be planned, e.g., by local or national government, or spontaneous, i.e., done privately without government intervention.[96] The ability to adapt is closely linked to social and economic development.[94] Even societies with high capacities to adapt are still vulnerable to climate change. Planned adaptation is already occurring on a limited basis. The barriers, limits, and costs of future adaptation are not fully understood.
Geoengineering

Another policy response is engineering of the climate (geoengineering). This policy response is sometimes grouped together with mitigation.[97] Geoengineering is largely unproven, and reliable cost estimates for it have not yet been published.[98] Geoengineering encompasses a range of techniques to remove CO2 from the atmosphere or to block incoming sunlight.
UNFCCC

Most countries are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).[99] The ultimate objective of the Convention is to prevent "dangerous" human interference of the climate system.[100] As is stated in the Convention, this requires that GHGs are stabilized in the atmosphere at a level where ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change, food production is not threatened, and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion. The UNFCCC recognizes differences among countries in their responsibility to act on climate change.[101] In the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC, most developed countries (listed in Annex I of the treaty) took on legally binding commitments to reduce their emissions.[102] Policy measures taken in response to these commitments have reduced emissions.[103] For many developing (non-Annex I) countries, reducing poverty is their overriding aim.[104] At the 15th UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, held in 2009 at Copenhagen, several UNFCCC Parties produced the Copenhagen Accord.[105] Parties agreeing with the Accord aim to limit the future increase in global mean temperature to below 2 C.[106] The 16th Conference of the Parties (COP16) was held at Cancn in 2010. It produced an agreement, not a binding treaty, that the Parties should take urgent action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to meet the 2 C goal. It also recognized the need to consider strengthening the goal to a global average rise of 1.5 C.[107]

Views on global warming

Main articles: Global warming controversy and Politics of global warming See also: Scientific opinion on climate change and Public opinion on climate change

Per capita greenhouse gas emissions in 2000, including land-use change.

Total greenhouse gas emissions in 2000, including land-use change.

There are different views over what the appropriate policy response to climate change should be.[108][109] These competing views weigh the benefits of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases against the costs. In general, it seems likely that climate change will impose greater damages and risks in poorer regions.[110]
Politics

Developed and developing countries have made different arguments over who should bear the burden of economic costs for cutting emissions. Developing countries often concentrate on per capita emissions, that is, the total emissions of a country divided by its population.[111] Per capita emissions in the industrialized countries are typically as much as ten times the average in developing countries.[112] This is used to make the argument that the real problem of climate change is due to the profligate and unsustainable lifestyles of those living in rich countries.[111] On the other hand, commentators from developed countries point out that total carbon emissions,[111] carrying capacity, efficient energy use and civil and political rights are very important issues. World population is the number of humans per unit area. However the land is not the same everywhere. Not only the quantity of fossil fuel use but also the quality of energy use is a key debate point. For example, efficient energy use supporting technological change might help reduce excess carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. The use of fossil fuels for conspicuous consumption and excessive entertainment are issues that can conflict with civil and political rights. People in developed countries argue that history has proven the difficulty of implementing fair rationing programs in different countries because there is no global system of checks and balances or civil liberties.

The Kyoto Protocol, which came into force in 2005, sets legally binding emission limitations for most developed countries.[102] Developing countries are not subject to limitations. This exemption led the U.S. and Australia to decide not to ratify the treaty,[113] [114][115] although Australia did finally ratify the treaty in December 2007.[116] Debate continued at the Copenhagen climate summit and the Cancn climate summit.
Public opinion

In 20072008 Gallup Polls surveyed 127 countries. Over a third of the world's population was unaware of global warming, with people in developing countries less aware than those in developed, and those in Africa the least aware. Of those aware, Latin America leads in belief that temperature changes are a result of human activities while Africa, parts of Asia and the Middle East, and a few countries from the Former Soviet Union lead in the opposite belief.[117] In the Western world, opinions over the concept and the appropriate responses are divided. Nick Pidgeon of Cardiff University said that "results show the different stages of engagement about global warming on each side of the Atlantic", adding, "The debate in Europe is about what action needs to be taken, while many in the U.S. still debate whether climate change is happening."[118][119] A 2011 poll released by the Office of National Statistics in the UK shows increased skepticism, with over one in five respondents stated that they were "not very concerned" about global warming.[120]
Other views

Most scientists accept that humans are contributing to observed climate change.[44][121] National science academies have called on world leaders for policies to cut global emissions.[122] However, some scientists and non-scientists question aspects of climate-change science.[123][124] Organizations such as the libertarian Competitive Enterprise Institute, conservative commentators, and some companies such as ExxonMobil have challenged IPCC climate change scenarios, funded scientists who disagree with the scientific consensus, and provided their own projections of the economic cost of stricter controls.[125][126][127][128] In the finance industry, Deutsche Bank has set up an institutional climate change investment division (DBCCA),[129] which has commissioned and published research[130] on the issues and debate surrounding global warming.[131] Environmental organizations and public figures have emphasized changes in the current climate and the risks they entail, while promoting adaptation to changes in infrastructural needs and emissions reductions.[132] Some fossil fuel companies have scaled back their efforts in recent years,[133] or called for policies to reduce global warming.[134]

Etymology
The term global warming was probably first used in its modern sense on 8 August 1975 in a science paper by Wally Broecker in the journal Science called "Are we on the brink of a pronounced global warming?".[135][136][137] Broecker's choice of words was new and represented a significant recognition that the climate was warming; previously the phrasing used by scientists was "inadvertent climate modification," because while it was recognized humans could change the climate, no one was sure which direction it was going.[138] The National Academy of

Sciences first used global warming in a 1979 paper called the Charney Report, it said: "if carbon dioxide continues to increase, [we find] no reason to doubt that climate changes will result and no reason to believe that these changes will be negligible."[139] The report made a distinction between referring to surface temperature changes as global warming, while referring to other changes caused by increased CO2 as climate change.[138] This distinction is still often used in science reports, with global warming meaning surface temperatures, and climate change meaning other changes (increased storms, etc..)[138] Global warming became more widely popular after 1988 when NASA scientist James Hansen used the term in a testimony to Congress.[138] He said: "global warming has reached a level such that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship between the greenhouse effect and the observed warming."[140] His testimony was widely reported and afterward global warming was commonly used by the press and in public discourse.

Ozone
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation).

Ozone

IUPAC name[hide] Trioxygen Identifiers CAS number PubChem ChemSpider 10028-15-6 24823 23208

UNII EC-number RTECS number

66H7ZZK23N 233-069-2 RS8225000

SMILES [show] InChI [show]


Properties Molecular formula Molar mass Appearance Density Melting point Boiling point Solubility in water Refractive index (nD) O3 47.998 gmol1 bluish colored gas 2.144 g/L (0 C), gas 80.7 K, 192.5 C 161.3 K, 111.9 C 0.105 g/100mL (0 C) 1.2226 (liquid) Thermochemistry Std enthalpy of formation fHo298 Standard molar entropy So298 +142.3 kJmol1

237.7 JK1.mol1 Hazards

EU classification

Oxidant (O) Related compounds

Related compounds

sulfur dioxide

(what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

Ozone (O3, /ozon/), or trioxygen, is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope (O2). Ozone in the lower atmosphere is an air pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals and will burn sensitive plants; however, the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is beneficial, preventing potentially damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's surface. Ozone is present in low concentrations throughout the Earth's atmosphere. It has many industrial and consumer applications.

Contents
[hide]

1 History 2 Physical properties 3 Structure 4 Reactions o 4.1 With metals o 4.2 With nitrogen and carbon compounds o 4.3 With sulfur compounds o 4.4 Other substrates o 4.5 Combustion o 4.6 Reduction to ozonides o 4.7 Applications 5 Ozone in Earth's atmosphere o 5.1 Ozone layer o 5.2 Low level ozone 5.2.1 Ozone cracking 5.2.2 Ozone as a greenhouse gas 6 Health effects o 6.1 Air pollution o 6.2 Physiology o 6.3 Safety regulations 7 Production o 7.1 Corona discharge method o 7.2 Ultraviolet light o 7.3 Cold plasma o 7.4 Special considerations o 7.5 Incidental production o 7.6 Laboratory production

8 Applications o 8.1 Industry o 8.2 Consumers o 8.3 Aquaculture o 8.4 Agriculture 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

[edit] History
Ozone, the first allotrope of a chemical element to be recognized, was proposed as a distinct chemical substance by Christian Friedrich Schnbein in 1840, who named it after the Greek verb ozein (, "to smell"), from the peculiar odor in lightning storms.[1][2] The formula for ozone, O3, was not determined until 1865 by Jacques-Louis Soret[3] and confirmed by Schnbein in 1867.[1][4]

[edit] Physical properties


Ozone is a pale blue gas, slightly soluble in water and much more soluble in inert non-polar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride or fluorocarbons, where it forms a blue solution. At 112 C, it condenses to form a dark blue liquid. It is dangerous to allow this liquid to warm to its boiling point, because both concentrated gaseous ozone and liquid ozone can detonate. At temperatures below 193 C, it forms a violet-black solid.[5] Most people can detect about 0.01 ppm of ozone in air where it has a very specific sharp odor somewhat resembling chlorine bleach. Exposure of 0.1 to 1 ppm produces headaches, burning eyes, and irritation to the respiratory passages.[6] Even low concentrations of ozone in air are very destructive to organic materials such as latex, plastics, and animal lung tissue. Ozone is diamagnetic, which means that its electrons are all paired. In contrast, O2 is paramagnetic, containing two unpaired electrons.

[edit] Structure
According to experimental evidence from microwave spectroscopy, ozone is a bent molecule, with C2v symmetry (similar to the water molecule). The O O distances are 127.2 pm. The O O O angle is 116.78.[7] The central atom is sp hybridized with one lone pair. Ozone is a polar molecule with a dipole moment of 0.5337 D.[8] The bonding can be expressed as a resonance hybrid with a single bond on one side and double bond on the other producing an overall bond order of 1.5 for each side.

[edit] Reactions
Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent, far stronger than O2. It is also unstable at high concentrations, decaying to ordinary diatomic oxygen (with a half-life of about half an hour in atmospheric conditions):[9]
2 O3 3 O2

This reaction proceeds more rapidly with increasing temperature and increased pressure. Deflagration of ozone can be triggered by a spark, and can occur in ozone concentrations of 10 wt% or higher.[10]
[edit] With metals

Ozone will oxidize most metals (except gold, platinum, and iridium) to oxides of the metals in their highest oxidation state. For example:
2 Cu+ + 2 H3O+ + O3 2 Cu2+ + 3 H2O + O2 [edit] With nitrogen and carbon compounds

Ozone also oxidizes nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide:


NO + O3 NO2 + O2

This reaction is accompanied by chemiluminescence. The NO2 can be further oxidized:


NO2 + O3 NO3 + O2

The NO3 formed can react with NO2 to form N2O5: Solid nitryl perchlorate can be made from NO2, ClO2, and O3 gases:
2 NO2 + 2 ClO2 + 2 O3 2 NO2ClO4 + O2

Ozone does not react with ammonium salts but it oxidizes with ammonia to ammonium nitrate:
2 NH3 + 4 O3 NH4NO3 + 4 O2 + H2O

Ozone reacts with carbon to form carbon dioxide, even at room temperature:
C + 2 O3 CO2 + 2 O2 [edit] With sulfur compounds

Ozone oxidizes sulfides to sulfates. For example, lead(II) sulfide is oxidised to lead(II) sulfate:
PbS + 4 O3 PbSO4 + 4 O2

Sulfuric acid can be produced from ozone, water and either elemental sulfur or sulfur dioxide:
S + H2O + O3 H2SO4 3 SO2 + 3 H2O + O3 3 H2SO4

In the gas phase, ozone reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur dioxide:
H2S + O3 SO2 + H2O

In an aqueous solution, however, two competing simultaneous reactions occur, one to produce elemental sulfur, and one to produce sulfuric acid:
H2S + O3 S + O2 + H2O 3 H2S + 4 O3 3 H2SO4 [edit] Other substrates

All three atoms of ozone may also react, as in the reaction of tin(II) chloride with hydrochloric acid and ozone:
3 SnCl2 + 6 HCl + O3 3 SnCl4 + 3 H2O

Iodine perchlorate can be made by treating iodine dissolved in cold anhydrous perchloric acid with ozone:
I2 + 6 HClO4 + O3 2 I(ClO4)3 + 3 H2O [edit] Combustion

Ozone can be used for combustion reactions and combusting gases; ozone provides higher temperatures than combusting in dioxygen (O2). The following is a reaction for the combustion of carbon subnitride which can also cause lower temperatures:
3 C4N2 + 4 O3 12 CO + 3 N2

Ozone can react at cryogenic temperatures. At 77 K (196 C), atomic hydrogen reacts with liquid ozone to form a hydrogen superoxide radical, which dimerizes:[11]
H + O3 HO2 + O 2 HO2 H2O4 [edit] Reduction to ozonides

Reduction of ozone gives the ozonide anion, O3 . Derivatives of this anion are explosive and must be stored at cryogenic temperatures. Ozonides for all the alkali metals are known. KO3, RbO3, and CsO3 can be prepared from their respective superoxides:
KO2 + O3 KO3 + O2

Although KO3 can be formed as above, it can also be formed from potassium hydroxide and ozone:[12]
2 KOH + 5 O3 2 KO3 + 5 O2 + H2O

NaO3 and LiO3 must be prepared by action of CsO3 in liquid NH3 on an ion exchange resin containing Na+ or Li+ ions:[13]
CsO3 + Na+ Cs+ + NaO3

A solution of calcium in ammonia reacts with ozone to give to ammonium ozonide and not calcium ozonide:[11]
3 Ca + 10 NH3 + 6 O3 Ca6NH3 + Ca(OH)2 + Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH4O3 + 2 O2 + H2 [edit] Applications

Ozone can be used to remove manganese from water, forming a precipitate which can be filtered:
2 Mn2+ + 2 O3 + 4 H2O 2 MnO(OH)2 (s) + 2 O2 + 4 H+

Ozone will also detoxify cyanides by converting it to cyanate, which is a thousand times less toxic.
CN- + O3 CNO + O2

Ozone will also completely decompose urea:[14]


(NH2)2CO + O3 N2 + CO2 + 2 H2O

Ozone will cleave alkenes to form carbonyl compounds in the ozonolysis process.

[edit] Ozone in Earth's atmosphere

The distribution of atmospheric ozone in partial pressure as a function of altitude

Concentration of ozone as measured by the Nimbus-7 satellite

Total ozone concentration in June 2000 as measured by EP-TOMS satellite instrument

The standard way to express total ozone levels (the amount of ozone in a vertical column) in the atmosphere is by using Dobson units. Average concentration at a point is measured in parts per billion (ppb) or in g/m3.
[edit] Ozone layer Main article: Ozone layer

The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere are in the stratosphere, in a region also known as the ozone layer between about 10 km and 50 km above the surface (or between about 6 and 31 miles). Here it filters out photons with shorter wavelengths (less than 320 nm) of ultraviolet light, also called UV rays, (270 to 400 nm) from the Sun that would be harmful to most forms of life in large doses. These same wavelengths are also among those responsible for the production of vitamin D in humans. Ozone in the stratosphere is mostly produced from ultraviolet rays reacting with oxygen:
O2 + photon (radiation < 240 nm) 2 O O + O2 + M O3 + M

It is destroyed by the reaction with atomic oxygen:


O3 + O 2 O 2

The latter reaction is catalysed by the presence of certain free radicals, of which the most important are hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and atomic chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br). In recent decades the amount of ozone in the stratosphere has been declining mostly because of emissions of CFCs and similar chlorinated and brominated organic molecules, which have increased the concentration of ozone-depleting catalysts above the natural background. Ozone only makes up 0.00006% of the atmosphere.
See also: Ozone-oxygen cycle and Ozone depletion [edit] Low level ozone Main articles: Tropospheric ozone and Photochemical smog

Low level ozone (or tropospheric ozone) is an atmospheric pollutant.[15] It is not emitted directly by car engines or by industrial operations, but formed by the reaction of sunlight on air containing hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides that react to form ozone directly at the source of the pollution or many kilometers down wind. Ozone reacts directly with some hydrocarbons such as aldehydes and thus begins their removal from the air, but the products are themselves key components of smog. Ozone photolysis by UV light leads to production of the hydroxyl radical OH and this plays a part in the removal of hydrocarbons from the air, but is also the first step in the creation of components of smog such as peroxyacyl nitrates which can be powerful eye irritants. The atmospheric lifetime of tropospheric ozone is about 22 days; its main removal mechanisms are being deposited to the ground, the

above mentioned reaction giving OH, and by reactions with OH and the peroxy radical HO2 (Stevenson et al., 2006).[16] There is evidence of significant reduction in agricultural yields because of increased groundlevel ozone and pollution which interferes with photosynthesis and stunts overall growth of some plant species.[17][18] Certain examples of cities with elevated ozone readings are Houston, Texas, and Mexico City, Mexico. Houston has a reading of around 41 ppb, while Mexico City is far more hazardous, with a reading of about 125 ppb.[18] [edit] Ozone cracking

Ozone cracking in natural rubber tubing

Ozone gas attacks any polymer possessing olefinic or double bonds within its chain structure, such as natural rubber, nitrile rubber, and styrene-butadiene rubber. Products made using these polymers are especially susceptible to attack, which causes cracks to grow longer and deeper with time, the rate of crack growth depending on the load carried by the product and the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere. Such materials can be protected by adding antiozonants, such as waxes, which bond to the surface to create a protective film or blend with the material and provide long term protection. Ozone cracking used to be a serious problem in car tires for example, but the problem is now seen only in very old tires. On the other hand, many critical products like gaskets and O-rings may be attacked by ozone produced within compressed air systems. Fuel lines are often made from reinforced rubber tubing and may also be susceptible to attack, especially within engine compartments where low levels of ozone are produced from electrical equipment. Storing rubber products in close proximity to DC electric motors can accelerate the rate at which ozone cracking occurs. The commutator of the motor creates sparks which in turn produce ozone. [edit] Ozone as a greenhouse gas Although ozone was present at ground level before the Industrial Revolution, peak concentrations are now far higher than the pre-industrial levels, and even background concentrations well away from sources of pollution are substantially higher.[19][20] This increase in ozone is of further concern because ozone present in the upper troposphere acts as a greenhouse gas, absorbing some of the infrared energy emitted by the earth. Quantifying the

greenhouse gas potency of ozone is difficult because it is not present in uniform concentrations across the globe. However, the most widely accepted scientific assessments relating to climate change (e.g. the IPCC Third Assessment Report[21]) suggest that the radiative forcing of tropospheric ozone is about 25% that of carbon dioxide.

[edit] Health effects


[edit] Air pollution

Red Alder leaf, showing the typical discolouration caused by ozone pollution[22]

Signboard in Gulfton, Houston indicating an ozone watch

There is a great deal of evidence to show that ozone, created by high concentrations of pollution and daylight UV rays at the Earth's surface, can harm lung function and irritate the respiratory system.[15][23] Exposure to ozone and the pollutants that produce it is linked to premature death, asthma, bronchitis, heart attack, and other cardiopulmonary problems. Long-term exposure to ozone has been shown to increase risk of death from respiratory illness. A study of 450,000 people living in United States cities showed a significant correlation between ozone levels and respiratory illness over the 18-year follow-up period. The study revealed that people living in cities with high ozone levels such as Houston or Los Angeles had an over 30% increased risk of dying from lung disease.[24][25]

Air quality guidelines such as those from the World Health Organization, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the EU are based on detailed studies designed to identify the levels that can cause measurable ill health effects. According to scientists with the (EPA), susceptible people can be adversely affected by ozone levels as low as 40 ppb.[26] In the EU, the current target value for ozone concentrations is 120 g/m which is about 60ppb. This target applies to all member states in accordance with Directive 2008/50/EC. Ozone concentration is measured as a maximum daily mean of 8 hour averages and the target should not be exceeded on more than 25 calendar days per year, starting from January 2010. Whilst the directive requires in the future a strict compliance with 120 g/m limit (i.e. mean ozone concentration not to be exceeded on any day of the year), there is no date set for this requirement and this is treated as a long-term objective. [27] The Clean Air Act directs the EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for several pollutants, including ground-level ozone, and counties out of compliance with these standards are required to take steps to reduce their levels. In May 2008, the EPA lowered its ozone standard from 80 ppb to 75 ppb. This proved controversial, since the Agency's own scientists and advisory board had recommended lowering the standard to 60 ppb, and the World Health Organization recommends 51 ppb. Many public health and environmental groups also supported the 60 ppb standard.[28] On January 7, 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the pollutant ozone, the principal component of smog:
... EPA proposes that the level of the 8-hour primary standard, which was set at 0.075 ppm in the 2008 final rule, should instead be set at a lower level within the range of 0.060 to 0.070 parts per million (ppm), to provide increased protection for children and other at risk populations against an array of O3- related adverse health effects that range from decreased lung function and increased respiratory symptoms to serious indicators of respiratory morbidity including emergency department visits and hospital admissions for respiratory causes, and possibly cardiovascular-related morbidity as well as total non- accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality. ...[29]

The EPA has developed an Air Quality Index to help explain air pollution levels to the general public. Under the current standards, eight-hour average ozone concentrations of 85 to 104 ppb are described as "unhealthy for sensitive groups", 105 ppb to 124 ppb as "unhealthy" and 125 ppb to 404 ppb as "very unhealthy".[30] Ozone can also be present in indoor air pollution, partly as a result of electronic equipment such as photocopiers. A connection has also been known to exist between the increased pollen, fungal spores, and ozone caused by thunderstorms and hospital admissions of asthma sufferers.[31] A common British folk myth dating back to the Victorian era holds that the smell of the sea is caused by ozone, and that this smell has "bracing" health benefits.[32] Neither of these is true. The

characteristic "smell of the sea" is not caused by ozone but by the presence of dimethyl sulfide generated by phytoplankton which, like ozone, is toxic in high concentrations.[33]
[edit] Physiology See also: trioxidane

Ozone, along with reactive forms of oxygen such as superoxide, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorite ions, is naturally produced by white blood cells and other biological systems (such as the roots of marigolds) as a means of destroying foreign bodies. Ozone reacts directly with organic double bonds. Also, when ozone breaks down to dioxygen it gives rise to oxygen free radicals, which are highly reactive and capable of damaging many organic molecules. Moreover, it is believed that the powerful oxidizing properties of ozone may be a contributing factor of inflammation. The cause-and-effect relationship of how the ozone is created in the body and what it does is still under consideration and still subject to various interpretations, since other body chemical processes can trigger some of the same reactions. A team headed by Dr. Paul Wentworth Jr. of the Department of Chemistry at the Scripps Research Institute has shown evidence linking the antibody-catalyzed water-oxidation pathway of the human immune response to the production of ozone. In this system, ozone is produced by antibody-catalyzed production of trioxidane from water and neutrophil-produced singlet oxygen.[34] When inhaled, ozone reacts with compounds lining the lungs to form specific, cholesterolderived metabolites that are thought to facilitate the build-up and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaques (a form of heart disease). These metabolites have been confirmed as naturally occurring in human atherosclerotic arteries and are categorized into a class of secosterols termed atheronals, generated by ozonolysis of cholesterol's double bond to form a 5,6 secosterol[35] as well as a secondary condensation product via aldolization.[36] Ozone has been implicated to have an adverse effect on plant growth: "... ozone reduced total chlorophylls, carotenoid and carbohydrate concentration, and increased 1-aminocyclopropane-1carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ethylene production. In treated plants, the ascorbate leaf pool was decreased, while lipid peroxidation and solute leakage were significantly higher than in ozone-free controls. The data indicated that ozone triggered protective mechanisms against oxidative stress in citrus."[37]
[edit] Safety regulations

Due to the strongly oxidizing properties of ozone, ozone is a primary irritant, affecting especially the eyes and respiratory systems and can be hazardous at even low concentrations. The Canadian Center for Occupation Safety and Health reports that: "Even very low concentrations of ozone can be harmful to the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. The severity of injury depends on both by the concentration of ozone and the duration of exposure. Severe and permanent lung injury or death could result from even a very short-term exposure to relatively low concentrations." [38]

To protect workers potentially exposed to ozone, OSHA has established a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 ppm (29 CFR 1910.1000 table Z-1), calculated as an 8 hour time weighted average. Higher concentrations are especially hazardous and NIOSH has established an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Limit (IDLH) of 5 ppm.[39] Work environments where ozone is used or where it is likely to be produced should have adequate ventilation and it is prudent to have a monitor for ozone that will alarm if the concentration exceeds the OSHA PEL. Continuous monitors for ozone are available from several suppliers. Elevated ozone exposure can occur on passenger aircraft, with levels depending on altitude and atmospheric turbulence.[40] U.S. FAA regulations set a limit of 250 ppb with a maximum fourhour average of 100 ppb.[41] Some planes are equipped with ozone converters in the ventilation system to reduce passenger exposure.[40]

[edit] Production
Ozone often forms in nature under conditions where O2 will not react.[6] Ozone used in industry is measured in ppm (parts per million), ppb (parts per billion), g/m3, mg/hr (milligrams per hour) or weight percent. The regime of applied concentrations ranges from 1 to 5 weight percent in air and from 6 to 14 weight percent in oxygen. Temperature and humidity plays a large role in how much ozone is being produced. Any ozone generator will produce less than 50% its nominal capacity if operated with humid ambient air than when it operates in very dry air.
[edit] Corona discharge method

This is the most popular type of ozone generator for most industrial and personal uses. While variations of the "hot spark" coronal discharge method of ozone production exist, including medical grade and industrial grade ozone generators, these units usually work by means of a corona discharge tube.[42] They are typically very cost-effective and do not require an oxygen source other than the ambient air. However, they also produce nitrogen oxides as a by-product. Use of an air dryer can reduce or eliminate nitric acid formation by removing water vapor and increase ozone production. Use of an oxygen concentrator can further increase the ozone production and further reduce the risk of nitric acid formation by removing not only the water vapor, but also the bulk of the nitrogen.
[edit] Ultraviolet light

UV ozone generators, or vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ozone generators, employ a light source that generates a narrow-band ultraviolet light, a subset of that produced by the Sun. The Sun's UV sustains the ozone layer in the stratosphere of Earth.[43] While standard UV ozone generators tend to be less expensive,[clarification needed] they usually produce ozone with a concentration of about 0.5% or lower. Another disadvantage of this method is that it requires the air (oxygen) to be exposed to the UV source for a longer amount of time, and any gas that is not exposed to the UV source will not be treated. This makes UV

generators impractical for use in situations that deal with rapidly moving air or water streams (induct air sterilization, for example). Production of ozone is one of the potential dangers of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. VUV ozone generators are used in swimming pool and spa applications ranging to millions of gallons of water. VUV ozone generators, unlike corona discharge generators, do not produce harmful nitrogen by-products and also unlike corona discharge systems, VUV ozone generators work extremely well in humid air environments. There is also not normally a need for expensive off-gas mechanisms, and no need for air driers or oxygen concentrators which require extra costs and maintenance.
[edit] Cold plasma

In the cold plasma method, pure oxygen gas is exposed to a plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge. The diatomic oxygen is split into single atoms, which then recombine in triplets to form ozone. Cold plasma machines utilize pure oxygen as the input source and produce a maximum concentration of about 5% ozone. They produce far greater quantities of ozone in a given space of time compared to ultraviolet production. However, because cold plasma ozone generators are very expensive, they are found less frequently than the previous two types. The discharges manifest as filamentary transfer of electrons (micro discharges) in a gap between two electrodes. In order to evenly distribute the micro discharges, a dielectric insulator must be used to separate the metallic electrodes and to prevent arcing. Some cold plasma units also have the capability of producing short-lived allotropes of oxygen which include O4, O5, O6, O7, etc. These species are even more reactive than ordinary O3.[citation
needed]

[edit] Special considerations

Ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site. Available ozone generators vary in the arrangement and design of the high-voltage electrodes. At production capacities higher than 20 kg per hour, a gas/water tube heat-exchanger may be utilized as ground electrode and assembled with tubular high-voltage electrodes on the gas-side. The regime of typical gas pressures is around 2 bar absolute in oxygen and 3 bar absolute in air. Several megawatts of electrical power may be installed in large facilities, applied as one phase AC current at 50 to 8000 Hz and peak voltages between 3,000 and 20,000 volts. Applied voltage is usually inversely related to the applied frequency. The dominating parameter influencing ozone generation efficiency is the gas temperature, which is controlled by cooling water temperature and/or gas velocity. The cooler the water, the better the ozone synthesis. The lower the gas velocity, the higher the concentration (but the lower the net ozone produced). At typical industrial conditions, almost 90% of the effective power is dissipated as heat and needs to be removed by a sufficient cooling water flow.

Because of the high reactivity of ozone, only few materials may be used like stainless steel (quality 316L), titanium, aluminium (as long as no moisture is present), glass, polytetrafluorethylene, or polyvinylidene fluoride. Viton may be used with the restriction of constant mechanical forces and absence of humidity (humidity limitations apply depending on the formulation). Hypalon may be used with the restriction that no water come in contact with it, except for normal atmospheric levels. Embrittlement or shrinkage is the common mode of failure of elastomers with exposure to ozone. Ozone cracking is the common mode of failure of elastomer seals like O-rings. Silicone rubbers are usually adequate for use as gaskets in ozone concentrations below 1 wt%, such as in equipment for accelerated aging of rubber samples.
[edit] Incidental production

Ozone may be formed from O2 by electrical discharges and by action of high energy electromagnetic radiation. Certain electrical equipment generate significant levels of ozone. This is especially true of devices using high voltages, such as ionic air purifiers, laser printers, photocopiers, tasers and arc welders. Electric motors using brushes can generate ozone from repeated sparking inside the unit. Large motors that use brushes, such as those used by elevators or hydraulic pumps, will generate more ozone than smaller motors. Ozone is similarly formed in the Catatumbo lightning storms phenomenon on the Catatumbo River in Venezuela, which helps to replenish ozone in the upper troposphere. It is the world's largest single natural generator of ozone, lending calls for it to be designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[44]
[edit] Laboratory production

In the laboratory, ozone can be produced by electrolysis using a 9 volt battery, a pencil graphite rod cathode, a platinum wire anode and a 3 molar sulfuric acid electrolyte.[45] The half cell reactions taking place are:
3 H2O O3 + 6 H+ + 6 e (Eo = 1.53 V) 6 H+ + 6 e 3 H2 (Eo = 0 V) 2 H2O O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e (Eo = 1.23 V)

In the net reaction, three equivalents of water are converted into one equivalent of ozone and three equivalents of hydrogen. Oxygen formation is a competing reaction. It can also be prepared by applying 10,000-20,000 volts DC to dry O2. This can be done with an apparatus consisting of two concentric glass tubes sealed together at the top, with in and out spigots at the top and bottom of the outer tube. The inner core should have a length of metal foil inserted into it connected to one side of the power source. The other side of the power source should be connected to another piece of foil wrapped around the outer tube. Dry O2 should be run through the tube in one spigot. As the O2 is run through one spigot into the apparatus and 10,000-20,000 volts DC are applied to the foil leads, electricity will discharge between the dry

dioxygen in the middle and form O3 and O2 out the other spigot. The reaction can be summarized as follows:[6]
3 O2 electricity 2 O3

[edit] Applications
[edit] Industry

The largest use of ozone is in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, synthetic lubricants, and many other commercially useful organic compounds, where it is used to sever carbon-carbon bonds.[6] It can also be used for bleaching substances and for killing microorganisms in air and water sources.[46] Many municipal drinking water systems kill bacteria with ozone instead of the more common chlorine.[47] Ozone has a very high oxidation potential.[48] Ozone does not form organochlorine compounds, nor does it remain in the water after treatment. The Safe Drinking Water Act mandates that these systems introduce an amount of chlorine to maintain a minimum of 0.2 ppm residual free chlorine in the pipes, based on results of regular testing. Where electrical power is abundant, ozone is a cost-effective method of treating water, since it is produced on demand and does not require transportation and storage of hazardous chemicals. Once it has decayed, it leaves no taste or odor in drinking water. Although low levels of ozone have been advertised to be of some disinfectant use in residential homes, the concentration of ozone in dry air required to have a rapid, substantial effect on airborne pathogens exceeds safe levels recommended by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency. Humidity control can vastly improve both the killing power of the ozone and the rate at which it decays back to oxygen (more humidity allows more effectiveness). Spore forms of most pathogens are very tolerant of atmospheric ozone in concentrations where asthma patients start to have issues. Industrially, ozone is used to:

Disinfect laundry in hospitals, food factories, care homes etc.;[49] Disinfect water in place of chlorine[6] Deodorize air and objects, such as after a fire. This process is extensively used in fabric restoration Kill bacteria on food or on contact surfaces;[50] Sanitize swimming pools and spas Kill insects in stored grain[51] Scrub yeast and mold spores from the air in food processing plants; Wash fresh fruits and vegetables to kill yeast, mold and bacteria;[50] Chemically attack contaminants in water (iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites, and complex organics lumped together as "colour"); Provide an aid to flocculation (agglomeration of molecules, which aids in filtration, where the iron and arsenic are removed); Manufacture chemical compounds via chemical synthesis[52]

Clean and bleach fabrics (the former use is utilized in fabric restoration; the latter use is patented); Assist in processing plastics to allow adhesion of inks; Age rubber samples to determine the useful life of a batch of rubber; Eradicate water borne parasites such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium in surface water treatment plants.

Ozone is a reagent in many organic reactions in the laboratory and in industry. Ozonolysis is the cleavage of an alkene to carbonyl compounds. Many hospitals in the U.S. and around the world use large ozone generators to decontaminate operating rooms between surgeries. The rooms are cleaned and then sealed airtight before being filled with ozone which effectively kills or neutralizes all remaining bacteria.[53] Ozone is used as an alternative to chlorine or chlorine dioxide in the bleaching of wood pulp.[54] It is often used in conjunction with oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate the need for chlorine-containing compounds in the manufacture of high-quality, white paper.[55] Ozone can be used to detoxify cyanide wastes (for example from gold and silver mining) by oxidizing cyanide to cyanate and eventually to carbon dioxide.[56]
[edit] Consumers

Devices generating high levels of ozone, some of which use ionization, are used to sanitize and deodorize uninhabited buildings, rooms, ductwork, woodsheds, and boats and other vehicles. In the U.S., air purifiers emitting low levels of ozone have been sold. This kind of air purifier is sometimes claimed to imitate nature's way of purifying the air[57] without filters and to sanitize both it and household surfaces. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that there is "evidence to show that at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone is not effective at removing many odor-causing chemicals" or "viruses, bacteria, mold, or other biological pollutants." Furthermore, its report states that "results of some controlled studies show that concentrations of ozone considerably higher than these [human safety] standards are possible even when a user follows the manufacturers operating instructions."[58] The government successfully sued one company in 1995, ordering it to stop repeating health claims without supporting scientific studies. Ozonated water is used to launder clothes and to sanitize food, drinking water, and surfaces in the home. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it is "amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of ozone in gaseous and aqueous phases as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry." Studies at California Polytechnic University demonstrated that 0.3 ppm levels of ozone dissolved in filtered tapwater can produce a reduction of more than 99.99% in such food-borne microorganisms as salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, and Campylobacter. This quantity is 20,000 times the WHO recommended limits stated above.[50][59] Ozone can be used to remove pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables.[60][61]

Ozone is used in homes and hot tubs to kill bacteria in the water and to reduce the amount of chlorine or bromine required by reactivating them to their free state. Since ozone does not remain in the water long enough, ozone by itself is ineffective at preventing cross-contamination among bathers and must be used in conjunction with halogens. Gaseous ozone created by ultraviolet light or by corona discharge is injected into the water.[62] Ozone is also widely used in treatment of water in aquariums and fish ponds. Its use can minimize bacterial growth, control parasites, eliminate transmission of some diseases, and reduce or eliminate "yellowing" of the water. Ozone must not come in contact with fish's gill structures. Natural salt water (with life forms) provides enough "instantaneous demand" that controlled amounts of ozone activate bromide ion to hypobromous acid, and the ozone entirely decays in a few seconds to minutes. If oxygen fed ozone is used, the water will be higher in dissolved oxygen, fish's gill structures will atrophy and they will become dependent on higher dissolved oxygen levels.
[edit] Aquaculture

Ozone can be used in aquaculture to facilitate organic breakdown. It is added to recirculating systems to reduce nitrite levels[63] through conversion into nitrate. If nitrite levels in the water are high, nitrites will also accumulate in the blood and tissues of fish, where it interferes with oxygen transport (it causes oxidation of the heme-group of haemoglobin from ferrous(Fe2+) to ferric (Fe3+), making haemoglobin unable to bind O2[64]). Despite these apparent positive effects, ozone use in recirculation systems has been linked to reducing the level of bioavailable iodine in salt water systems, resulting in iodine deficiency symptoms such as goitre and decreased growth in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae.[65] Ozonate seawater is used for surface disinfection of haddock and Atlantic halibut eggs against nodavirus. Nodavirus is a lethal and vertically transmitted virus which causes severe mortality in fish. Haddock eggs should not be treated with high ozone level as eggs so treated did not hatch and died after 3-4 days.[66]
[edit] Agriculture

Ozone application on freshly cut pineapple and banana shows increase in flavonoids and total phenol contents when exposure is up to 20 minutes. Decrease in ascorbic acid content is observed but the positive effect on total phenol content and flavonoids can overcome the negative effect[67]. Tomatoes upon treatment with ozone shows an increase in -carotene, lutein and lycopene[68]. However, ozone application on strawberries in pre-harvest period shows decrease in ascorbic acid content[69]. Ozone facilitates the extraction of some heavy metals from soil using EDTA. EDTA forms strong, water-soluble corrodination compounds with some heavy metals (Pb, Zn) thereby making it possible to dissolve them out from contaminated soil. If contaminated soil is pre-treated with ozone, the extraction efficacy of Pb, Am and Pu increases by 11-28.9%[70], 43.5%[71] and 50.7%[71] respectively