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of Archaeology and Heritage
The IUP MA in Applied Archaeology: What We Planned, What We’ve Learned Beverly A. Chiarulli, Phillip D. Neusius, Ben Ford, Sarah W. Neusius
Introduction In fall 2005, the IUP Anthropology Department began to develop a MA program in Applied Archaeology. Our goal was to develop a degree designed to meet industry and government needs for professional archaeologists. Our expectation was that most of the graduates would be employed in the fields of cultural and heritage management. The program was designed to balance principles developed through SAA initiatives like “Teaching Archaeology in the 21st Century” and the “M.A.T.R.I.X.” project with institutional requirements and resources. The first group of graduate students started the program in fall 2009. This paper discusses our experience and lessons learned. It begins in Section 1 with a detailed discussion of the program and then in Section 2 describes our goals in developing a program to meet the objectives of “Teaching Archaeology in the 21 st Century.” Finally, Section 3 describes some of the differences between our expectations and the reality of the program. Our department is in the midst of a 5-year review and much of this paper is drawn from that report (Poole 2012).
Students in the First MA Cohort during Graduation Spring 2011
Section 1: Summary of the IUP MA in Applied Archaeology Program The Master of Arts in Applied Archaeology program was initiated in 2009 and has thus far enrolled 47 students. The program is designed to meet industry and government needs for professional archaeologists in response to recent studies by the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) that found that there is a continuing and increasing need for archaeologists with applied M.A. degrees. Most of the program’s graduates are employed in the fields of cultural resource management (CRM), historic preservation, and heritage tourism. Graduates of the program work for engineering and environmental firms, as well as private archaeological companies and state and federal agencies. The goal of the in Applied Archaeology program is to produce graduates who are trained in the subjects required for professional archaeologists, including preservation law, ethics, business, and archaeology, and have the writing skills to prepare technical reports as well as publications for the general public, meet the U.S. Secretary of the Interior’s Standards (36CFR61) for professional archaeologists upon graduation (an option for individuals already employed in the field of CRM) or meet all the requirements except for a full year of experience as a project supervisor (an option for students who enter the program immediately after graduation with a B.A. degree), and have specialized training in technical skills such as faunal analysis, artifact analysis, and geophysical surveys.
In other words, our objective is to produce graduates who have the discipline-specific knowledge, technical training, and experience to be employed as professional archaeologists in a variety of settings including private environmental consulting and engineering firms, national and state agencies, museums, and the historic preservation and heritage tourism industries. The principal motivation for developing the M.A. in Applied Archaeology was to meet a growing demand for more and better trained professional archaeologists for employment by business and government. According to the report, “Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century”, published by the SAA, there is a need for specialized degree training to prepare archaeological professionals for careers in CRM or Applied Archaeology. One of the action items proposed in the SAA report is that the SAA “encourage the development of innovative, multidisciplinary M.A. programs at geographically separated institutions aimed specifically at training people for nonacademic archaeological careers.” When we started developing the program we found that only five universities in Pennsylvania have any graduate programs in Anthropology, and those that do primarily have M.A. and Ph.D. programs oriented toward the preparation of students for academic
careers. The IUP M.A. in Applied Archaeology is unique in the state and one of less than ten CRMspecific MA programs in the nation. The curriculum for the IUP M.A. in Applied Archaeology is based on the requirement by firms and agencies that students have competency in North American archaeology combined with the requirements of the model proposed by a working group on curriculum reform of the SAA. The approach we used was based on the incorporation of seven principles into all levels of archaeological education and the identification of core competencies for M.A. level training for professional archaeologists. The seven principles are stewardship, diverse pasts, social relevance, ethics and values, improvement of written and oral communication, competence in fundamental archaeological skills, and real world problem solving. The M.A. in Applied Archeology prepares students to meet the needs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania while also meeting the state and federal professional requirements so that they may work nationwide as applied or “professional” archaeologists. The program includes 36 hours of graduate coursework. All students take a common core of 15 credits, 15 credits of electives, and six credits of thesis and/or internship. We also created an Applied Archaeology program advisory board to ensure that the M.A. students continue to meet industry needs and requirements. The board currently consists of five members drawn from private consulting firms, as well as state and federal agencies. Board members are invited to campus once a year to meet with faculty and students. The board members speak with the students about professional preparation and with the faculty about training successes and failures. Board members have also been able to offer internships and employment to students.
Beverly Chiarulli, Sarah Neusius, Diane Landers (Member of the MA Advisory Board) and Lisa Dugas, MA Student December 2011
Course Offerings and Sequencing The IUP MA in Applied Archaeology curriculum emphasizes the importance of written and spoken communication skills, problem solving, real world experience, understanding archaeological ethics, and the development of basic and highly technical skills that are needed for professional archaeologists. We have combined these competencies into courses designed to meet the federal requirements for courses in North American, regional and historic archaeology. These skills are distributed among 15 credits of required core courses, 15 credits of elective courses, and 6 credits of thesis or internship work (36 credits total). Core Courses (15 credits) The first component of the program is a set of five required core courses (15 credits). All students take these courses or demonstrate equivalent expertise. The courses cover the basic set of knowledge and skill competencies required for the program. The core courses include: 1) Archaeological Laws and Ethics (ANTH 610), which is an intensive examination of current legal and ethical issues involved in the practice of archaeology, including an examination of laws affecting the excavation and study of archaeological sites and historic properties. 2) Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory (ANTH 612) in which students discuss the theory and methods involved in the current practice of cultural resource management and how these relate to the development of research designs, proposal writing, field strategies for archaeological survey and testing and development of project budgets. 3) Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation (ANTH 714) is a course focused on discussion of the theory and methods involved in the current practice of cultural resource management and how these relate to data analysis and interpretation of survey and testing projects, assessment of site significance, development of research strategies for excavation projects, and report writing. 4) Pre-Columbian North American Archaeology (ANTH 616) covers the body of knowledge archaeologists have generated about the Pre-Columbian past of North America north of Mexico with emphasis on the Eastern Woodlands and explores significant substantive, theoretical and methodological debates among archaeological scholars working in North America. 5) Historical Archaeology (ANTH 618) provides an overview of historical archaeology, a discipline that combines the study of material culture with that of written documents as a means to gain an understanding of peoples and cultures who lived during periods of recorded history. The course focuses on the United States since the sixteenth century, paying special attention to the contributions that historical archaeology has made to our understanding of European American, Native American and African American peoples.
Electives (15 credits) The second part of the curriculum consists of 5 courses (15 credits) that allow students to specialize and bolster skills learned in the core courses or during previous experience. Electives can be drawn from a list of 20 courses spanning 4 departments, although at least 9 hours must be drawn from courses with an ANTH prefix. Other courses can also be included with permission of the department. Students can choose to focus on specific career paths through their choice of electives, although there are no formal tracks in the program. For example, students interested in specializing in Historical Archaeology could take HIST605 and HIST614 in addition to a section of ANTH584 that focuses on the analysis of historic artifacts, a section of ANTH740 that is an advanced archaeological field school on a historic site, and ANTH720 Issues in Historic Preservation. The elective offerings can be divided into three categories: archaeological electives, anthropological electives, and electives offered by IUP departments besides Anthropology. The archaeological electives include: Public Archaeology (ANTH 625), which focuses on methods and theory of presenting archaeology to the public with special emphasis on recent scholarship and on national and regional styles of doing public archaeology. Students learn skills for designing and presenting programs about archaeology to a variety of audiences. Issues in Historic Preservation (ANTH 720) examines the history, theory, and current issues of preservation practice in the U.S. Students discuss theories of what, how, and why we preserve, within the context of the evolution of the field of historic preservation. The focus is on exploring current issues in the field of Historic Preservation and the role of applied archaeology. Archaeology of Pennsylvania (ANTH 730) is a detailed examination of the archaeology of Pennsylvania and surrounding states from the initial colonization by humans through the nineteenth century, with special emphasis on the culture history, cultural ecology, and ethnohistory as well as vernacular and industrial sites archaeology. Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation (ANTH 745) focuses on the quantitative and qualitative interpretation of an archaeological project’s often varied data for the purpose of generating higher level interpretations of past lifeways, sociopolitical processes and culture change. Although the course includes a consideration and critique of the methods used to generate the data sets themselves, the emphasis is on how such data is used – and its potential for misuse - in interpretation. Additionally, a series of Specialized Methods in Archaeology (ANTH 584) are offered on a rotating basis. Thus far the specialized methods courses have focused on geophysical survey, faunal analysis, historic artifact analysis, and pre-Contact lithic and ceramic analysis. Finally, the department offers an Archaeological Field School (ANTH 520) for students with limited
previous field experience and a course on Advanced Archaeological Field Methods (ANTH 740) for students who have already completed a field school. ANTH 520 introduces archaeological survey, excavation, and laboratory methods, while ANTH 740 provides advanced instruction in survey and excavation field methods and technology with an emphasis on the application of research designs to field settings, and the logistics of supervising field projects. MA students can also select electives with a more general anthropology focus: Native Americans (ANTH 514) is an introduction to Native Americans from an anthropological perspective. It develops an understanding of the cultural diversity among American Indians, identifies the vitality of contemporary Indian cultures, places that vitality in historical perspective, and encourages students to analyze important societal issues in modern Native American life. Ethnographic Research Methods (ANTH 556) provides a background in qualitative and quantitative techniques used in anthropological research. The course concentrates on the ethics of research with people, formulation of hypotheses, design and use of appropriate research techniques, and data analysis. It also emphasizes the development of field notes, interviewing techniques, developing genealogies, and participant observation. Anthropology Seminar (ANTH 694) considers conceptual problems and definitions in anthropology and explores the history of theoretical developments within the discipline. Cultural Ecology (ANTH 520) introduces the field of ecological anthropology and its connection to emerging threads of environmental anthropology by exploring the concepts of ecosystem in relationship to varying human adaptive strategies. This course illustrates the importance of understanding human-environment interactions both in studying the world and in investigating the past. Ethnographic Field School (ANTH 560) provides ethnographic research training in the field. The course emphasizes the application of qualitative research methods, the recording of data in research journals and the maintaining of field diaries, the categorizing and organizing of data, and the writing of research reports. Further flexibility in the elective curriculum is possible through Independent Study (ANTH 699) and Special Topics (ANTH 581) courses. ANTH 699 courses allow students to design a specific course of study or to join faculty on a project separate from the field schools. For example, a recent ATH 699 course involved two students participating in directed studies followed by a four week underwater archaeology project. ANTH 581 courses offer the possibility to teach specialized courses that do not focus on methods (specialized methods are taught in ANTH 584).
Students may also select electives from other departments. Table 1 lists the approved nonAnthropology electives. These courses offer students the opportunity to gain valuable applied archaeology skills not generally taught in Anthropology departments. Table 1: Approved Electives for the M.A. in Applied Archaeology
Course # ACCT 607 ACCT 502 GEOG 516 GEOG 517 GEOG 625 HIST 605 HIST 606 HIST 614 Course Name Management Accounting Foundations of Financial Accounting Introduction to Geographic Information Systems Technical Issues in GIS Environmental Planning Introduction to Public History Topics in Public History Research Methods
A student who is interested in geographic information systems/science (GIS) can take GEOG 516 and GEOG 517 as well as four additional Geography courses to obtain a Certificate of Recognition in Geographic Information Science and Geospatial Techniques. The additional courses require a minimum of one additional semester of course work.
Internship and Thesis (6 credits) The final component of the program has three options for a culminating experience. Some students will take an internship and all students will be required to complete a thesis either in the form of a policy paper or a comprehensive report on an archaeological project. Option 1 includes an internship (ANTH 698) for 3 credits at a state or federal agency, consulting firm, or other venue that will provide them with real-world experience. Following their internship, students write a policy paper based on the internship. Therefore, this option consists of a 3 credit internship taken before their final semester combined with 3 credits of thesis (ANTH 795) taken during their final semester. The graduate internship coordinator supervises the internship and a faculty member serves as the thesis chair. Option 2 is for students who choose not to take an internship, either because they already are or have been employed in a similar setting or for other reasons. These students must
instead take 6 credits of thesis to produce a cultural resource management report on an archaeological project. This project could utilize data recovered from investigations in an advanced field methods course, through the departmental archaeological research center, or other setting. In this option, students take 6 credits of thesis (ANTH 795) scheduled over 2 semesters to complete the project analysis and report write-up. Individual faculty members serve as thesis chairs. Option 3 allows students to take a 3 credit Internship (ANTH 698) as an elective and then complete a research based thesis by taking 6 credits of Thesis (ANTH 795). This option permits students to obtain structured real-world experience through an internship as well as the experience of completing a substantial thesis research project. The graduate internship coordinator supervises the internship and a faculty member serves as the thesis chair.
Course Sequence and Prerequisites The course sequence has been designed so the program can be completed in four academic semesters and a summer session if started in the fall term. Exceptions to this sequence have been approved by the Department. Table 2: Course sequence and prerequisites
First Semester Required (6 Credits) ANTH 610 ANTH 618 Archaeological Laws and Ethics Historical Archaeology (1)
Cr. 3 3
Prereq. None None
First Semester Electives – Choose one from this list ANTH 514 ANTH 556 ANTH 584 ANTH 581 Native Americans Ethnographic Research Methods Specialized Methods in Archaeology Cultural Ecology 3 3 3 3 None None None None
Or any Non-ANTH Elective Second Semester Required (6 Credits) ANTH 612 ANTH 616 Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory Pre-Columbian North American Archaeology (1) 3 3 ANTH 610 None
Second Semester Elective - choose one elective from this list
(3 Credits) ANTH 584 ANTH 581 ANTH 694 ANTH 625 Specialized Methods in Archaeology Special Topics Anthropological Seminar Public Archaeology 3 3 3 3 None None None None
Or any non-ANTH Elective Summer Session - Choose electives or internships from these. With internship option, thesis can be taken for 3 credits in the third semester. In most cases, summer credits will replace other electives (3-6 Credits) ANTH 560 ANTH 698 Ethnographic Field School Internship 6 3 None 18 hours graduate credit and permission of graduate coordinator None Undergraduate field school; ANTH 612
ANTH 699 ANTH 740
Independent Study Advanced Archaeological Field Methods
3rd Semester - Required Courses (3 Credits) ANTH 714 Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation 3 ANTH 610 and ANTH 612
Third Semester Electives - choose two electives from these (6 credits) ANTH 556 ANTH 584 ANTH 720 Ethnographic Research Methods Specialized Methods in Archaeology Issues in Historic Preservation 3 3 3 None None ANTH 612
Or any non-ANTH elective Fourth Semester Requirements (3-6) credits ANTH 795 Thesis 36
4th Semester - Elective Courses Students may choose one or two from this list (3-6 Credits) ANTH 745 ANTH 730 ANTH 694 ANTH 514 ANTH 581 ANTH 584 Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation (Recommended) Archaeology of Pennsylvania Anthropological Seminar Native Americans Special Topics Specialized Methods 3 3 3 3 3 5 ANTH 612, 714 ANTH 616, 618
Any non-ANTH elective
Issues in Course Offerings and Sequencing Thus far, the current graduate course offerings and sequencing has offered sufficient courses and options for students to complete the program. The majority of these courses have been taught; however, Archaeology of Pennsylvania (ANTH730) and has not been taught. The primary difficulty has been in sequencing field schools, internships, and thesis research with other program requirements. The core and elective requirements of the program often require that field schools, internships, and thesis research happen during the Summer Session, however the summer is not long enough to accommodate all of these activities. In some cases, students have taken an extra semester of course work in order to take advantage of these opportunities. Thesis research and writing has also required some students to remain longer than two years; however, IUP does not require them to continuously enroll after the required credits have been earned. All students have chosen to complete a 6 credit thesis; some have also opted to complete a 3 credit internship. All theses require the preparation of a proposal, the completion of independent research, in some cases obtaining permits and/or funding, and the completion of a written thesis. Most students present a lecture on their results, but this is not required. Mentoring students through the thesis process has increased the faculty workload. The four North American archaeologists chair all MA theses so that individual faculty members are chairing five or more theses per year.
Internships and Experiential Learning The Master of Arts in Applied Archaeology is a program designed to meet industry and government needs for professional archaeologists, so it is important that they have opportunities to gain experience in professional settings, to develop the skills they will need as professional archaeologists and at the same time learn specific course content. While many of the courses are designed so that the culminating course assessments require a work product similar to one that they will be required to produce in their careers, it is equally important that they have opportunities to gain practical experience either through for-credit internships or other experiential learning opportunities. While some of these opportunities are available during the summer, others, through IUP Archaeological Services and departmental assistantships as research assistants are available for students during the academic year. Of the 43 students who have completed at least one semester in the program, all but five have participated in at least one experiential activity. These include credit and non-credit internships, field schools, research assistantships and participation in Archaeological Services field and Laboratory projects. Table 3 describes the experiential learning opportunities and internships that MA students have gained through the first three years of the program. As shown on the table, many of the students have participated in more than one of these opportunities. Table 3: Experiential Learning Opportunities and Internships
For Credit internshi ps Class 1 (16 Students) Summer 2009-2010 Class 2 (13 Students) Summer 2010-Fall 2011 Class 3 (14 Students) Summer 2011-Fall 2011 Totals NonCredit Internship s Field School s Research Assistantship s Archaeologi cal Services Field and work Lab Faculty Research Projects Total
2 0 0 2
9 5 0 14
8** 9** 5 21
6 6* 2 14
17 9 6 32
3 7 0 10
45 36 13 87
Internships Internships are an important part of this program because they provide students with opportunities for real world experience. They can be taken for credit or just for experience. As part of the background research for developing the MA program, we contacted Federal agencies
including the National Park Service, the National Forest Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission as well as museums and consulting firms.
Graduate Students in Archaeological Geophysics Spring 2010 We also had discussions with the PennDOT Cultural Resource Group in Harrisburg about long-term partnerships for internships and field sites for advanced field school projects and research. As a result of these discussions, we have been able to expand an existing internship program that provided one paid internship for a student to work for Archaeological Services on a project to prepare artifacts from “orphaned” PennDot projects for permanent curation at the Pennsylvania State Museum. This program was expanded in the summer of 2010 when PennDot decided to begin an inhouse program to conduct small Phase I survey investigations. Under this program PennDot, continued to fund one curation internship, two field internships, and to fund Archaeological Services to hire a crew chief as the supervisor of the program. Since the MA program started in fall 2009, only two students have taken internships for credit. These students included the crew chief for the PennDot survey team in 2010 and a student who did research at the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. In addition to the PennDot internships (4), students have had either paid or unpaid internships with the Bureau for Land Management (through the
Student Conservation Service) in Alaska; the Gila National Forest in New Mexico; the Peuquot Museum in Connecticut; the National Park Service at Ft. Necessity, Pennsylvania; the National Park Service in Philadelphia; the Illinois State Museum; URS Corporation in New Jersey; the PylaKoutsopetria Archaeological Project (PKAP), Cyprus to conduct geophysical surveys, and as a crew chief for surveys in the Allegheny National Forest. We have been pleased that some of these internships have developed from our relationships with members of our Advisory Board including those with PennDot and URS Corporation. Field Schools A second important aspect of the experiential opportunities for our graduate students has been the expansion of our field school to develop opportunities for graduate students. The field schools have provided opportunities for experienced graduate students to gain experience as supervisors with the undergraduate field school, to take an advanced field methods course (ANTH 740), and to take the basic field school (ANTH 520) if they have not had a high quality field school as an undergraduate. Graduate field schools were taught in the summers of 2010 and 2011 and will be taught every summer in the future. In 2011, the field schools were directed by Drs. Sarah Neusius (instructor of Anth 420/520) and Beverly Chiarulli (Anth 740) at the Johnston site, a late prehistoric village. In this first season of graduate field schools, we structured the Basic and Advanced graduate field schools so that each was four weeks long and these overlapped the 6 week undergraduate field school. The reason was that we thought it that some graduate students would want to take both field schools. The basic graduate field school was taken by 9 students, however, only 4 students took Advanced Field Methods and only three of these students took both field schools. The other students who took the Basic Field School had other field or internship opportunities during the rest of the summer or were advanced undergraduates who had taken the undergraduate field school and wanted to gain more experience.
In 2011, Drs. Ben Ford (instructor for Anth 520) and Beverly Chiarulli (Anth 740) directed the field schools at the Colonial Period historic site of Hannastown. This time the Basic and Advanced Field School were taught during the same six week period. Five graduate students took the Advanced FieldMethods; five graduate students took the Basic Field School and one undergraduate took the Basic Field School for graduate credit. Three graduate students assisted the field school, two as student supervisors, one as the project photographer.
The Advanced Field Methods course is designed to provide advanced instruction in survey and excavation field methods and technology with an emphasis on the application of research designs to field settings, and the logistics of supervising field projects. On completion of the course, students have gained experience in Designing archaeological field programs including the logistical arrangements that need to be made; Supervising peers or others in archaeological field excavations and surveys; Formulating an excavation research design based on excavation and survey methods related to specific theoretical approaches and research questions, Evaluating how certain methods can be used in a variety of research designs, and Employing effective communication skills to explain their field results through both written and oral presentations.
As part of the course, students develop a research plan and write a proposal for the investigation of a research question at the site. After they complete the excavation, they write analyze the artifacts and write reports describing the results of their investigation.
Research Assistantships In 2009-10 and 2010-11, the Anthropology Department received two full graduate assistantships from the graduate school which were awarded to four students as half time assistantships. These were used to provide students with research opportunities. For example, during the first year, students worked on the faunal collection, in the geophysical lab, writing sections of a report on a CRM project, and developing a type collection for the Historic Archaeology lab. In the second year, students assisted with analysis of the material from the 2010 field school, analyzing artifacts from Smicksburg a historic site, developing a set of GIS layers in preparation for the 2011 field school at Hannastown, and assisting with the revisions to a book on the North American Archaeology. The third year of the program (2011-2012), the department received a fifth assistantship. In this year, students receiving the assistantships worked on the Smicksburg, Johnston, Hannastown, and Bedford projects and on the faunal collections. Archaeological Services Graduate students also gained experience working on field projects and on the PennDot curation project for Archaeological Services. One student assisted in the summer of 2009 on a Phase I survey of a PennDot project in Greene County, Pennsylvania. In the fall of 2009, nine students assisted Dr. Ford with a project to identify historic structures in Venango County. Since fall 2009,
22 graduate students have worked on the PennDot curation project preparing artifacts for permanent curation at the Pennsylvania State Museum.
Public Outreach Projects and Faculty Research Graduate students have also gained experience by expanding class projects to assist local community and professional groups. The projects have included public outreach efforts as well as faculty research projects. For example, Dr. Chiarulli is involved in several public outreach projects. In the past three years, 5 students have assisted with Archaeology Day at a school in Pittsburgh, 20 students assisted with Archaeology Day at the Pennsylvania State Capitol, several with the local Indiana County Archaeological Society with an exhibit at the county fair. Ten students developed programs for classes at one of the Indiana County schools in fall 2009. One of the graduate students has developed an exhibit booth for the Pennsylvania Archaeological Council at the Pennsylvania Council Social Science Teachers Annual Meeting and the Pennsylvania Science Teachers Conference for the past three years. Another student expanded her class project in the fall 2009 Public Archaeology Class to a series of readings of Civil War soldiers’ letters at the County Historical Society, schools, the county library, and nursing homes. Other students submitted a video developed for the same class to the Society for American Archaeology video contest. Student groups from the 2010 Public Archaeology class revised their class poster for an exhibit in the IUP Library. Another group developed ways for the local archaeological society in Pittsburgh to use social media like Facebook to publicize their programs. Students’ group project in the Archaeological Geophysics class conducted surveys of Smicksburgh and Hannastown to assist Dr. Ford’s with the development of projects on these sites, the Hatfield site for the Allegheny Chapter of the Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology, and a historic cemetery in Somerset County for the local Lions Club.
Graduate Student Marion Smeltzer at the AIA Archaeology Fair in Philadelphia January 2012 Student Outcomes Assessment We believe that the Applied Archaeology MA program provides a good combination of rigorous inclass training, necessary experiential learning, and excellent mentorship. Because this is a new program, its success is difficult to gauge; however, the accomplishments of students while at IUP and their rate of employment after graduation are two strong indicators. Professional Activities and Accomplishments of MA Students Many of the 47 students thus far enrolled into the department have presented papers and posters at national and regional conference and several of them have received funding from IUP and external sources. These activities speak directly to the scholarship of the graduate students.
Dr. Ben Ford and 2nd Place Ethics Bowl Team at the 2011 Society for American Annual Meeting
Table 4 summarizes the professional presentations and posters that have been authored or coauthored by Applied Archaeology program students. Thus far, 32 MA students have authored or coauthored presentations at national and regional conferences. Students also co-organized sessions at the 2011 Society for American Archaeology (SAA) conference. This trend is continuing with ten students scheduled to present at the 2012 SAA conference, including two students chairing a poster session. Furthermore, 17 students have submitted co-authored posters to the 2012 Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology (SPA) conference. It should be clear from the number of students presenting at national and regional conferences, and the continued high attendance at these meetings, that the majority of MA students are participating in these conferences. Table 4. MA Students Presenting at National and Regional Conferences Conference Regional Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology 2011 Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology 2010 6 2 Number of Students Presenting
Pennsylvania Council for Social Studies 2011 Middle States Regional Conference for Social Studies 2010 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference 2011 Eastern States Archaeological Federation 2009 Subtotal
1 1 1 1 12
National Society for American Archaeology 2011 Society for American Archaeology 2010 Society for Historical Archaeology 2011 Theoretical Archaeology Group Subtotal Total 10 5 4 1 20 32
In addition to giving formal papers and posters, Applied Archaeology MA students have been involved in other aspects of archaeology meetings. For the past two years (2010 and 2011), MA students have competed in the SAA Ethics Bowl, placing second in 2011. This strong showing in a competition often dominated by Ph.D. programs is evidence of the excellent legal and ethical training received at IUP. A team is scheduled to compete at the 2012 SAA conference. Furthermore, 18 graduate students attended the 2011 Pennsylvania Archaeology Day in Harrisburg. These students presented public demonstrations and met with legislators in an attempt to increase awareness of Pennsylvania’s heritage resources.
Mike Sprowles in SAA Poster Sesison 2011 Applied Archaeology MA students have also been successful in winning IUP, regional, and national scholarships, grants, and awards. These accomplishments are summarized in Table 5. Awards such as the IUP Graduate Student Outstanding Research Award and the substantial number of Graduate Student Research Grants indicate the status of the Applied Archaeology MA program within IUP, the only Ph.D. granting institution in the PASSHE system. Similarly, the winning awards such as the Kinsey and Jelks suggest that our graduate students are competitive at regional and national levels. Table 5. Awards, Grants, and Scholarships Earned by MA Students Award IUP Graduate Student Research Grant Graduate Student Outstanding Research Award Graduate Research Forum - Honorable Mention 7 1 1 ~20/yr ~4/yr ~5/yr Number of Awards Award Rate
Regional Pennsylvania Archaeological Council - Hatch Scholarship Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology - Kinsey Award 4 1 ~3/yr 1/yr
National Sigma Xi Grant-in-Aid of Research Illinois State Museum - R. Bruce McMillan Internship Society for Historical Archaeology - Jelks Student Travel Award 1 1 1 20% ~1/yr 2/yr
It is also worth noting that two graduate student research projects have been written up in national magazines. Jason Espino’s research on the effects of Marcellus Shale development on cultural resources was featured in Archaeology Magazine and Donna Smith’s work at the Mary Rind Site was discussed in American Archaeology. Outcomes Assessment for Cohort Entering Fall 2009 The inaugural cohort of the Applied Archaeology MA program enrolled fall Semester 2009. This is the only class that has had sufficient time to graduate and serves as an indication of the future success of the program. The cohort included 17 students (Table 6). Of these students, two have withdrawn from the program and four have yet to complete their theses and graduate. Two of the still-enrolled students are currently working full time in the field of archaeology. The majority of the students, however, graduated within three years of enrolling and have paying jobs as archaeologists (six full-time and two part-time). These former students work for the National Park Service, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Department of Defense, archaeological consulting firms, and engineering companies with cultural resource departments. The high graduation and placement rate of our students is the best assessment of the program’s success.
Table 6. Current Status of 2009 MA Cohort Current Status Graduated - Working in Archaeology Graduated - Not Working in Archaeology Enrolled - Working in Archaeology Enrolled Withdrawn Total Graduate Student Recruitment and Retention Since the inception of the Master’s Degree in Archaeology, enrollment numbers are as follows: 2009 cohort of 17 students: 10 graduated, 2 withdrew, 5 still enrolled. 2010 cohort of 16 students: 3 withdrew, 13 still enrolled 2011 cohort of 14 students: 14 still enrolled # of Students 8 2 2 3 2 17
These numbers are encouraging and demonstrate that our efforts at recruiting candidates who are a good match for the program have been successful. The number of students reflects the demand for the program, and could open a conversation about the need for an additional faculty member in Archaeology. Students have been recruited through the Graduate School’s advertising on Google, an effort that not only attracts graduates, but also undergraduates who use similar search terms. Other recruitment efforts include the distribution of materials about the program during annual anthropology and archaeology conferences. Additionally, the department’s membership in the American Anthropology Association allows it to communicate at no cost with anthropology departments at other universities to advertise the master’s program. These efforts have allowed the department to recruit solid applicants who are well suited to the program, as the retention numbers show.
Section 2: Developing Curricula to Meet Program Objectives As described, the curriculum for the IUP M.A. in Applied Archaeology is based on the requirement by firms and agencies that students have competency in North American archaeology combined with the requirements of the model proposed by a working group on curriculum reform of the SAA. The approach we used was based on the incorporation of seven principles into all levels of archaeological education and the identification of core competencies for M.A. level training for professional archaeologists. The seven principles are stewardship, diverse pasts, social relevance, ethics and values, improvement of written and oral communication, competence in fundamental archaeological skills, and real world problem solving. As part of our program development we developed matrices looking at how these objectives were met by the courses. This in turn created a structure to the program so that courses build on each other and assignments are structured to develop the students’ skills and knowledge. While much of what they need to know can only develop once they are in the workforce, we tried to produce a program in which the students would be familiar and have at least classroom familiarity with many of the work products they will encounter. When one of the members of the first cohort told Chiaurlli near the end of her coursework that she just realized that there was a pattern to the courses and that they were structured to build on each other, it confirmed that the program design was meeting our goals in a way that could be recognized by the students. The following table lists the program objectives and courses can meet this objective. There are multiple courses that meet most of the objectives and students will take multiple courses that address the objectives using different methods.
Table 7: Course Objectives (Core courses italicized) Objective 1. Synthesize advanced knowledge of prehistoric and historic archaeological topics and assess how archaeological theory guides the choice of methods used in any given project; ANTH 612: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory ANTH 616: Pre-Columbian North American Archaeology ANTH 618: Historical Archaeology ANTH 714: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ANTH 720 Issues in Historic Preservation ANTH 730 Archaeology of Pennsylvania ANTH 745 Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation HIST 614 Research Methods Objective 2. Demonstrate effective communication with both professional and general audiences through written and spoken presentations; ANTH 610: Archaeological Laws and Ethics ANTH 612: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory ANTH 616: Pre-Columbian North American Archaeology
ANTH 618: Historical Archaeology ANTH 714: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ANTH 560 Ethnographic Field School ANTH 625 Public Archaeology ANTH 694 Anthropology Seminar ANTH 720 Issues in Historic Preservation ANTH 730 Archaeology of Pennsylvania ANTH 740 Advanced Archaeological Methods ANTH 745 Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation HIST 605 Introduction to Public History HIST 606 Topics in Public History HIST 614 Research Methods Objective 3. Apply skills in archaeological sciences and technologies; ANTH 584 Specialized Methods in Archaeology GEOG 516 Introduction to Geographic Information GEOG 517 Technical Issues in GIS Objective 4. Supervise archaeological field and laboratory investigations, and integrate data into a comprehensive interpretative report; ANTH 612: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory ANTH 714: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ACCT 607 Management Accounting ACCT 502 Foundations of Financial Accounting ANTH 740 Advanced Archaeological Methods ANTH 745 Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation Objective 5. Evaluate, as well as describe, archaeological data and employ quantitative and qualitative analyses; ANTH 714: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ANTH 556 Ethnographic Research Methods ANTH 584 Specialized Methods in Archaeology ANTH 745 Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation Objective 6. Interpret the laws and regulations that govern archaeological work in the United States and international settings, including laws governing the business aspects of professional archaeological consulting; ANTH 610: Archaeological Laws and Ethics ANTH 612: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory ANTH 714: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ACCT 607 Management Accounting ACCT 502 Foundations of Financial Accounting ANTH 514 Native American GEOG 625 Environmental Planning Objective 7. Value ethics in archaeological practice and design ethical investigations; ANTH 610: Archaeological Laws and Ethics ANTH 618: Historical Archaeology ANTH 612: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory
ANTH 714: Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ANTH 514 Native American ANTH 556 Ethnographic Research Methods ANTH 560 Ethnographic Field School ANTH 625 Public Archaeology ANTH 740 Advanced Archaeological Methods Objective 8. Recognize how archaeology fits within the larger discipline of anthropology and differentiate the ways in which various cultural perspectives affect their work. ANTH 610: Archaeological Laws and Ethics ANTH 514 Native Americans ANTH 618: Historical Archaeology ANTH 556 Ethnographic Research Methods ANTH 560 Ethnographic Field School ANTH 694 Anthropology Seminar In addition, there are core competencies that we thought were critical for students as we developed the program. Table 8 summarizes the way that these are repeated through courses in the program. Table 8: Core Competencies (Core courses italicized) 1. Cultural Resource Management and Preservation ANTH 612 Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory ANTH 714 Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ACCT 502 Foundations of Financial Accounting ACCT 607 Management Accounting ANTH 720 Issues in Historic Preservation ANTH 698 Internship 2. Survey course in Archaeological Sciences (None required, but all students expected to take at least one or more as electives) ANTH 584 Specialized Methods in Archaeology GEOG 516 Introduction to Geographic Information GEOG 517 Technical Issues in GIS GEOG 625 Environmental Planning 3. Supervised Broad-based Field Experience (Not required, but all students expected to take at least one or more as electives) ANTH 740 Advanced Archaeological Methods/ (Students without field school experience are expected to take the Basic Field School ANTH 520) ANTH 698 Internship 4. Statistics Anth 585 Specialized Methods in Archaeology (Most include statistics as part of training in analysis) ANTH 714 Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ANTH 556 Ethnographic Research Methods ANTH 745 Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation ANTH 618 Historical Archaeology ANTH 730 Archaeology of Pennsylvania ANTH 745 Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation ANTH 795 Thesis
5. Method and Theory ANTH 612 Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory ANTH 616 Pre-Columbian North American Archaeology ANTH 618 Historical Archaeology ANTH 714 Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ANTH 730 Archaeology of Pennsylvania ANTH 745 Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation 6. Ethics, Law, and Professionalism ANTH 610 Archaeological Laws and Ethics ANTH 616 Pre-Columbian North American Archaeology ANTH 618 Historical Archaeology ANTH 720 Issues in Historic Preservation ANTH 730 Archaeology of Pennsylvania GEOG 625 Environmental Planning ANTH 698 Internship 7. A course in Anthropology other than archaeology ANTH 514 Native Americans ANTH 556 Ethnographic Research Methods ANTH 560 Ethnographic Field School ANTH 694 Anthropology Seminar 8. Public education and outreach ANTH 625 Public Archaeology ANTH 720 Issues in Historic Preservation HIST 605 Introduction to Public History HIST 606 Topics in Public History 9. Reporting and publication of excavations ANTH 612 Seminar in Cultural Resource Management I: Method and Theory ANTH 616 Pre-Columbian North American Archaeology ANTH 618 Historical Archaeology ANTH 714 Seminar in Cultural Resource Management II: Analysis and Interpretation ANTH 730 Archaeology of Pennsylvania ANTH 745 Seminar in Archaeological Interpretation ANTH 795 Thesis (required) The program is structured so that almost all of the objectives and competencies are covered in at least one of the core courses as well as in multiple elective choices. While this seemed like the best approach as we designed the program, it does assume that all students have a baseline background in anthropology and archaeology and some field experience. We have found that not to be the case. Table 9 provides a snapshot of the background of the students still enrolled in the first two cohorts after their first year in the program.
Table 9: Student Background in the first two MA cohorts
Cohort 2009 2010 Total % # Students 16 13 29 100% Anthropology Background 12 11 23 79% Field School Previuos CRM or related Experience Work Experience 12 9 21 72% 11 5 16 55%
Approximately 20% of the students in the first two classed had not taken a formal field school before entering the program. Although some students do take the basic field school during the summer before starting the program, others wait until the summer between their two years in residence. These students are less able to gain experience in internships or take the advanced field school. A remedial field school doesn’t count as an elective in the program, so they also have to pay tuition for an additional 6 credits beyond the required 36 credits in the program.
This is one example of the tradeoffs that have to be made even in a program designed to meet specific objectives. The program, most of the courses, and objectives were all created at the same time as a package. Most programs have grown incrementally and reflect faculty interests and specialties as well as overall departmental and university requirements. In our case, we had three archaeologists on the faculty, Drs. Phil Neusius, Sarah Neusius, and Beverly Chiarulli who had experience in cultural resource management, cultural anthropologists also with specialties in applied anthropology, and a university interested in increasing the number of MA programs in applied fields. The process of creating new programs requires multiple approvals. We began the process to create the program in the fall of 2005 with the submission of a letter of intent which had to be
approved by the IUP Provost and After that was approved, we had to create the program, all the courses or add graduate sections to some of the undergraduate courses, have all this approved by the Department, College Curriculum Committee, University Graduate Curriculum Committee, University Senate, Provost, University Board of Trustees, PASSHE Administration and Board of Governors. Decisions had to be made about the allocation of additional resources and faculty lines before any students were recruited. We had to make the case that another faculty line was needed for the program which led to the addition of Dr. Ford to the faculty. We developed the letter of intent in fall 2005 and our first cohort of students started in fall 2009, culminating a long 4 year process.
Section 3: Expectations and Reality Expectations We began the program with a set of expectations about the program and students. The IUP Anthropology Department was an undergraduate program with a few courses with dual graduate sections. IUP is a teaching university, with a four course teaching load per semester. We had an active undergraduate Archaeology Track with approximately 50 majors. Undergraduate students were actively engaged in research and experiential learning through the field school, working for Archaeological Services, completing undergraduate honors theses, presenting papers and posters at university, and PASSHE Anthropology Department conferences as well as state and national conferences. Three of us had no recent experience with teaching graduate courses since our own graduate experience, although we might have taught a few graduate students from other IUP departments as part of a dual listed undergraduate/graduate course. Dr. Ford’s experience in graduate school is more recent, but since this was his first fulltime faculty position, he did not have experience with the overwhelming demands of a university like IUP. We expected that the graduate program would somewhat increase our workload and that the students would be primarily students returning to school from CRM positions.
Reality Once the program started, we discovered that reality both met and differed from our expectations. The first difference was in the background of the students applying to the program. We did expect students to at least initially be students from Pennsylvania. As shown in Table 10, this was the case
although the second cohort had a greater percentage of out of state students than the 2009 cohort. Overall 74% of the students were from within Pennsylvania. Table 10: Comparison of Instate and Out of State students in MA Program Instate Out of Total State 2009 Cohort 14 2 16 2009% 88% 13% 100% 2010 Cohort 9 6 15 2010% 60% 40% 100% Total 23 8 31 % 74% 26% 100% We were surprised by the number of students from large public universities, like The Pennsylvania State University or the University of Florida (Table 11). We have a small percentage of students from small private universities, many of whom were not anthropology majors. They are generally good students with strong writing skills who are interested in archaeology, but did not have the opportunity to take many classes in the discipline. This program acts as a bridge between their undergraduate and graduate plans, even though they may not be that familiar with what Applied Archaeology means. Almost 40% of the students are from PASSHE schools. While some of these students have been working in CRM for as much as 14 years, most are likely to be recent graduates. The focus on jobs and their experience in the system makes our program an attractive option for these students and their parents. The emphasis on development of practical skills is an important factor for many of the students, even those from large public universities with strong anthropology departments. Often, undergraduates in those institutions have had less opportunity to gain experience in the field. Table 11: Comparison of Undergraduate Institutions attended by Students in MA Program Small Private PASSHE Small Public Large Total Not PASSHE Public 2009 Cohort 2 6 1 7 16 2010 Cohort 2 5 2 3 12 Total 4 11 3 10 28 % 14% 39% 11% 36% 100% Although only three years old, The MA in Applied Archaeology graduate program has been very successful in meeting its target number of students, in providing meaningful and appropriate training to its students, and in placing its students in the workforce. The faculty enjoy teaching graduate classes and working with graduate students on research, and our graduate students have
been incorporated into our close knit department community nearly seamlessly. For the most part the undergraduate program has not been negatively affected by the graduate program. Graduate students in dual level classes generally have raised the performance of undergraduates, and they have to varying degrees served as mentors or models for archaeology undergraduates as well. Our faculty strongly support the continuance of this program. Nevertheless, there has been a tremendous amount of effort and commitment required of the four faculty members (Chiarulli, Ford, S. Neusius and P. Neusius) who carry most of this program. Teaching applied archaeology successfully requires a great deal of hands-on instruction both formally through courses like Specialized Methods and Field School, and informally through activities like the SAA Ethics Bowl team. In addition, mentoring our graduate students is time consuming both because of the intensive nature of the program and because in most instances they complete research as opposed to library theses. The four faculty supporting this program have been supervising 2-5 theses out of each cohort and serving on about as many additional thesis committees. Combining this task with our teaching, our mentoring of undergraduates in the archaeology track through undergraduate honors theses, our fostering of both undergraduate and graduate student participation in professional activities, and our own scholarly and service activities has been a herculean task, and the strain is as evident. Moreover, additional growth and new directions in all Anthropology programs, including Applied Archaeology, are difficult to develop with such an over-committed faculty. The other area of concern is maintaining the quality of our student cohorts. We have been fortunate in the quality of our students for the most part, but this depends on faculty being able to maintain their scholarly and service profiles within archaeology (e.g. this is part of why archaeologists elsewhere recommend IUP), on a consistent advertising and promotion program and on being able to support those students who we accept. We do know that several of the strongest students we have admitted have received support at other institutions which they have chosen over IUP. Besides graduate assistantship support for professional and scholarly activities is very important to the students in these programs. It is obvious to us that the continuance of this program depends in large part on sustained and increased support from the University. Given our success, such a commitment from the administration strikes us as logical and sensible. This is all the more true in difficult budgetary
times because we have proven that we can deliver a strong and attractive program and that we will work hard to produce competent graduates. References Bender, Susan J., compiler 2000 A Proposal to Guide Curricular Reform for the Twenty-first Century. In Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-first Century, edited by Susan J. Bender and George S. Smith, pp. 29-48. Washington, DC: The Society for American Archaeology.
Bender, Susan J. and George S. Smith 2000 Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-first Century. Washington, DC: The Society for American Archaeology.
Pyburn, K. Anne Making Archaeology Teaching Relevant in the XXI Century: Renewing The Undergraduate Archaeological Curriculum: MATRIX Project http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/homepage.html (accessed April, 2012)