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1588  England defeated Spanish Armada

- the most definitive event in US history


 power now transferred to England
- Spain had been dominant in the Americas
 now British dominates the seas and can begin colonization westwards
 colonizes America with their traditions and ideas

- England believes in limited monarchy


 have the magna carta
 ‘king is not above the law’
- these ideas were brought to America

- people went to the Americas for

- gold + silver
- missionaries
- land
- religious freedom [Ferdinand and Isabella’s intoleration]

 brought diseases, slaves, and culture to much of South America and Central America

- their rivalry was in North America

- first British attempts at establishing colonies was feeble


- Newfoundland and Roanoke [Elizabethan Times]
 another jab at the Spanish
- Roanoke was destined to fail
- storms + natives
 the natives saw the English as intruders and attacked
- the English did not know much about camping
 starved

 the colony was ultimately lost

- the rivalry really begins in 1600s

-1607 - Jamestown  Virginia Company


 Phillip III in Spain
- was warned to do something about the English settlement, but he didn’t think that the
English could hurt Spanish holdings
 he left Jamestown alone

- Jamestown was a join-stock company


- wanted gold, quick route through the West-Indies, and then liquidate the settlement

 most of the settlers died because of environment


 didn’t know how to work (nobles), hunt, or gather

- John Smith saved them


- ‘Want to eat, then work.’

- the charter of the Virginia Corporation was like the constitution


 had a reference to the guaranteed rights of the Englishman
- notion of rights came to America with them
 fixation with liberty started here
-------------- > revolution sort of started here (not only before the Declaration of Independence)

- the natives tried to repel the Europeans


saw them as viruses
- English fought them off
- the govt. established in the colonies was like that in England
-> House of Burghesses - like a mini parlmt.  first representative assembly
- the only taxes that they had to pay was enforced by H. of B.
 Parlmt. never had that until later  to the Crown
- only had to pay taxes to Virginia
- when England tried to get taxes for the Crown, this angered the Americans

- economy was dominated by tobacco


 lucrative if grown on large scale basis (plantations)
 needed a lot of cheap/free labor
- not enough and those that were there were worked to death
 indentured servitude by the head-right system

- rewarded people who were already rich and able to sponsor people to come to the colonies
 were granted two headrights
 100 acres of land
- financially formed an aristocracy
- the slaves were working for their freedom and thus would work hard

- when they were free, they had no land


 impoverished freemen, “Idle hands are a devil’s workshop”

Bacon’s Rebellion

- angered that the Virginia gov. was being friendly to the Indians
- called for land to be given to the freemen
- scared the people with rebellion and they changed to black slavery

1600s - middle passage of blacks

- there were slave rebellions, but few and crushed quickly

- when the north and south were breaking away the south claimed that the slaves liked slavery
1739 - Charleston - South Carolina  Stono’s Rebellion

- Catholics  Maryland  freedom of religion

3 Class Society of the South

1. Great Planters  economical aristocracy


- tobacco
- sugar
- cotton
2. Small Farmers
- most of the people
3. Landless (whites)
- former indentured servants
- poor

Blacks = Chattel
 legal term meaning propery
 didn’t even qualify as people

- no middle class
- no industrialization
- no cities
 dominant church is the Church of England

- Pilgrims of Plymouth Rock - 1620


- their motivation is religious freedom
- radical; separatist Puritans
Church of England  too ceremonial + materialistic
- had been chased out of England as they were a threat to power
 first went to Holland, but were even too radical for the Dutch

- got a charter from England for the Virginia Company


 king figured that it would be best to get rid of them and make money as well

- at the last minute, they diverted from the course to VA co. and went to Plymouth Rock instead
- squatters still had some rights
- before they landed, they drew up a ‘compact’ (Mayflower Compact)
- agreed to set u p their own govt.
 this sets the precedent for self-government and written constitutions
- from early on, the Americans govern themselves, and are also dedicated to liberty

- merged in 1629 with the Mass. Bay Colony


- the Puritans of Mass were non-separatist

- in England right now was the Stuart monarchy

- Mass. Had its own charter from the king


 educated
 resourceful
 determined
e.g. John Winthrop -- ‘We shall be as a City upon a hill.’
- everyone was to look up at Mass. With awe
- model for everyone
- closer to God
 American vision of itself

- franchise in Mass. Bay Colony


 more than in England
- religious leaders had more political influence
 influenced policy and who was in power
- taxes supported the Congregationalist Church

- there were extremists who would not be tolerated


 Anne Hutchinson
- ironic because Mass. Believed in religious freedom
 proof that it isn’t really about freedom of religion; really about Puritanism
Roger Williams
 advocated religious freedom
- it was okay to not be Puritan, in his eyes
- got kicked out and he formed Rhode Island

Mass. Warred with the Indians frequently

- the New England Confederation  collective security against Indians + French

Great Awakening
- want to reinvigorate religion
- response to the Enlightenment
- preached hellfire and damnation

Mid - Atlantic Colonies


- New Netherland settled by DWIC
- despotic gov. interested only in money
- corrupt, unpopular regime
 toppled by English and called New England

Pennsylvania
- got grant for his father’s service to Crown
- Quakers  dissidents
- moderation btw N and S beliefs
- New Jersey was similar
- small farmers, cottage industries
 ethnically mixed
 commerce in the cities

England started repressing the colonies as they began to unify (Charles II 1660-1686)

Navigation Laws
- commerce of colonies only on English ships
 to prevent from trading w/ Dutch
- Salutary Neglect for 100 yrs.

- Charles II revoked the charter of the Mass. Bay Colony as he felt that they were not following his
orders
 Dominion of New England  by England to make sure that the colonies followed orders
- Edmund Andros  governor
* autocratic
* tactless
* enforced Navigation Laws
 led to rebellion by the people
- lots of English bureaucrats are sent to Mass in the 1680s
 then Will and Mary come to power
- once more Salutary Neglect
- for the most part, the colonists are independent
- have the protection of England but noat a lot of rules
- when Salutary Neglect ends, the colonies do not like it
* quartering
* taxes
* enforcing the Navigation Acts
 had six generations of no supervision with civil liberties; way of life for them
- there had been no need for unity amongst the colonies, however
- did not consider themselves as ‘colonies’
- were independent of each other
- had economic differences
- all valued civil liberties
- had self-representation
- all used to independence
 grow and prosper economically

- what disrupts this is change in British policy


 brought about by struggle between England and French for N. American dominance

- late 1600s  Louis XIV wars


- early 1700s  more wars

- correlating war in the N. American continent

League of Augsburg (1689-97)


 King William’s War

War of Spanish Succession (1701-13)


 Queen Anne’s War

War of Austrian Succession (1740-48)


 King Geroge’s War

7 Years War (1756-63)


 French and Indian War (1754-1763)

American colonists vs. French


British Army Native Americans

Native Americans joined the French because the British were more of a threat to their land.

- wars erode French colonial holdings


- F & I War clears French colonial presence

Albany Plan of Union

- Americans asked for home rule


- didn’t really want to cut themselves from the Crown
- want to get along w/ Indians and quietly take their land
- want a system for land so that they do not quarrel amongst themselves
- wanted to set up colonial tax structures
 wanted to take care of themselves and to distribute power accordingly
* big colonies don’t trust little colonies
* small colonies afraid of being eaten up by big colonies
 Parliament would not grant this as this was too much (before 1763)
- limits of Salutary Neglect

- F & I War

- lot of friction between colonials and British officers


- colonials felt they would protect themselves w/o British army
 more confident now
- the wars created conflicting perceptions
- colonials see themselves as the outpost of the colonial world  wanted respect and praise from
British as they’re the ones who are facing Indians and French  deserved British protection
- English, however, saw the colonists as country bumpkins and as ungrateful
- they were a nuisance b/c they were the ones attacking the French first, and they keep encouraging on
the Indians
 provacateurs

- it’s expensive and time consuming to protect them


- British policy has to change

 colonists must pay for protection through taxes (their first taxes)
 had to separate Indians and Colonists

- end of the F & I War + 7 Yrs. War:

- “Colonies were proud to raise British flag and would never leave Britain.” - Benjamin Franklin
- colonists just a different kind of British and therefore entitled to rights and protection
 colonies are not united right now

Start of Revolution

- independent
- self-government
- salutary neglect
- liberties

Catalyst
 changes in British policy

- mercantilism is enforced after F & I wars


- Proclamation Line - restricted their westward movement
- meant to cut British expenditure but seen as repressive towards the colonists
- taxes to pay for some of the costs for protection
- first wouldn’t pay
- then called for representation in Parliament
 Parliament’s excuse was virtual representation, but the colonials wouldn’t buy it  ‘no
taxation without representation’
- repression when the colonials would not accept taxation
- same soldiers that were there to protect where now enforcing taxes

- Boston Massacre was instigated by colonials and Redcoats retaliated


 only a few people killed, but it was blown out of proportion by Samuel Adams who declared it a
‘massacre’

Stamp Act  expensive


- every page of paper you used needed the stamp
- method of enforcement was offensive to the colonials
- those accused couldn’t get a trial in the colonies
--------- > taken to Newfoundland and didn’t have procedural rights (no jury or attorney)

Quartering Act

- British should have known it was offensive as when Charles I did that, they had had his head
chopped off
- fighting before Declaration of Independence
- back to Bunker Hill and Lexington/Concord
- did not win, but now had confidence that they could resist

First and Second Continental Congress  step towards unity

- army + navy if grievances were not addressed


- George Washington

 they want
- free trade
- no troops in homes
- no taxes
- reclamation of Proclamation Line

- grievances were not addressed

 Olive Branch Petition to England for no more battles and want peace
- king says ‘no’ and wants revenge, declares that the skirmishes back in the colonies were equal to
treason
- hires the Hessians
- towns were also burnt

 really upset the colonials

- colonists were now more determined


- even want to take Canada

The Continental Congress had not been calling for independence.

- Common Sense comes out [Thomas Paine]


- anger against the king’s Hessians and the colonists ability to handle their own in warfare gave them
the foundation to accept C.S.

* London smaller than mighty America


* monarchies don’t work in US (repressive)
 all elected representatives needed

- disagreements arose amongst the colonials on how democratic they were to be


 Common Sense pushes colonials over precipice

- Second Continental Congress  want to write a document


- Thomas Jefferson wrote it like a lawyer (Declaration of Independence)

Issue - Should colonies declare independence?


Rules - When countries can declare independence; when you can overthrow governments (influenced by
John Locke).
Analysis - Application of facts to the rules.
Conclusion - …??

WHAT IS A REPUBLIC?! - rulers are chosen by the people (representative) e.g. English Parliament

Declaration of Independence
- signers were traitors to the king
- loyalists were traitors to the colonies
- some became emigrees
- some went to England
- some stayed and had hard lives
- England declared war
- best navy, army, and resources
- got help from Indians, slaves, and Hessians
- Colonies had
- sectional jealousies
- poor army; combined milita
- few resources, bad economy (wartime colonial money was used)
- in the beginning, they tried to fight the English in the European style of warfare
- this was an awful idea
- British disadvantages included:
- leadership in London was weak
 Whigs opposed the war
- they wanted more power for Parliament
- they didn’t want the people to rally around the king
- colonists had better generals
 they knew the topography better and had Lafayette, von Stueben, and Washington
- colonists didn’t play European war
- the British captured the cites but colonists didn’t give up  fought in guerilla styled warfare which
was more effective
- British had to conquer colonists to win, the colonists just had to keep going till the British gave up
- the colonists had a cause - independence
- the British had less motivation
- British prison camps were horrible  capable of brutality
- it took a while for the colonists to actually win battles
- it was the turning point of the war
- brought the French in

French motives -
- supported America because of the fact that it would hurt England
- aided them in Yorktown, convincing Parliament that they were not going to win the war

Treaty of Paris
- recognized USA as a country
- defined boundaries
- the treatment of loyalists/land compensation
- English were supposed to leave
- they stayed in the northwest in order to undermine US growth
- wanted to re-establish an empire
- terms were generous because Whigs wanted trade
- this still didn’t work beautifully

 Problems with new freedom

- despite the fact that the war effort helped us start industries, we lost all markets as part of the British
empire
 cheap British goods flooded the markets in America to contest own goods
- w/o Navigation Acts, benefits gone, but could now trade w/ the rest of the world
- inflation  prices more than the ability to earn
- disagreement with distribution of western lands
 threatened to go to war w/ each other over land
- no rule book to run government
- anyone who had ideas to better government were conservatives or Loyalists; shunned as
something pro-British rule
- slavery very strict in the south
- women were influenced by independence  Republican mothers  not exactly beneficial to them

- Church and State was no separated


 Baptist Churches emerged
 Anglican Churches turned Episcopalian

- property requirements for franchise were now coming to an end


- significant for demographic of voting people
- changes priorities of voting block

- primogeniture
- the system by which the first born son gets the assets is now discontinued

----------- > what didn’t happen was wholesale upheaval of society; those disloyal to the revolution were not
prosecuted

- we established a ‘federalist’ government  ‘multiple levels of government’

Today:

1. Federal government - Washington


2. State government - Harrisburg
3. Local government - UM Township Building

-x-

- states initially had the most power back then


- they had their own constitutions (now cannot conflict with the Federal constitution)
- written document
- ratified by the vote of the people
- own form of Bill of Rights

1. Magna Carta
- ‘Habeus corpus - evidence before arrest
- due process
- leads to the formation of
2. Bill of Rights
- serves as a model for
3. Virginia Bill of Rights
- forerunner of the National Bill of Rights

- each state government had a similar structure of three levels

1. Legislature - one legislative body


2. Executive - governor (relatively weak)
3. Judiciary - court system (relatively weak)

- annual elections for legislative body were held


- still scared of government tyranny and therefore wanted annual change
- franchise rights
- federal government

1. Legislative - Congress (only one branch)


- all states had one vote (9 out of 13 required to make laws)
- had a president elected by Congress to merely run meetings
* 9/13 made it harder to pass laws
* Congress had no power to regulate commerce or tariffs
 conflicting tariffs amongst states led to disunity
* one vote made small states victims of the larger states anger
* no power to tax
 history of British parliament’s taxes still in memory
* had no judiciary  state disputes became hard to settle

-------- > Nation is actually a confederacy and not a united force. Intermediate step towards constitution.

Articles of Confederation (fundamental piece of paper that governed our nation)

Strengths of the Articles

- has two significant accomplishments


- Congress negotiated the Treaty of Paris of 1783 in the Articles Period
 boundaries
 fishing rights (?)
 British had to leave (not followed, though)
- Congress dealt with the problem of western lands through the Northwest Ordinance (the legacy of
Congress in the Articles period

The sale of land to help pay off debt and to strengthen the nation. People were now given more land, and
therefore are happier - unity of the nation. A very positive step.

 states had been claiming those lands and arguing with each other
 Congress provided for fair and powerful growth by making any place beyond the thirteen
colonies a state with equal footing (rights + responsibilities)
 didn’t want to do what British had done by saying that colonies < the rest of the
nation
 allowed them to sell the land for people who wanted to go there in order to make money
(sold cheaply)
 benefited everybody

- people would move in groups and buy tracts of land that was divided up (once enough tracts of lands
were filled, they could form a state
 one of the tracts of land was set up for a school house  literacy is a goal too, now

Problems of the Articles

- foreign affairs
- threats to the nation from European lands
- British delayed their recognition of the US
 squeezed America economically
 were giving Natives guns to threaten the Americans
- Spain controlled the Mississippi River and closed it to US commerce
- French pressured us to pay back loans from the war
- on the high seas, pirates threatened the commercial people of the US
- US was not respected by the foreign countries as the nation was just a fledgling nation
- other countries were waiting to eat up the US up

- economy is currently in shambles (1780s)


- loss of British markets
- loss of protection of the Navigation Acts
- we were going through a low in the cyclical system of economics
- have a huge debt
- the currency is largely worthless (colonial/continental money is worthless)  banks only want
to be paid in gold and mortgages

 farmers rebellion led by Daniel Shays (Shay’s Rebellion)


- farmers were losing their farms because they could not pay their mortgage payments
- banks have to foreclose in order to make money themselves
 want the government to print out paper money and hand it out
 want lowered taxees
 want to end foreclosing
- decide to prevent them from foreclosing
- blocked the courts that handled the foreclosures
- the governor of Massachusetts did not want to have to take the people who lived by the farmers
to go and put down their neighbors
 calls the Congress and asks for an army instead
 Congress says that they can’t send an army and that the Articles of Confederation do
not allow for putting together an army, and that they can’t raise money for an army because they can’t tax,
and they can’t change the rules either because they have NO power AT ALL
 Congress was utterly helpless in helping
- was forced to get a local militia to put down the rebellion

It convinced the founding fathers that the Articles needed serious revision.

- they had the choice to just patch up the Articles or completely go back over to Monarchy
- amending, however, was virtually impossible, due to the need for unanimous agreement to amend the
Articles
 states that didn’t agree (small and large states’ differences)
- still, they both knew that the economy needed fixing and also in order to deal with ‘mobacracies’.

- formal goal was to AMEND the Articles, not scrap them


 those that wanted to scrap the Articles had to keep it quiet as it was opposition to the current
government and would be scary change

- incredible gathering of men to discuss the problem, who were all concerned with the greater interest 
‘demi-gods’
- delegates elected by state legislatures

people  State Legislatures  delegates

- didn’t want the people electing the delegates directly, as it was giving the power to the ‘mob’; not
educated/refined enough
- put in the ‘filter’ or double distillation system; keeps people separated from the process
- the only people voting then, anyway, were property owners and a few business types
- showed the conflict between republicanism and aristocracy
- the delegates were lawyers, merchants, shippers, as well as property types
- only people not represented were the poor
- the chair was George Washington
- the goal was to preserve republicanism, to keep a representative government that could resist
mob rule  limiting democracy; strong enough to gain respect abroad, to support a healthy economy and
yet not trample civil liberties
- the constitution that emerged created a much more centralized government that was still
respectful of people’s rights

- the first major discussion was that there was a flaw in Congress at the Constitutional Convention
- structure-wise not set up right
- wanted to make it easier to pass laws and raise money
- the small states, however, feared the large states, and the large states feared that the small states
would just veto everything

The Virginia Plan  Two Houses

The House of Representatives - delegates determined by population


Senate - delegates determined by population

e.g. Virginia would get more representation in both houses when compared to Rhode Island

New Jersey Plan  One House

 one delegate per state - want the set up of the Articles of Confederation.

These plans only caused fights between large and small states.

- Connecticut fashioned the Connecticut Plan  Great Compromise

Congress:

House of Representatives - determined by population (revenue bills)


Senate - two representatives per state chosen by the Legislatures of the state (propertied people  state
legislature  senators; double distillation) senators serve six years

- one rule!  the representatives would be elected every two years  to ensure that they could be kicked
out quickly if they are not good enough, and therefore, all revenue bills must originate here

- South wanted to count the slaves for representation, but with no rights towards the slaves; the north
thought it ridiculous, but then the South wouldn’t sign  had to compromise (3/5 Compromise)

The Legislature -

- collect taxes
 to pay debts, to provide for common defense, and to provide for the general welfare of
US
- to borrow money
- to regulate commerce amongst foreigners and among the states (to prevent protective tariffs)
- to establish uniform Rule of Naturalization
- coin money
- post offices and roads
- to promote science and useful arts
- to constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme courts (lower federal courts under Supreme
Courts)
 Supreme Court  Appellate Court  District Courts
- Congress can form as many appellate and district courts as they wish
- to declare war (NOT THE PRESIDENT)
- to raise and support armies
- to provide and maintain a navy
- to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into executing the foregoing
powers (The Elastic Clause)  like a rubber band to stretch and fit things  the powers of Congress
should be allowed to stretch, but how far, no one can know 100%

The Executive -

- the president is chosen by double distillation through the complicated process of people voting but are
merely stating their preference  this goes to the electoral college who then put the votes

Powers:

- commander in chief of the army and the navy of the USA


- he shall have power by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties but they have to
be ratified by 2/3 of the Senate
- can appoint advisors (became the Cabinet)
 bureaucrats were under the Cabinet and these offices (which must be approved by the Senate)
hires people

The Judiciary -

- Supreme Court
 has jurisdiction involving cases of the Constitution, any law passed by Congress, and treaties
made

-x-

 the Constitution
 permits limitations upon the franchise
 women, blacks, people under 21, and those who did not hold property were excluded
- these restrictions did fall eventually, but it took quite a while
- protections against mobocracy
- original document did not have the Bill of Rights, yet there are protections for liberty within
 the writ of Habeus corpus may not be suspended except in times of domestic insurrection
(rebellion)
 prohibits bills of attainder (singling out particular groups for punishment without trial)
 prohibits Ex Post Facto laws e.g. taking ten points off of me afterwards (?)
 no taxes on exports
 no nobility established
 state laws were given credit
- creates a system by which the people are represented in all branches

Checks and Balances:

- the branches kind of watch over each other to make sure that no one of them has any sort of undue power
or can get arbitrary (dictatorial)

e.g. if the House brings up a bill that says lets change the speed limits in America to 15 mph, it would have
to be passed to Senate (and vice versa : Senate  H. of R. )
- this then gets passed to the President, who can veto it
- this is protection from arbitrary laws
- in the beginning, the president only vetoed laws if they were unconstitutional, not if they were
stupid
- if the president decides to be arbitrary, the H. of R. and the Senate can override the veto (a check
on the check)
- the Judiciary does not have any checking and balancing power on paper; later they assumed this
power through the Judicial Review
- the president appoints people to the Supreme Court, but Congress has to agree
- the Congress can call for the impeachment of judges or president

- ratification of the Constitution was hard as the states had to sign on


- if any one of them didn’t, they would be stuck with the Articles
- there was significant opposition in the states
- some people just didn’t even send delegates (Rhode Island)
 the delegates got around it
- once we get 9 out of 13 to ratify, the Constitution would be law for those states, and the
other four would have to chose
 if they hang out there by themselves, they would be forced to chose the
Constitution
- the document they merge was a real shock
- it came out as a completely different structure, and change scares people
- an entire movement called ‘Antifederalism’ formed
 people who opposed ratification of the Constitution
- poor
- farmers
- those in the west
- those who wanted state power (take away people’s rights as well as the right to
govern themselves)

- Patrick Henry - ‘give me liberty or give me death’


- Samuel Adams

- the others agreed that the Articles were flawed and wrote articles in the magazines to convince New York
to ratify the Constitution (Federalist Papers)
- by mid 1788 eleven states had ratified
- the other two ratify in 1789
- property classes voted for by property people are members of the ratification convention
- ratification had been conditioned upon the approval of a federal bill of rights
 one of Congress’ first tasks was to make a Federal Bill of Rights as states demanded it
- modeled on the Virginia Bill of Rights

Federal Bill of Rights:

- the government cannot have an established religion for the nation


- freedom of speech, press, to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances
- the right to bear arms
- no quartering of soldiers
- Habeus corpus
- double jeopardy rule (if you’re not guilty, you can’t be tried on the same set of facts)
- they cannot force you to speak or be your own witness
- neither life, liberty, or property can be taken from you without due process
- the right to a speedy and impartial trial
- the assistance of counsel (attorney)
- no cruel or unusual punishments
 protect the people

1789
- Congress was elected and seated
- most of the Congress supported George Washington (was fairly drafted)
 sworn in on April 30th, 1789
- immediately selected a group of advisors (Cabinet)

Cabinet

- State  Jefferson
- Treasury  Hamilton
- Justice (Attorney General)  John Jay (for a few months)

- the majority of the Congress have to approve the Cabinet


 most government issues were from turmoil within the Cabinet itself  internecine battles

- the first battle ground between Jefferson and Hamilton is about domestic issues
- Hamilton takes the initiative (the idea man); he is concerned that the US as a country should be
able to borrow money
 national credit was not good at that time from the hard times since the Revolutionary
War
- he presents several pieces of legislation (Congress has to pass this) and is constantly being
opposed by Jefferson
 first went to his friends in the House and said that we need to ‘fund at par’ (govt.
would pay for all debts at face value, including interest)
 message to the world that our government makes good on anything that it
owes, and at the same time, it encouraged many greedy eastern banks to go to the widows, farmers, and
revolutionary farmers and trick them into giving them their bonds
 this is speculation - not because they have faith in the American govt., but to
make a quick buck
- Jefferson’s problems with funding at par revolve around the fact that people taking
advantage of farmers (he’s from the south) and also because he does not like the government spending all
this money
 big debt is reckless
- he proposes the idea of assumption, or paying for all the state debts by the government
 it’s nice for the states, but he is not being completely altruistic; this is an
exercise of federal power and the states are now subservient to them
- Jefferson did not like this power grab as he thought that the states should still hold
power; thought that this would ultimately lead to a situation like in the British colonial period; more debt as
well, onoz!
- still went with Assumption, however (could have blocked it), but Madison went along
with Assumption and had brokered a deal with Hamilton (where the capital is for getting Jefferson to
support assumption
- wants to raise money through taxes  revenue through taxation on the sale of whiskey
- a tax like this which is only one product is called an excise tax
- figured that the only ones who would complain about it would be whiskey farmers
 Whiskey Rebellion
- believed that when this rebellion arose, George Washington had to use this opportunity to show
that this government had the power
 a massive force was put together to put down the rebellion in W. Pennsylvania to
obliterate a force of whiskey farmers who are armed with pitchforks
- easily dispersed it
- took some heat for the rather excessive nature, but it did demonstrate that this
govt. does mean business and you will not be able to undermine it
CONTRAST WITH SHAY’S REBELLION, WHICH SHOWED THE WEAKNESS OF
THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
- there were other ways to raise money through a set of tariffs (taxes on imports only on mostly
manufactured goods)  this was designed to help American factories by preventing people from buying
outside of the US  to encourage American industries  this is called ‘protection of industry’
 Congress approved and Washington signed it
Like tariffs:

* domestic manufacturers
* factory workers, for they now have jobs
* Hamilton, Washington

Dislike tariffs:

* other countries; they would demonstrate their displeasure by putting up their own tariff, the
retaliatory tariff
* consumers, as they are the ones that have to face higher prices and without competition, will
probably have to buy bad quality products
* in 1790, the farmers did not like tariffs as they were purchasers of the manufactured goods, and
they will also have problems with their foreign exports due to the retaliatory tariffs
* Jefferson, Madison

 it is now industry vs. agriculture


 factory workers are on both sides, onoz!
- they can’t afford to buy the product they just made
- wages don’t keep up with the prices

- he put up the Bank of the United States


- was to stabilize the unstable economy
- a source of investment for the industries
 to extend the credit, the bank would have to influence the lending policies of
many independent banks (state banks), and therefore would be insistent of collecting the debts of all
farmers
 was going to favor industry over the farmers
 Jefferson did not like this; Eastern establishment was taking advantage of those who were poor
- it stimulated an argument between Hamilton and Jefferson over the meaning of the
constitution

- Jefferson’s argument on the bank was that there was no place in the constitution that said that you could
make a bank; ‘Constitution is silent.’  people like Jefferson are known as ‘strict constructionists’
- Hamilton said that the Constitution is not silent  has the Elastic Clause which says that Congress can
do any powers necessary to carry out the powers enumerated (to support the economy)  only if the
Constitution says that you can’t do it, then he can make the Bank  people like Hamilton are known as
‘broad constructionists’

- very important as the Bank was created and created the constant argument between constructionists 
even today people contest this

- when Washington was re-elected, the House has more Jefferson supporters
 differences forming

- they also disagree on foreign policy

- Jeffersonians supported the French Revolution  even supported the guillotine


- Hamiltonians did not support the French Revolution, and worried that the Jeffersonians could
inflict a Reign of Terror upon the United States if they ever came to power  we even have a mutual
alliance treaty with France currently
- Hamiltonians at first had supported the French Revolution, but turned against it when the
Revolution evolved into the Reign of Terror
 George Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation now as the policy without
consulting Congress
- the precedent was set that the president makes foreign policy, and this had the
Jeffersonians outraged
- Jeffersonians were angered as this violated the treaty with France
- the Neutrality Proclamation gave us time to get stronger as a nation so that we could later pick
our own alliances and wars
- the precedent was set that our preferred foreign policy was neutrality in
foreign policies
- not all French people appreciated the Neutrality Proclamation (Citizen Genet - landed in
Charleston and went over Washington’s head to enlist people to help out in the war in Europe 
Washington had him removed from the country)
- despite the fact that Washington did not want to support the French, we still could have gotten
into war with the British
 were still in the US and giving guns to the Indians
- Jeffersonians want war with England
- Hamiltonians did not, as they were just setting an economic system, don’t screw it up
- Washington sent John Jay to negotiate with the English
- the English did not really have to do anything but get out
- we obligated ourselves to pay the British people from the Revolutionary times
- this hurt America more, especially the farmers
- Jeffersonians did not like the treaty as it favored the British and the north  see it a lot like a
surrender to England

- Jay’s Treaty spurred another treaty that the Jeffersonians would have liked  Pinckney’s Treaty
- Spain thought that England and America were going to ally with Britain, and therefore gave navigation
rights of the Mississippi to the US

- parties start to form around the two opposing sides (Hamilton, Washington vs. Madison, Jefferson)
- people saw party politics as dirty and corrupt, but the reality was that Hamilton’s economic
program to galvanize an opposition whether they liked it or not

 Hamilton’s policies were the long term cause, and the bank was the catalyst in forming parties
- the foreign differences made the party differences far more controversial

- George Washington was like a hero, yet the Jeffersonians publicly questioned him
- Washington did not like being beaten about by the people, and had had it  resigns, and creates
the precedent for two terms
- both parties wanted their man as president  elections had to be held
- 1796 - 1/3 of Senate + all of House of Representatives were also up for re-election

John Adams:

- he was patriotic but not nice


- prevented the war with France
- because of the debt from the Revolutionary war
- France wanted the Americans to pay them
- saw Jay's treaty as a violation of the Treaty of Alliance
- seized American ships
- undeclared war with France
- not liked by Jefferson
- because he liked the French

- Adams did not want war


- Napoleon ended the alliance in 1800 because he wanted to take over the world

XYZ Affair:

- to meet French Foreign minister Talleyrand


- were met instead by three go-betweens who tried to bribe the Americans into seeing Talleyrand
- Americans refused

- Alien and sedition acts

- Adam's greatest legacy was that he prevented war when he had so many opportunities to have it (even if
it would have benefited his party)
- he put country before party
- peaceful transfer of power with the end of Adams

Jefferson president with Burr as vice-president

- federalists afraid of reign of terror


- Jefferson doesn't get rid of federalists or the bank or assumption
- Judiciar Act of 1801
- new courts
- 16 judges
- Adams did not have time to sign all the papers
- Jeff throws them all away (Madison)

Marbury vs Madison

- supreme court becomes in charge of determination of constitutionality

- Marbury said that he did not get his judges license and Madison was supposed to do it
- Marshall changed the issue from Madison has to issue the license to the supreme court not
being able to enforce it
--- > the judiciary act of 1789 the right of mandamus --- the supreme court could enforce things

Jefferson tries to impeach a few judges, but the other republicans said no, and he did not do that
- this was good as it set the precedent of not firing someone just because you wanted to

- Jefferson came to the conclusion that because of the threat posed by the French (Napoleon), he would
have to displace the French in Louisiana
- > war (we cold not do that alone) - > England (still aggressive agst. American commerce and no
one likes England)
- > buy some room

- sent ambassador (James Monroe) to Napoleon to purchase New Orleans and as much land west to it
- offer Napoleon $10 million
- tells Monroe if Napoleon refuses, make an alliance with England
- > tells us that Jefferson was a person who put nation before personal interests
- did not like war or the English
- > tells us that Jefferson also learns and grows; not stuck on beliefs that are no longer valid
- Monroe gets the whole thing for $15 million
- caught Monroe by surprise
- Napoleon really was only concerned about Europe at the moment
- does not want to stretch resources now
- the Americans could thwart the British with more land
- in Haiti, they don’t like him; if he couldn’t handle Haiti, how could he handle N.
America?
- Jefferson flips because he can’t buy something like that
- constitution does not permit for the purchase of land
- needs amendment
- Monroe convinces Jefferson that if amendments were to be made, it would take too long and Napoleon
could change his mind

- > decides to make it a treaty as presidents could negotiate treaties


- only needed 2/3 support of Senate
- easily done as there was a Republican majority
- > Jefferson becomes a broad constructionist
- > proves he can adapt and admit that he was wrong

- has a tremendous effect on the Federalists


- located in the north and had influence in half the country
- with the Louisiana Purchase, power is being diluted
- the Purchase was the reason why the party eventually died
- the Federalists were sectional (based in a section of the US)

- effected exploration
- explorers were sent into Louisiana
*topography
* geography
* people + plants + animals
- Lewis and Clarke
- the explorers set the stage for the conquest of the Louisiana Purchase
- > had to fight out the Indians

- problems over which of the new states would be slave states

- > what was Jefferson’s principle reason for buying Louisiana?


- defensive mechanism

Road to War of 1812

- Jefferson’s second term


- got sucked into Napoleonic wars
- first sold to both sides
- > when the wars settled down a bit (when Napoleon gained a lot of Europe and is trying to get the British
and vice versa), England issued the Orders in Council
- > no one could land in French ports
- > if Americans landed in British ports they would take our stuff
- > French were seizing boars on the high seas and taking their cargo, including American stuff
- > British impressments
- captured people and put them in the navy
- even Americans, who they claimed were still British in their eyes
- Orders in Council + impressments violated our rules of neutrality + morals

- > British attacked the U.S.S. Chesapeake right off of the American coast for impressments
- > people died + were kidnapped
- > ship damaged badly

---- > Americans were furious and want a war, but we don’t have a strong militia in 1807
- Jefferson notes that both France and England need to trade with the US for their war efforts
- > Embargo Act of 1807
- > Congress was guided by Jefferson to pass this resolution, yet they had been wary
- farmers and industrialists were both angered, as their trade was cut off; Jefferson ironically unified the
nation

- the British at first were not affected

- Americans were locked up if they were caught smuggling


- Jefferson saw violation of the Embargo as treason
- > trials were quick and not with due process
- Jefferson reminded the Americans of George III
- > enforcement of the Navigation Acts + Stamp Act

- Congress thought the Embargo too broad


- 1809 Jefferson leaves office
- Act repealed and replaced with the narrower Non - Intercourse Act
- > ‘no trade’ act
- just against England and France
- figured if it was less inclusive, it would aid the economy
- still had hit the economy hard as Britain and France were our largest trading partners
- this mess was passed onto Madison
- Madison was a great leader of Congress and wrote the most influential of the Federalist papers,
but he was not a great president
- > Napoleon is currently at his height, but his foundation is crumbling

Bad Aspects of the Embargo

- more expensive than building a navy to protect merchant marine


- divisive as the brunt of the pain was felt in New England
- > talks of nullification of the Embargo
- > nullification was treason so they would secede

Good Aspects of the Embargo

- revived Federalist party


- we built up our industries
- it actually worked (a little too late, though)

- > England repealed Orders of Council


- > France repealed Milan and Berlin Decrees

----- > Madison did not get the news fast enough

- > Macon’s Bill No. 2

- we would trade with both; then if one repealed their decree, we’d embargo the other country
- > bribing them to respect American rights to neutrality as we were too weak to do it by force
- Napoleon took advantage of this
- continued to seize American cargo but said he wasn’t
- Madison put the embargo on England, but needs a catalyst for war with England

- the catalyst were the ‘War Hawks’ in the House


- > wanted free trade and sailor’s rights
- ironic because they were from the south and the west and had no interests in the sea
- nationalistic macho men
- led by Speaker, Henry Clay
- they also want the new land in the west but the Indians were in the way (who were backed by
the British)
- English had repeatedly said they would leave, but hadn’t

- the War Hawks are upset about Indians/British in west, and were also upset about Eastern trade

- > Tacumsa had a confederacy of Indians to oppose the Americans


- led to skirmishes

-- > catalyst was expansion

- William Henry Harrison - > Tippacanoe


- Andrew Jackson - > Horseshoe Bend

- Carolinas also are interested in expansion (Florida from Spanish, who were allies of the British)
- North wanted Canada (a part of Britain)

---- > Congress declares war (president can only request)


- > all votes for war were from South and West
- > East opposed to war figured that losing cargo was less expensive than war, which would shut
down trade with England
- > New England states sent money to England, aided Canada, refused to allow their
militias to be used by America
- > treason

- US did go to war though


- failed attempt at capturing Canada
- attack on York (Ottawa) led to the British burning down the capital

1814 Napoleon fell


- > now England can concentrate on US but England was still not able to beat us
- > attack on Baltimore failed (star spangled banner)

- British want peace


- > American becomes demanding due to a few victories
- > leads to the armistice (Treaty of Ghent)
- no land was seceded or lost
- to the Americans, this was still a victory

- we got respect from other countries for our militia


- boosted industry
- created a generation of war heroes
-- > US becomes liberal nation of the world

- Congress of Vienna saw us as a virus, but the oppressed wanted to come here

Hartford Convention 1814

- Federalists upset
- wanted constitution amendments to make it harder for embargos, war, and new states to be formed (2/3
Congress)
- might have worked, but they were a minority and their timing was horrendous
- > victory for Americans at New Orleans
- > wave of patriotism
- Hartford failed and Federalists were viewed as traitors
- signaled death of Federalist party

- with the end of the embargos, European goods are entering the US again
- new industries were now in trouble with the competition
- > protectionism so as to increase our profits as well as to get out of a foreign dependency
- liked by the infant manufacturers and the factory workers (have a job)
- hated by the consumers and the factory workers (also consumers) and the farmers (have to pay
higher for the manufactured goods, their stuff being shipped overseas will be hit with the retaliatory tariff
of those countries)

Henry Clay - American System

- protectionism
- credit for the infant industries -- > Second US Bank
- infrastructure for the economy -- > transportation and communication in the forms of roads (turnpikes)
and canals

- > Clay was not liked because he was of the west, yet he was supporting the industrialists at the expense
of the farmers
- reminded people of Hamilton and his economic policies

- Madison was not all too happy with this system


- roads were too costly and within ONE state (intrastate)
- the constitution permits Congress to regulate INTERSTATE commerce, and therefore they
should also provide for interstate roads
- New England doesn’t like it
- the roads would encourage people to move away, as well as business to move westwards
- the New Englanders would technically have to pay for the roads that would bolster the strength
and economy of the mid-west

- > the American System was implanted anyway

- Madison leaves office in 1817 and was replaced by James Monroe


- easily won because the Federalist party was near-dead
- after this, the Federalist party is DEAD
- 1817 to 1825, his term, had only one political party
- Era of Good Feelings
- misnomer, as there was economic crises, there was harsh disagreement over the American
System, and there was a lot of disagreement over how the extra land would be sold

- > Panic of 1819


- caused by land speculation

Land speculation:

e.g. tire company with a stock of $1.00 stock


- announces that it has a new tire that is snazzy
- public finds out about the improvement of the product
- more people will buy stock, and therefore the price of the stock goes up to $10.00

- > underlying reason for stock price increase is because of a strong reason with accountability

Land investment:

e.g. opposing tire company with a stock of $2.00 stock


- this stock could still go up as word is going out there that you could make a quick dollar buy
buying stock
- price of stock therefore still goes up -- > $10.00
- can easily go down to $0.50

- > underlying reason is not grounded on anything

- the people had bought land that was not farmable -- > they bought it because everyone was doing it
- people were making bad investments that turned south and could not pay bills or mortgages -- > banks
went down - - > did not spend money and businesses closed -- > products were not being made

- > Second US Bank made it worse as they were the ones issuing the loans to the people speculating the
money

Era of Good Feelings - misnomer


- economic crisis over land speculation
- the other problem was the controversy over the American System
- controversy of slavery as well

- the states are becoming divided into north and south over the issues
- industry vs. agriculture
- abolitionism vs. slavery

- most immigrants went to the north in the beginning as there were job opportunities
- couldn’t go south as small farmers were becoming lost in the shuffle in the plantation system
- population grows faster in the north
- the House of Representatives, therefore, is more heavily represented in Congress
- more in favor of northern laws and biases
- the Senate was the only place the south could get power; need equal number of northern and
southern states
- the goal was to have both sides even

1819 - cotton farmers settle in Missouri and issue for statehood


- House of Representatives rejected their application and attempted to ban slavery there
-- > Tallmadge Ammendment

- the south was horrified by that


- political and economic issues
- Louisiana Purchase was completely brought into question

- Henry Clay comes along and is now known as ‘The Great Compromiser’
- wrote the Missouri Compromise
- in the Senate, both north and south got a state (Missouri, a slave state, and Maine was formed
from Massachusetts)
- 36-30 line, south of which is all slave states, all north is free except Missouri
- saved the US from a civil war then and there, but only prolonged the inevitable

- most presidents were from the south


- the southerners weren’t worried about that
- the Supreme Court was now getting more power
- thanks to John Marshall

-- > McCulloch v. Maryland


- the state of Maryland tried to tax the income of the US Bank
- the Marshall court ruled that they couldn’t do that
- Marshall argued that a state could not do something that would destroy a federal creation
-- > state government’s inferiority to the federal government
-- > Jefferson saw this as a power grab for the federal government and the Supreme Court and did
not like it
- decided what states can and can’t do
- state government’s inferiority

- taxation is ‘destruction’ as money is being taken out of the Bank -- > in Marshall’s ruling

-- > Cohens v. Virginia

- state courts in Virginia had been issuing rules on the powers of federal government
- the federal government issues ordinances, but the state courts could sue saying those ordinances
are wrong
- Marshall ruled that the Supreme Court could turn around and declare the state courts wrong
- the supreme court is SUPERIOR
- the federal government is SUPREME

-- > Gibbons v. Ogden

- New York and New Jersey fighting over the Hudson River
- dispute because it would control and regulate movement of ships -- > trade

- New York claimed the Hudson River and therefore set up a commission that created a monopoly over all
the steam boats in Hudson River
- the secretary of state of New Jersey sued the secretary of state of New York

- Marshall issued a declaration that the river was INTERSTATE, and therefore a single state (New York)
could not regulate the river
- therefore the federal court had to decide -- > increase power of the supreme court
- this also gave the federal government power -- > increases power of central government

-- > Dartmouth College v. Woodward

- got initial charter from the King


- there had been a renewal of the charter before the US became a country
- in the 1820s New Hampshire tried to nullify the charter

- Marshall declared that states could not nullify charters signed by private entities
- once again, it is the Supreme Court chastising the state
- expanding the power of the Supreme Court -- > ruling on contracts as well

Marshall is a Federalist, and is promoting those values. He is also motivated by the Hamiltonian and
Henry Clay principles. It counters the trend that Jefferson started toward state rights and universal
suffrage. It was a trend towards national government (nationalism). It means we are favoring industry
(mostly the north and west). Politically, we are supporting the federal government (laws legislated by
Congress and executed by the President, and interpreted by the Supreme Court).

-- > this was very problematic to the south


- slaves
- agrarian development
- tariffs
- banks
- threat to their way of life

Foreign Policy:
- James Monroe, when president, had the secretary of state John Quincy Adams
- JQA was a lot like his father, but was very sophisticated and honorable
- negotiated two major treaties for the United States during the Monroe Administration

-- > Rush Bagot Treaty (1817)

- does two very big things


-- > pacifies the border between the US and Canada
- creates the longest peaceable border in the world
- ends hostilities between the US and England 
- creates joint occupation of the Oregon territory
- at that time, Oregon extended into Canada and bumped into Russian-Alaska
- it was important to make peace with England as
* they had a strong navy that could benefit us (protect our trade)
* it would improve our trade with them
- at that time, our foreign policy was to keep the French away (think about the
Louisiana Purchase); we were trying to reduce threats, and friendliness with the British was a very good
thing

-- > Florida Purchase Treaty / Adams Onis Treaty (1819)

- we purchased Florida from the Spanish


- gets rid of the Spanish
- gives us a strategically convenient spot

- Andrew Jackson decided on his own without presidential authority that we ought to have Florida
- on his own, he invades Florida with a bunch of soldiers
- battling the Indians and the Spanish
- by the time the US went to negotiate the Florida Purchase, Jackson tells Onis that we
already have it
- but gave them money anyway just to set things straight
- the Spanish did get something important out of this deal
-- > at this time, the Spanish still own the western part of what later became the
US South-West
-- > the US abandoned all rights to Texas

Playing field:

- there were plenty of European powers in the Americas


- 80% of South America became independent eventually
- by the time we get midway through Monroe’s term, there is very little land that are colonies

- provides opportunity + problem for the US


- while Spain had been colonizing, they had been a very weak power (not a threat) -- > all due to
Napoleon
- we couldn’t trade with the Spanish colonies as they were playing the mercantilism game
- independence to these colonies gave us many opportunities for trade, UNLESS THEY GET
RECOLONIZED, ONOZ!
-- > France
-- > Prussia
-- > Austra
-- > Russia
- all of these countries were conservative, reactionary monarchies
- America does not want the nearby colonies to be decolonized by such countries, and therefore posed a
threat to our DEMOCRACY
- JQA notices the threat + opportunity
- Monroe wants to take advantage of the economic benefits of their independence without feeling the treat
of their independence
-- > JQA comes up with a plan
-- > no other country should colonize the newly independent places
-- > just about that time, JQA gets a call from the foreign secretary of England
- England is also going to benefit from the economic assets of these new places, and
therefore has the same interests as the US
- creates joint declaration that these places MUST remain independent
- JQA was wary as this seemed like a tangling of alliances, and therefore does not want
to do it
- declares that we will do our own thing
- instead drafts and has issued their own declaration

-- > Monroe Doctrine


- the Americas are ‘closed’ to further decolonization
- includes the Russians in the north
- in the wars of the European powers, we have never taken part
- declares that we will stay OUT OF European wars (Greece) and therefore removed the
threat of spreading democracy in Europe
- of course, the European powers later supported Greece, but in the early 1820s, they
were not supportive due to their fears of democracy (age of Metternich)
- if you try and impose your government anywhere near us, we will consider it
dangerous, a threat
- you can keep what colonies what you already got, but cannot re-colonize someplace
else
- neutralism, and will not aid Greece
- give and take policy - don’t bother us, we won’t bother Greece 

- this is a very abstract concept and is not understood by the regular average person in the entire world
- the European monarchs do not appreciate our arrogance or our Republican nature
- were enraged by the Monroe Doctrine
- how dare you claim these territories and say we cannot have them???
- still did not do anything about it (if they had, we could not fight back as our navy
wasn’t too great)
- it was the English backing us up that prevented the European powers from trying to
colonize the Americas

- at first not a great affect


- this doctrine is defensive in nature and symbolizes this nature of American foreign policy

----------

- the US has a growing electorate


- at the beginning, there had been several restrictions on voting
- 21 + (1972)
- white (1870 by law, but 1965 in reality)
- male (1920)
- property (1790s until 1830)
- 25% increase by 1825 - 80% by 1840
- whether or not they vote depends typically on the election
- there are more common people that means that campaigning has to change
- changes what you have to deliver to the people
- when there were more people, we had to broaden what we were offering
- in the beginning it had been all directed towards the higher classes
New Voting Spectrum:

- from 1796-1820 (seven straight elections) each party, the leaders of Congress got together and decided
who they wanted to be their president
- the public would have no say in it, almost like a British system
- now the candidates are chosen by National Conventions
- 1824
- each party had its own meeting and discuss what the parties stood for
- wrote down in a book what their ideas were
- “The Platform”
- the people at the Convention includes state legislatures, party leaders from the various states
- not quite at the average person
- the process is still widening -- > went from narrow to a larger system where a bunch of people
chose, and from there, to a much, much wider system (through state primaries in the 1900s)

New campaigning:

- why you should vote for us, and not for them
- the Founding Fathers were disgusted
- saw campaigning as unethical and dirty
- competition and choice was good
- leads to new style candidates
- Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson:

- war hero
- Battle of New Orleans
- disregarded that he killed Indians and Spaniards, as they had been enemies then
- anti-establishment, and therefore a hero as well
- the government was condoned as greedy and the common man loved it
- he targeted the Bank as well (personally targeted Nicholas Biddle)
- represented the rugged America (take no prisoners!)
- had been 14 years old when he had been taken prisoner by the British
- was rebellious and was slashed in the face by the British -- > ugly scar, lol
- appealed to the disinfected (left out) voters

- when the elections of 1824 (anyone in the establishment - East, banking, etc.) was held, the Republicans
were terrified of Jackson
- the positions he held as well as demeanor scared them

- there were four candidates then


- the old secretary of state (JQA)
- Governor William Crawford
- Henry Clay
- Andrew Jackson

- Jackson gets the most popular votes (42% of the popular vote - not a majority, but a plurality)
- also gets a plurality in the electoral college
- to be elected, you need a majority
- we had this problem in the 1800s as well as there was not more than one party (just more
candidates for the same party)
-- > in American electoral history, when you have more than two candidates, weird things happen

- Crawford dies
- Clay knows that he has no chance (he would rather be the Secretary of State?)
- Adams dislikes Andrew Jackson
- hates his character -- > obnoxious
- opposing beliefs in the American System (he was for, and Jackson wasn’t)
- there was rumor of a deal
- Jacksonians declared that there had been a ‘Corrupt Bargain’
- it was actually not legal
- Clay could legally go to the states in the House that had been Clay and Crawford supporters and
tell them to go for Adams because he was safer than Jackson
- this was actually quite common in American history
- BUT, for the Jackson people, this seemed a foul as Jackson had gotten the plurality

- when John Quincy Adams became president, his administration was doomed from the start
- a lot of people who voted for someone else felt they were robbed (especially Jacksonians)
- JQA became the president of the US with only 31% of the popular vote (7/10 of the country
voted against the man who became the president)
- JQA realizes that this was going to be hard
- unfortunately, neither his personality nor his policies helped him
- he was too much like his father
- not great character
- what one needed then was a bridge maker, not someone as stiff and sharp
- supported the American System
-- > could not please the American people
- westerners were offended by his attempts to curb speculation
- he believed that the economy should be stable and wanted people to invest and not do something
stupid like speculation, as it hurt the economy
- land speculators in the west were angered

- Tariff of Abominations came up in 1828 -- > wasn’t something that he didn’t support that much,
or the Jacksonians opposed that much
- used against him to make sure that he didn’t get reelected
- tariffs hurt
- consumers (they don’t want to pay higher prices) -- > hurt the manufacturers whose
parts were bought from overseas
- hurt consumers as they foreigners hit America with a retaliatory tariff and it was harder
to sell stuff abroad
- southerners see this as a northern tariff and it makes JQA as a northern supporter
- also see it as a northern conspiracy
- they even saw that a great slave rebellion in the early 1820s was caused by the north to
hurt the south
` - while the rest of the country is growing economically and the southern is stagnant, the
southerners don’t realize that it is because they are agricultural --- > they blame it on conspiracy against
them

John C. Calhoun -
- wrote an anonymous letter (S. Carolina Exposition) urging that the state of S. Carolina nullify
the tariff
- influenced by the Virginia/Kentucky Resolutions
- was not able to secure nullification of the tariff, but sure stirred up the passions of the S.
Carolinians -- > flew their flags at half mast (which symbolized death)
- Calhoun was JQA’s vice president
- his own vice president that was speaking out against the actions of his president

- the guy running against him in 1828 is Andrew Jackson

- A.J. --- possessed the ruthless character of a frontiersmen


- began his campaign as soon as JQA became president in 1824
- Jackson was charged with several things that demeaned him and the same was shot at JQA
- showed the rise of sectional interests
- North --- tariffs, banks, did not like land to the west
- South --- opposed protective tariffs, opposed the bank, but was divided on the issue of
cheap land in the west
- West --- favored land, and favored transportation

- Jackson’s victory was a sectional victory ( lost the North )


- was shown as the common man
- small farmers voted for him as he was land owner with slaves
- business men voted for him as he was a self-made man

- the inaugural ceremony of A.J. was rowdy

-- > Jacksonian democracy


- social and ideological movement of democracy surrounded Jackson

- his opponents thought him a radical and called him ‘King Andrew I’
- a new party opposed him -- > Whigs
- named after the Whigs of Parliament -- > kingless power
- the king in their mind was Andrew Jackson
- he apparently had too much power

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The Age of Jackson:

- rapid expansion
- energetic growth of the country
- growth of democracy

-- > Jacksonian democracy


- believed that the government belonged to all the people
- believed in the power of the democracy
- believed that the union must be preserved

- many qualifications for voting and office holding was removed


- Team Caucus was deposed
- social reform grew
- movements rose to abolish slavery
- public education
- the welfare of people was propagated
- Andrew Jackson did not aid slavery, Native Americans, or women
- John Marshall tried to help the Indians in Georgia (don‘t send them out), but Jackson sent them
on the Trail of Tears to the west

- his first step was to remove his political opponents from office to help his presidency
- spoils system; gave offices to his supporters
- rotation in office as well so as to prevent the formation of an aristocracy
- he established the precedent for spoils system that caused devastation in future presidencies
-
- belief in the Union --- country as a whole was a MUST
- 1828 - western and northern congressmen passed a tariff that put a high rate on imports
- Tariff of Abominations
- opposed by Calhoun --- nullification (S. Carolina Exposition)
- if nullification did not work, the state could secede
- Webster vs. ???
- Webster supported the union

- Tariff of 1832
- S. Carolina wanted to secede if it was not nullified
- Jackson wanted to use force as it was insurrection to break away from the Union
- Henry Clay passed a compromise to solve this

- the west was pushing further out for land and opportunity
- cheap land for the pioneers
- pre-emption laws that gave squatters the right to buy the land

- the conflict between democrats and national republicans was actually between classes
- Jacksonian democracy was an effort to control the capitalist groups for the benefit of non
capitalist groups
- Jacksonians mistrusted the new industrial society
- the agriculturalists had a more simple, humble lifestyle with self-reliance

Bank ---
- stock was held by government and stock holders
- government deposit box
- manufacturers and investors benefited as it had stable currency??
- opposed by agriculturists who wanted state banks

- Andrew Jackson did not support the national bank as it could grant loans and influence
legislation
- benefited only the northerners
- he vetoed things for the bank???
- King Andrew, by opposition

- Andrew still won the next election, despite efforts by others


- his re-election gave him strength and conviction to get rid of the bank
- he withdrew the government funds from the national bank, which crippled it
- put the money in the pet banks
- the state banks made unwise loans and printed more paper than they should have
- Jackson, to cure this, only wanted to accept in gold and silver for land
- by distributing money amongst state banks, he deprived the country of a sound, effective
currency and credit system

- his successor (Van Buren) established sub-treasuries in cities to ease the panic, but he did little
- swept from office in 1840
- Whigs won
- Harrison is the president!!
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----

But, why is Andrew Jackson called King Andrew I? And, how would you relate him as an advocate of
the common man? Is the age of Jackson truly the age of the common man?

- who is the common man?


- how responsive is he to the constituency of those who elected him?

Jackson:

1) Spoils System
- supported

2) Internal Improvement at Federal Expense

Supporter:

- supported inter-state road (Cumberland Road), but he vetoed the funding for Maysville Road (inra-state)

3) Second US Bank

- did not support

4) Protective tariff

- did not support as it would increase prices and it would hurt the south, but he enforced it (Force Bill)
- when the tariff was passed, and the S. Carolinians wanted to nullify it, he crushed it

5) Liberal Land Policy - to make it easy for people to move West

- supported

6) Nullification

- did not support (Force Bill)

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----

- 1836 party emerged in opposition to Jacksonian beliefs


- the Whigs
- they are only really possible due to Jackson’s reputation as King Andrew I
- King Veto - vetoed more bills than all of his predecessors combined
- he changed the use of the veto
- up until that time all the presidents only vetoed on unconstitutionality
- vetoed bills because he disagreed with them, or did not think they were good
- he started this trend till today
- he was the only president who was reprimanded by Congress
- when the Whigs ran their first real election, they were running against Jacksonian ideas only (as he is out
of office)

Members:

- supporters of the American System


- supporters of state’s rights (Force Bill)
- northern industrialists (felt they were not represented properly)

- too old to run now, so Jackson nominates Van Buren (picked his own successor)
- ran against the initial Whig party (which was not strong enough yet)
- Van Buren is not Jackson
- more easy going
- much more of a believer of the spoils system
- he did not live up to Jackson, and this disappointed the people
- there also a number of problems that he inherited from the Jacksonian presidency
- primarily economic

- when the bank war took place, Jackson had pulled all the assets from the national banks and put them in
pet banks (Specie Circular)
- banks could not keep up their obligations and led to bank failures
- country is in an economic downturn
--- > Van Buren was blamed for this, just because he was of the same party

- he was partially responsible, for he believed in laissez-faire economics


- the government was not going to get involved in helping the economy, making jobs, etc.

- when the Whigs come back in 1840, they come up with a plan to help the economy
- the program included an increase in tariffs to protect local businesses, an increase in bank credit
for domestic manufacturing, and spending money on internal improvements
-- > American System
- it was good for the Whigs that Van Buren was not a popular guy
- the Whigs could have just elected anybody, and had many famous and capable people
* Henry Clay
* Daniel Webster
- Harrison was a war hero, as he would appeal to the masses -- > the priority is to WIN, and not to elect the
best president
- has no enemies either  (other than Indians --- > Battle of Tippecanoe was actually a slaughter)
- has no issues (no views on anything)
- there is no real platform (is running on his war status and his criticism of Van Buren)
- the Whigs were the first to start a modern day campaign that ran around slogans instead of issues
- in order to balance the ticket (to get the southern states), they nominated John Tyler (a very outspoken of
slavery, and opponent of the tariff) --- > he was only nominated so as to WIN

Economics:

- North = manufacturing
- industrial revolution is going on (started with textiles)
-- > proletariat is needed
- immigrants!
- most of the immigrants went to the north
- bigotry against Irish and Catholics
- still find places to live and fit in
- large cities in the east and new cities to the west
- creates miners and gatherers of resources
- creates consumers
1850 - industry > agriculture
- dominated the economy
- corporations encouraged people
- American System
- had a lot of natural resources

- cotton gin
- operates in the north
- helped the south as well as it created a demand for cotton, but it helped northern manufacturing
a lot

- armaments
- interchangeable parts
- that meant that if one part got busted, you could easily substitute it for another part
- it meant that a lot of jobs for people to produce the parts 

- it is a revolution in manufacturing
- critical for Union victory in the Civil War later on -- > better at making weapons
- labor issues began to emerge
- immigrant workers got to vote once they got their citizenship
- they supported the DEMOCRATS

---- > two different economies are emerging in 1850

- north had smaller farms (no plantations), small businesses


- south has agriculture, and no bourgeoisie

- what changes is that the north becomes predominantly industrial

- the economies diverged because the south stayed the same and the north changed
- it was not a conspiracy, as the south declared --- > they just had not changed

- labor issues emerged in the north


- the workers started to vote and favored the democrats
- the Whigs supported the American System, which seemed to be the interests of their
bosses
- unions formed, and finally legalized in the 1840s
- doesn’t mean jobs are protected
- if you anger the bosses with your efforts to improve your conditions (strikes), you can
get fired
- you needed bargaining power, which they did not have
- if you got fired, you could easily be replaced
- all the early Unions that were successful were skilled laborers as there were
not many of them, and could not easily be replaced --- > laborers weren’t as successful with Unions

Lowell Girls:

- Massachusetts factory
- the mills were advertised as a very high quality, forward place to work
- they could be paid less

- factory conditions were terrible


- no health care
-- > the reason it was seen as forward thinking was as it encouraged women to go to
Church and took them on excursions, etc.
-- > were educated as well

- southerners saw factory work as far more cruel than slavery


- slaves were given food and shelter, which factory workers were not
- BULLSHIT.

- industrialization helped the west


- helped farm faster and easier
- manufactured in the north
- west becomes tied to north
-- > infrastructure also tied west to north
- north had far more roads, canals, and turnpikes than the south

- south mainly produces resources


- cotton
- sells mostly to north, who make textiles and sell them elsewhere (including to the south)
- south technically have to buy the finished goods from the north due to the US tariff
- kind of like mercantilism
Reform:

- Jacksonian Era
- new religious movements
- a larger movement --- > Second Great Awakening
- response to deism and anti-religion of the French revolution
--- > caused by moving away from religion and is characterized by fiery sermons like the last
Awakening
--- > only the American protestants were affected
- Baptists
- American Methodism

- public education
- Horace Mann - father of public education

- better treatment for the insane


- Dorothea Dix

- prison reform for humane treatment


- debtor’s prison gotten rid of
- fairness in procedures

- Temperance movement (1830)


- believed that alcohol was the root of all evils
- spending of money stupidly, disease, abuse, violence, etc.
- nativist movement at the same time
- don’t want foreigners to take our jobs
- still have mostly Protestants coming over, yet we were still nativistic
- instead of saying that they don’t like foreigners, they say that they are all drunks
- alcohol was a part of their cultures, but did not abuse it
- it was Americans who abused it
- two pronged movement
-- > societal concerns including poverty (drinking away one‘s paycheck), crime, and
disease
-- > nativistic (GTFO.)

Women’s Rights:

- time of more definition for gender roles


- the growth of industrialization defines these roles
- in a market economy, someone has to take care of the home and someone who has to make
money
-- > women became the keepers of the home and of the conscience (Republican Mothers)
- very chauvinistic nature to it
- though it left women out of politics and economics, there is very few women who questioned
this
-- > there were very few women that questioned the fact that they had second class status
legally
- by constitution, it was only in 1920 that women got the right to vote
- the suffrage movement is really a factor until after the turn of the century
- feminism, however, is taking off in this era
- support Temperance, abolition, and feminism
- they don’t win victories till much later
- they thought that if they supported abolition the abolitionists who would support them
- not the case as the abolitionists were still men.
- Women’s Rights Movement had its own preamble that was modeled after the Declaration of
Independence (written by Stanton)
- women accusing and condemning men (when in the D. of I. it was the colonies
condemning England)

- came upon a lot of obstacles, and only won victories later on

Community societies??:

- think back to Utopian Socialism


- worked on a small scale
- Robert Owen brought that concept in the US
- started a small society
- golden age for American literature
- birth of American literature
- finally have historians
- have the transcendentalist movement
- inner light
- against Puritanism and authority
-- > tell them how to think, and transcendentalists are noncomformists
- leader was Emerson

- the reform era was a nice transition from Jacksonian democracy to the Civil War
- helped the abolitionist movement

CIVIL WAR

- the causes of the civil war begin with British colonization


- the slaves first arrived about 1619
- they were present everywhere, but just more present in the south
- the north had ended slavery for economic reasons
- even Jefferson did not like slavery in the sense that he believed that king George III enslaved the
Americans
- North-West ordinance prohibited slavery
- the constitution ended the slave trade but not slavery
- the Missouri Compromise (1820)

- 1841 the state of the union the parties and the sections differ whether the states should be more powerful
or should the federal govt. be more powerful
- the economy is interdependent but there are varying ways of living
- sectionalism (the belief that the section was the bigger interest) is predominant in the south
- the slavery issue is starting to boil
- charged by the independence movement in Texas + the reform movement of abolition

1) Slavery Economy of the South and its Culture


2) How the Reform Era fueled Abolition
3) Events that led to the Civil War
4) War and Reconstruction

1 ---

King Cotton:

- Eli Whitney created the Cotton Gin


- made it easier and faster to process cotton
- cotton hadn’t been a profitable cash crop
- the English could process cotton because they had had the technology
- there was some sale of cotton overseas, but not a lot
- the cotton gin helped the south produce 50% of the world’s cotton
- England has a growing need for cotton
- led to a certain cockiness on the part of the south that if they were ever in a war with the north,
they would be aided by England
--- > cottonocracy formed
- tremendous gap between rich and poor, particularly in education but in any aspect of
wealth or power

North:

- aristocracy
- middle class (bourgeoisie)
- proletariat + farmers

South:

- cottonocracy
- virtually no middle class
- small farmers who do not have many slaves

- a lot of the small farmers left for the west or the north because they did not have any opportunities
- they were giving their land to the cottonocracy
- made a bad situation worse by furthering the gap between the rich and poor
- ante-bellum period (confrontational) in the south, before the war
- one prop economy depending upon world prices with no manufacturing
- most of the people are really poor
---- > the south has the triangles problem
- the southerners tried to justify slavery
- all the south’s money was going to the north to buy its products
--- > truly a mercantile situation
- the south was sending its only major project to the north, who controlled the prices
- the tariffs eliminated foreign competition, therefore making it costlier for the south as
well
- it also made it hard for the south with the retaliatory tariff
- the shippers and merchants were also getting a lot of money, jacking up the prices even more
- no immigration to the south because of slavery, expensive land, and because no cotton knowledge
- only 25% of whites own slaves
- most whites were subsistence farmers
- the small farmers worked with their slaves, if they had any
- yet most people who lived in the south supported slavery, even if they did not own
slaves
- they convinced people that the southern economy could only work if they had slavery, even if ¾
of the south did not have slaves
- the southern economy would collapse without slavery
- they also put forth other arguments
- the Bible
- said that the Bible justified slavery as the Bible speaks of slavery
--- > the Hebrews
- were trying to rationalize the decision that they had come to (that slavery was good)
- the same thing with history
- bastardized it to support slavery
- great civilizations had slavery, and to be a great processes we needed slavery
- used science
- the black man’s body is stronger than the white man’s
- by the same token, it’s clear that the slaves were not capable of the same intellectual
processes
- Lowell Girls
- they said that the factory conditions were worse and said that slavery was more humane
--- > food, shelter, and clothing, no fears of unemployment
- alleged that the slaves were content with their lives, or at least, come to accept it

---- > slave rebellions were obvious and overwhelming evidence for their unhappiness

Individual Rebellion:

- one slave planning to mess up his master


- slows down, less work
- sabotage
- attack him
- hurt himself

Mass Rebellion:

- Stono’s Rebellion (1739)


- twenty slaves organized, armed another hundred, and killed a bunch of slave owners and non-
slave owners in the south
- Charleston, S. Carolina
- largest slave rebellion

- escaped slave Gabriel


- Virginia

- Vesey (1822)

- 1831 - Nat Turner, Virginia

- the southerners thought that they were provoked by outsiders, education of slaves
- education was strictly prohibited by law
- believed that it was also provoked by the abolition movement
--- > never thought that the reason for their economic stagnancy was because of their agricultural
tendencies, and that they were in the bottom of a mercantilist policy
- blamed it on the tariff
- blamed the American System
- supported the north and the west at the expense of the south
- blamed abolitionists
- believed that the slaves only rebelled because they were provoked to rebel, not
because they were unhappy

Garrison:
- militantly antislavery newspaper ‘The Liberator’
- not just the south’s fault (northern factories were buying the cotton)
- technically said that Nat Turner’s rebellion was foreseen and that the southerners deserved it
- said that slavery was preventing industrialization, the growth of the middle class, of the
proletariat --- > reverse economic arguments with the south, who said that the economy would fail without
slavery
--- > new twist on the Bible as well
- the New Testament did not support slavery, as Jesus would not go along with slavery
- countered all their arguments (scientific and historical as well)
- manumission --- > send back the slaves to Africa
- freed blacks weren’t all too happy
- these blacks were African Americans
--- > no support within black community for this, and only a few whites
supported this
- Republic of Liberia

- abolitionism got hotter with the Second Great Awakening


- S.G.A. was not any different from the teachings from before, just that it was more dramatic and
with more hellfire
- in the North, the preachers were screaming about slave owners burning in hell
- abolitionism became more radical

--- > influenced Garrison


- blasted the south for slavery
- also blasted the north for tolerating slavery
- called that the north should secede from the south

- even publicly burned the constitution


- seen as too radical

- Frederick Douglass was a more moderate abolitionist


- wanted to work with existing political parties
- pragmatic ways

- Free Soil Party


- opposed slavery not only on moral grounds, but also economic grounds

- Douglass said that the Free Soil Party should help abolitionism, so he supported them
- this party didn’t get all too far, though, and did not have a great pay off
- later joined the Republicans

- by the 1830s, the south was terrified


- abolitionism
- slave rebellions
- Force Bill
---- > south is fearful that the rebellions would physically take away their lives, that the
abolitionists would take away their means for life, and that the government would enforce a new way of life
* they were being cornered, and declared that slavery was a positive good (spin)
* mobs formed to attack the abolitionists
* the Gag Rule ( a procedural rule within Congress that lasted for eight years )
- Congress agreed that they would not discuss slavery as they knew that it was
nothing but trouble
- 1836 is when Texas gains its independence, and this stimulated the Gag Rule
- Texas could shatter the balance as Texas was a big area

Texas:

- had been a part of the Spanish empire


- a treaty had been signed btw Spain and US (Florida Purchase Treaty)
- we bought Florida, got Oregon and gave up Texas
- only a year after the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain no longer owns that place
- Mexico now controls that area, including modern day Texas
- the newly independent govt. of Mexico needs money
- offer a Tennessee born southerner (Steve Austin) the opportunity to buy land and bring in three
hundred families into Texas
- restrictions on the families (had to be Catholic and had to become Mexicanized)
- farmed cotton (good land)
- this was less than 2000 people
- by 1835 we were up to 30,000 people
--- > called themselves Texicans
- don’t consider themselves Mexicans
- did not like Mexico as Texas was not represented in the Legislature
--- > virtual representation all over again
- the Mexican constitution did not have a Bill of Rights and did not have many rights to
liberties
- had a system of law forced by an ever-present body of Mexican soldiers who were
rough around the edges
--- > quartering of troops all over again
- abolishment of slavery
- did not follow the rule, but they did not like it
--- > the Texicans saw themselves as equivalent to the colonists
- Santa Anna was the dictator of Mexico
- had Austin locked up when he tried to negotiate with them
- had to live by their rules
- 1835 - ended all Texican rights and made a move to squash them
- 1836 = war with Mexico

--- > the Republic of Texas declared its independence (as its own independent country)
- independence did not come easily
- lost most of the initial battles
--- > the Alamo (in San Antonia) -- were overrun by the Mexican army
--- > in the long run, turned out to be a disaster for Mexico
- the atrocities in the Alamo galvanized the Texans
- Sam Houston out maneuvered Santa Anna within a month and captured him
- forced at gun point to recognize the independence of Texas
- he did, they let him go, and he turned around and goes ‘I take it all back.’
--- > Mexico does not recognize Texas independence

- Mexico is furious at the US


- the US was supposed to be neutral
- American men and arms aided the Texans
- it was all informal and tread carefully
- was so controversial as it could explode into a war with Mexico and other internal
controversies
- from the beginning, the Mexican govt. believed that the American govt. conspired to steal Texas from
them
- that Texas couldn’t have done this by itself
- Jackson had to be careful as it was an election year and Van Buren was running for president
- worried that the presence of Texas could ignite the slavery issue
- it would break the balance of slave and free states (it was the size of 3-5 states)
- Texas wanted to be annexed by the US
- did not want to be an independent republic
- Jackson won’t do it as he doesn’t want to mess up Van Buren
- the whole north was against the annexation of Texas

IRONY:

- Mexico thinks that Texas is a US conspiracy


- the North thinks that Texas is a Southern conspiracy
- the South thinks that opposition to Texas is a northern conspiracy
- everyone fears that Santa Anna is going to come back
- the Texans want protection, but the US has distanced itself from Texas because of the slavery issue
- for protection, they turn to France and Britain
- this would be liked by F and B as it would be a trading partner that would not whack them with tariffs
- it would also be a check on the US
- if England and France had an empire in Texas, they could have influence in the US as well

- the US does not find this good


- troops could be sent to Texas to protect them, and these troops would be a threat to America
---- > problem with the Monroe Doctrine

- the Texans live in fear from 1837-1845

- on March 4, 1841, President Harrison was inaugurated as our ninth president


- he gives the longest inaugural address in American history
- catches a cold, turns into pneumonia, and then dies
- leaves for the first time a president who dies in office
- the vice-president becomes president
- Tyler becomes Mr. President
- the ‘accidental’ president
- the Whig party had no ideals
- Tyler was an independent
- did not like the American System, tariffs
- the only reason he was a Whig was because he did not like Jackson and his Force Bill
(he was from Virginia)
- he even vetoed a bill for a new back, and the Whigs kicked him out of the party
- not a democrat, because he hates Jackson
- he has NO party --- > a lame duck
- everyone knows that he won’t get re-elected
- Tyler is REALLY pro-slavery + pro-south
- sectionalist
- his term is controversial
- gets no real support from Congress because he doesn’t have a party

1844 - next election


- Polk (Democrat) --- > dark horse candidate (came out of nowhere)
- 54o 40’, or fight! --- > Oregon
- the north wants Oregon, but no Texas; the south wants Texas, but no Oregon
- Polk compromises in an attempt to get both
- Henry Clay (Whig)
- James Birney (Liberty Party) --- > liberty of slaves

- Polk won, but it was kind of controversial


- he got most of the electoral votes, but if the Liberty party had not run, Clay would have won
- Birney’s presence tipped a Whig state to the Democrats
- won states in the south, in the west, in the Mid-Atlantic, and in New England
- found a way to satisfy everyone
--- > Manifest Destiny
- the idea that America should rule the continent from sea to shining sea
- Tyler acted as if this was a mandate on Texas in particular
- got through Congress an agreement to annex Texas
-- > Texas became a state just before Tyler left the presidency
- as soon as Texas was annexed, we were on the brink of war with Mexico
--- > also on the brink of war with England over Oregon

- Clay didn’t handle the Texas/Oregon issue well


- played double agent for north and south about Texas
- didn’t address Oregon issue
- Polk won because of Manifest Destiny, which appealed to everyone

- acted like a southerner


- opposed the bank
- opposed the tariff, and reduced it
- split Oregon in half as we did not need a war with England right now, as we were going to war
with Mexico
- wants California
- sends John Slidell to Mexico City to talk to Santa Anna about buying California for $25
million before the English could buy it from Mexico
- John Slidell was not received
- Polk decides that we have to just take it then, but didn’t want to make it look like that
- wanted Mexico to attack first
- sits American army right up against the Mexican border with a boat load of troops and threatens
the Mexicans and tempts them into starting a war
- they were to fire the first shot so that they would look like the attackers
- Mexico plays into our hands and attack
- gave Polk the justification he needed to request Congress for a declaration of war
- abolitionist congressmen did not support the war --- > cried that Polk
provoked this, that this would further eff up slavery
- got the declaration anyway (more supporters for it)
- this war was pretty one sided
- squashed Mexico easily
- at the same time, California declared its independence as a republic
- the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo reflected the battlefield victories
- gave the US Texas and the Mexican cession (Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada,
Colorado)
- gave Mexico money to keep them away from Texas
- no treaty was accepted until 2/3 vote in Senate
- not so easy, as some were unhappy without the WHOLE of Mexico, and some
wanted NONE of Mexico (as the land would be used for slavery, even if there were no slaves in Mexico
currently)
- tremendous impact for Mexican War both in US and overseas
- forever spoiled relations with Mexico and US, as well as with Latin America
- before the war, we were seen as the protector with the Monroe Doctrine
- after the war, we were the bully
- overall, the US gained respect militarily with Europe
- created another round of generals
- bad impact as slavery issue re-emerges with a vengeance
- the Gag Rule ran out in 1844
--- > Wilmot Priviso
- any lands won from the Mexican War have to be free
- infuriated the southern congressmen
- ruptured the country (predicted by transcendentalists)

1848:

- Polk won the Mexican War


- was popular because he added much territory
- but he retired anyway
---- > contracted cholera and died
- now we have one of the guys who sought nomination back in 1844 (Louis Kass of Michigan) - Democrat
- Kass, what makes him stand out was that he had a different answer to the problem of slavery
--- > his solution was that rather argue over Mexican Cession’s slavery or non-slavery status, let the people
decide
- this way we disavow all responsibility
- called popular sovereignty
- Whigs went back to their old formula
- get a war hero
- fortunately there are a lot of war heroes from the last war
- put in Zachary Taylor
- a slave owner from Louisiana
- the Whigs take no position on slavery
- not a good idea, as the Whigs are so diverse
- their unifying point (Jackson) is dead, lol
- don’t really know his position on anything, just like Harrison
- has a Northern running mate, Millard Fillmore, as he is from the south and needs to balance the
ticket
- a third party emerges --- > Free Soil Party
- anti-slavery
- endorsed the Wilmot Proviso
- they are against slavery more for economic reasons than anything
--- > said that slavery destroys the opportunities for factory workers to earn wages, and
farmers to earn land
--- > as slavery expands, that’s less land for factories and farms
--- > economically motivated
- their nominee for president is Martin Van Buren

- the election is very, very close


- the winner was Zachary Taylor with a 163 electoral votes
- this is not a sectional victory, as both candidates (Kass and Taylor) were trying to get all the
votes
- Kass lost for the same reason that Clay lost (due to the presence of Free Soilers)
- twice in a row, a third party, abolitionist candidate flipped the elections

---- > Gold Rush in California!!!

- a lot of people poured into CA and demanded statehood


- it is not cotton farming country
- therefore would be a free state
- would break up the balance in the Senate
- New Mexico and Utah were also threatening to become free states
- the south was scared
- was also angered by the social issue caused by runaway slaves

- runaway slaves was an issue since there were slaves, but this was a problem now as the slaves were
unhappy because someone had provoked them to do it
--- > that somebody helped them to leave, and that somebody was the north
- they argued that this was immoral as well as unconstitutional deprivation of property
- if northern states helped runaways, if they did not force their people in the north to return slaves,
this was against the law
- the state of our constitution in 1850 --- > the property could not be denied to anyone without due
process
- as interpreted in that time, the south legally had the upper hand in the argument
- it was more than an issue of just morality or legality to the slave holder, it was also an issue of
honor
- they were also upset of potential abolition of slavery in D.C.

- by the time the folks in CA issue for statehood, the Senate is in two camps
- on the brink of civil war again
- two groups form
- The Old Guard
- want a compromise
- Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster (north, south, west)
- get a bit of help as they are old --- > Stephen Douglas
- want to save the Union
--- > The Compromise of 1850
- gets significant support from even northern industrialists
- they want to make a compromise with the south as their industry would be hurt if the
south secedes
--- > they’d lose the cotton and would be subjected to tariffs
- Calhoun was at first pessimistic about compromise, but came around
--- > actually wanted co-presidents
- kind of an ironic guy, who is passionate about the south and yet a Unionist
- one of the few guys left that loved his south yet very, very much was a
Unionist
--- > still was very passionate about slavery
- The Young Guard
- from the north, and don’t want compromise
- William H. Seward
- he doesn’t care what the constitution says, he cares about the ‘higher law’ --- > the law
of God
Zachary Taylor was from the south --- > he supported the Young Guard
- the Young Guard were abolitionists, but Zachary was more concerned with the fact that
he was not happy that the Texans were trying to capture New Mexico territory
- wanted to go discipline them like Andrew Jackson disciplined S. Carolina
- is not happy with the south, therefore, and is ready to turn over his natural biases to
fight them

July 4 --- > the president is at the picnic; ate a bad pie, and died (Zachary Taylor)
- people thought that the south was out to get him
- they even dug up his body and did a chemical analysis of the ashes to determine if he
had been poisoned
- conclusion? bad berries!
- Millard Fillmore is the next accidental president
- from New York
- supports the Old Guard (another surprise, oh the irony!)

- The Compromise is passed now


- it is law
- CA is a free state (Senate is tipped in favor to the north)
- the south is now out voted in the House and the Senate
- slave trade is abolished in D.C. (couldn’t buy or sell slaves)
- Texas gave up claims to the New Mexico territory
- what the south gets is a stricter fugitive slave law
- they get cash for the land Texas lost
- Louis Cass influenced Stephen Douglas --- > we now get popular sovereignty in the rest of the
Mexican Cession
--- > the compromise was successful as it prevented a civil war, but it still had problems

The Underground Railroad:

- many people were involved


- Harriet Tubman was a prominent member of the railroad
- helped over 300 people escape
- the south felt that the north was conspiring against them
- committing violations of the constitution and the Compromise of 1850
- Personal Liberty Laws --- it became illegal to follow the law; if you followed the
fugitive slave law, and if you returned slaves, you were in violation of the local law

- the Compromise only prevented a civil war


- the south realizes that they don’t get anything
- the north is so offended by the Fugitive Slave Law that they aren’t satisfied either
- but they are willing to live with it for now

- ended the chance of Fillmore being re-elected


- people in the US could agree that the Compromise was not liked by anyone
- the formula for winning the election in 1852 was another war hero
--- > the Whigs pick Winfield Scott
- embraced the Compromise, and still were divided over the platform
- not a good way of going into a campaign
--- > the Democrats fight over who to nominate as well, as they were also divided over slavery
- get a dark horse from N.H. ---- > Franklin Pierce
- a northerner who supports the south
--- > Pierce wins in a landside as Scott was not even being supported by his own party
- lost his will to rule when his family died in a train accident on the way to his inauguration

- was interested in Cuba


- back even in the term of JQA, he saw Cuba as a natural appendage
- but was a part of Spain
- even Polk tried buying Cuba from the Spanish
- in the very first year of Pierce’s term, they try to buy it from the Spanish
- what they essentially did was try and force the Spanish to sell them
- threatened them in an AJ manner
- if you sell it, you get money, if not, we’ll take it anyway
- were outsmarted
Question: Pierce was a northerner, then why had he wanted a slave state?
- maybe this would make nice by putting back the balance in the Senate
- the Spanish outmaneuvered this and leaked it to the press
- the Northerners go crazy (felt betrayed)
- even the Europeans were pissed, but they were tied up by the Crimean War so couldn’t focus on
Cuba
--- > Ostend Manifesto
- the attempt at blackmailing Spain for Cuba
- failed in the term of buying land

Gadsden Purchase:

- at this time, they wanted an intercontinental railroad


- railroads were dominantly in the north east and there was some to the north
- wanted to connect to CA
- bought North and South wanted the railroad to run through their sections
- wherever the stations are, towns will crop up and business will pick up and business
would boom
- the south wants it to go to the bottom of the country (even into the little part of Mexico that was
not ours, below the Rocky Mountains)
- we would have to purchase that chunk of land from Mexico
- we bought the land because of its pro-southern sympathies
- angered the north
- produced problems of where they would put the railroad

Stephen Douglass - assisted the Old Guard in drafting the Compromise of 1850
- having sort of gotten his name on the map, has another plan to get famous
- wants another intercontinental railroad that runs through the north (Chicago - California)
- would cut through Kansas and Nebraska
- part of the Louisiana Purchase that had not become states yet
- wants to name it after himself, as well as own shares
- wants it for political and economical purposes, to fund his own presidential campaign
in the future
- he can’t get the tracks laid without authorization from Congress
--- > he needs southern support, which he won’t be getting for a northern
railroad
--- > the south also doesn’t like the fact that above the 36-30 line, it would be
free states (part of Kansas and Nebraska) -- Compromise of 1820
- he goes, LET’S MAKE IT ALL SLAVE
- this would alienate the north
- to satisfy them both, he decides on popular sovereignty
- got the support of the south
- Nebraska would be free and Kansas would be slave (at least that was Douglass was
figuring)
- the north was not happy, because they were supposed to get all of it as free by the
Missouri Compromise

--- > Kansas/Nebraska Act --- > popular sovereignty


- the north opposed this bitterly
- there is still a chance that all of the north could go slave
- saw it as a breach of faith
- the south had agreed for the Missouri Compromise, but now were changing their minds
- the Missouri Compromise is destroyed and is now a non-entity
- the Compromise of 1850 is destroyed in fact as the north feels betrayed
- the north is now DETERMINED to break the Fugitive Slave Law

- people start running to Kansas and Nebraska to get the majority vote for what kind of state it is
--- > ‘Bleeding Kansas’ as they fight for slave or freedom
- two governments formed in Kansas
- one lied its way into power, and the other just took it (extra-legally)
- both sides were very violent
- Lawrence, Kansas was a free town
- attacked by slaveryites and people were killed
- mini civil war

- there was an attempt by the pro-slavery types to quickly create statehood by drafting a constitution that
would help them become a state
- the ‘Lecompton Constitution’
- would have created as a slavery state
- by the time this constitution was drafted, Pierce was out of office
- his successor was a northerner who was sympathetic to the south, and would
compromise
- Stephen Douglas helped sabotage the constitution as it was a secret constitution and angered
people in the west and the north
- the Congress decides that the Kansans should decide and let them fight themselves
- stayed that way until the end of the Civil War

--- > bleeding Kansas split the democrats into north and south
- you get in essence two types, and Douglas is trying to compromise the two

- things got so bad over Bleeding Kansas that Massachusetts congressman Karl Sumner started heaping
insults on the state of S. Carolina
- bashed the slavery people
- is attacked by Preston Brookes
- took a wooden cane and beat him to near death
---- > both men became martyrs for their respective regions

- the breaking of the Missouri Compromise and the spirit of the Compromise of 1850 led to the
creation of a new party --- > Republican party
- formed in protest of the Kansas/Nebraska Act
- northerners against slavery from the Free Soil party
- ‘conscience’ Whigs (the ones who were against slavery, eg. Webster)
- northern Democrats

Whig Types:

Webster = conscience
Clay = compromise
Calhoun = proslavery

- ‘No Nothing’ party --- > new party that were bunch of bigots who hated immigrants

- the Republican party, unlike the Democratic party, is not spread over the US
- purely sectional party that was for the north
- second purely sectional party since the Federalists
- the Democrats hold the whole south, and fully oppose the north
- there are still some democrats in the north who support slavery
--- > the Democrats have the advantage as they are spread all over the US, whereas the Republicans have
only about half the north
- the only way that the Republicans could win was if there was a third party to split the
Democratic votes, or if the Democrats were to split with multiple candidates
- you don’t need a majority, you only need a plurality
- the split of the party won’t happen because they were still rather unified
- they even got rid of two candidates (not Pierce or Douglas) as they were too close to the
Kansas/Nebraska thing
- chose Buchanan, dark horse, as he had not been in the US during that time
- didn’t want to alienate voters, but was still in favor of popular sovereignty
- his running mate was John Breckinridge (from VA)

- John Fremont ran for the Republicans


- just want to prevent slavery from being extended into the new territories
- weren’t exactly going for the abolition of slavery

- the Democrats definitely won, as they had the vote in the south with Breckinridge (VA was pro-slavery
and pro-state rights)
- Fremont won quite a bit of the north and had won quite a bit of the electoral votes

---- > why were the northerners voting for Buchanan?


- because they were afraid of the south seceding, and their economy was intertwined
- they need the cotton
- voted for him so as to keep things the way they were, for economic reasons

James Buchanan was the worst president in history… lol.


- naively and wrongly predicted that the US was on the road to healing
- ‘Bleeding Kansas’ - has not been paying attention
- he was the president when the pro-slaves attempted to push the Lecompton
Constitution
- willing to cater to the south, and passed the Constitution
Dred Scott Case
- after Marbury, next greatest
- one of the worst decisions by the Supreme Court

- slave moves to Minnesota from Missouri with master


- when his master moves back to Missouri, the slave doesn’t want to go back with him
- argued that Minnesota was a free state, and therefore he was a free man (under the
Missouri Compromise)

- ruling by Taney (appointed by A.J.)


- he was sympathetic to the south
- the S.C. said that the one real issue here had nothing to do with the slave’s freedom
- the question was whether a negro whose ancestors were slaves could become a member
of the American society with full rights and privileges

Issue 1:

Issue - Can a slave/ex-slave/descendant of slaves sue?


Rule - Only citizens could sue.
Analysis (Application of the facts to the rules) - African Americans were not citizens; they weren’t even
people
Conclusion - Slaves couldn’t sue, as they had no standing.

- the S.C. was not even supposed to proceed onto the case, as there was no standing
- yet this court did
- whatever they do after this is just opinion and cannot be legalized
- still influential as it showed the people what the S.C. thought
--- > dangerous when the issue was slavery

Issue 2:

Issue - Whether the S.C. had the right to allow for the Missouri Compromise.
- if this was ruled unconstitutional, this could blow up into a civil war
Rule - The Congress could not deny people their property without due process of law (5th Amendment of
the Constitution)
Analysis (Application of the facts to the rules) - The Missouri Compromise denied people of their property
north of the 36-30 line.
Conclusion - Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.

- the last time the S.C. used Judicial Review was during the Trail of Tears
- A.J. opposed Judicial Review
- Buchanan could have stepped in, but he just wanted things to calm down - did not want to anger
the south as they would leave
- that is why he supported the S.C.’s decision, even if it would anger the north

---- > theoretically, any state in the US could be a slave state

- now an economic crisis hits


--- > over speculation, downturn in the economy as we had been helping fund the Crimean War
- hits the north harder
- south gets cocky
- until Congress puts in a tariff to aid the north, which angered the south

Homestead Acts:
- cheap land in the west (supported by north and condoned by the west)
1858 -
- Steven Douglas runs again for re-election
- Abraham Lincoln goes against him
--- > Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Douglas supported the Freeport Doctrine


- further ignites the situation between north and south
- says that it doesn’t matter which way the Supreme Court may decide on slavery
--- > says that the people can nullify as they pick their Legislatures and therefore they have the
right of choice
- under the Kansas/Nebraska Act
- tells them to ignore the Supreme Court
--- > also wants manifest destiny without interference of the slaves
- popular sovereignty

John Brown - attacked the slave owning village in Kansas and slaughtered them
- runs away and hides, but is a hero to abolitionists
- re-emerges in VA in 1859
- cooks up a scheme to seize the US arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA, which is at the Maryland
border
- the people helping him are slaves that he helped escape
- want to shoot plantation owners and free the slaves
- wants to be the Pugachev of VA
- Buchanan sends army to put them down
- the commander of the federal forces is a Virginia general - Robert E. Lee
- John Brown and a few others get arrested
- gets put on trial in VA (means no chance for him)

- Buchanan has no chance of being re-elected, so doesn’t run


- the Democratic party would win if they remained united (for the Republicans were centered in the north)

1860 Elections

---- > the Democratic party splits


- northern democrats nominate Steven Douglas
- he stands for popular sovereignty
- if he wants the south to agree to compromise, the north has to agree to the one thing the south
got out of the Compromise of 1850 (the Fugitive Slave Law)
- abolitionists there don’t like him, as he is a sell out
- the south don’t like him much either because they know that the Fugitive Slave Law
can’t be enforced

- the southern democrats therefore broke away and put together their own candidate
- the then VP of the US - John Breckinridge
- a supporter of slavery
- no popular sovereignty and no compromise
- wants to expand slavery to the territories
- he also wants to annex Cuba
---- > not a secessionist though

- the third party that runs is the Constitutional Union


- nominate John Bell
- the compromise party that just wants everyone to unify
- they have some appeal
- the fourth party that runs are the Republicans
- didn’t easily chose their candidate
- first considered Seward, but he was too hard and fast in slavery, and therefore wouldn’t have
won
- he would have opposed the extension of slavery in the states, as well as propagated the
idea of abolition
- instead nominate Abraham Lincoln, who they saw as a compromise candidate

- Lincoln stands for in some respects, Whigs


- supports the American System and protection
- in some respects, was an expansionist
- supported the Homestead laws
- in some respects, a Free Soiler
- didn’t want to mess with slavery where it was, just prevented it from going into the other states
---- > no complete abolition

You couldn’t be at an extreme if you wanted to get voted in. Moderates, after all, appeal to everyone.

- Lincoln was excluded from the ballot from some southern states, but he still won
- three fifths of the country voted against him, yet he is president with the power of the electoral
votes

- the south cried foul


- he’s abolitionist and was only voted with two fifths
---- > ironic, because still Lincoln had more support than the south’s candidate

When you have more than two parties, the chances that you can have the outright majority is slim.

- S. Carolina immediately calls for secession


- seceded in December of 1860
- declared that it was a separate and independent nation
- wrote a Declaration of Independence
- within the next six weeks, six more states seceded
- called themselves the Confederate States of America
- wanted to be a loose gathering of states that would not be bound together, as they felt that
bounding together oppresses them
- appointed Jefferson Davis of Mississippi (Secretary of War in the Pierce Administration)

- there were still some slave states that remained a part of the Union

- in the mean time, while this secession is taking place, Buchanan is still sitting on his ‘throne’ (presidents
have to wait a few months before they get changed to the person who won the next election)
- he thought secession was unconstitutional, but couldn’t do anything as he wasn’t really the
president, even if he was sitting in the presidency
- the northern states still wanted the south to get cotton for their factories
- proposed the Crittenden Compromise
- they go to Lincoln
- it said that they should take the 36-30 line and extend it west to the Pacific Ocean
forever
- you’d be a slave if you were under that line, even further south to Antarctica
(Manifest Destiny was still in play), WHILE you are in territorial status
---- > once you become a state, it’s popular sovereignty
- wanted it to be an un-ammendable part of constitution
- Lincoln thought it was extremely stupid and said no
- it was against his morals, against the Republican platform, and he had already said that
there was to be no slavery in the territories
- fizzled out, as Lincoln did not want ANY extension
- to him, secession was just as unacceptable as extending slavery
- breaking the country in half would be financially devastating
- he believed in industrialization and the American System
- believes that you need tariff, infrastructure, etc., but you also needed raw
materials
- breaking apart is weakening both halves, and Europe would attack
- it was an invitation to them to violate the Monroe Doctrine
- he said that he wouldn’t have war unless the south provoked it
- the issue that brought the matter ahead was the dispute over government forts (northern forts) in
the Confederacy
- government forts were in foreign country when the states seceded
- they were forced to shut down even before Lincoln took office
- one of them was in Charleston, and Lincoln said that this was where he was going to
draw the line
- he knew that unless he could re-supply this fort, it would have to surrender
- he wanted to do this without provoking war
- he didn’t call it reinforcing, as all he wanted to do was give clothes, food
---- > would have to get through the southern blockade
- S. Carolina could not see the distinction between bringing in supplies and reinforcing
- they just start shooting at this fort
- this was what Lincoln wanted
- it galvanized the north and the Civil War is on 1861
- this also galvanized the south
- those border slave states were retained to the north because it wasn’t the north to fire the first
shot, and it was also Lincoln’s willingness to keep slavery

Lincoln: Save the Union at all costs. --- > was not concerned with slavery at this point

- he did have to use some force in one of those border states


- Maryland was subjected to Martial Law
- ruled by the army, and Habeus corpus was suspended
- unconstitutional except in times of rebellion
- he couldn’t lose Maryland, as the capitol was in there

The War:

- the first shots have been fired

Advantages of the North:

- industrialization ftw
- they have interchangeable parts for weapons
- they have factories to make weapons as well as supplies
- they have better infrastructure for transport (canals, railroads, telegraph)
- have a significantly bigger population (immigrants + population growth)
- have more food
- has a superior navy, and basically controls it
- they could throw a blockade all around the southern trade
- had only five ships to do it, too
---- > Union Blockade
- the south was aided by the British, but the north still had a naval advantage
- the north still had a strong trade with Europe
- the north had Abraham Lincoln
- very smart militarily
- had a diverse cabinet
- he had the advantage because of his good communication and persuasive skills

Advantages of the South:

- they were on the home turf


- they were fighting for a strong cause
- they had been invaded and their very way of life was being threatened
- the northerners had to convince themselves that the Union was worth it
- they had all the good generals from the Mexican War
- they don’t have to win --- > they just have to not lose
- if they didn’t give up, the north would eventually have to give up
- England is helping the south
- the all of Europe was rooting for the south, as if the US broke up, they could come back and
violate the Monroe Doctrine
- threatened the north with war if they didn’t hand over captured confederates in one situation
- England gave in
- if there was war, France would come in for the south too, as they were really close with England

Disadvantages of the South:

- it was a nation built on the concept of state rights


- when they formed the CSA, they didn’t want a powerful central government
- they didn’t have a strong central government, and so they didn’t have a strong central force to
coordinate a war
- they need a tariff to raise money, but they were anti-tariff
- they are not a country --- > they are a confederation, and they will not work together
- cotton diplomacy was a flop
- they were convinced that cotton would force England and France into the war, but they were
wrong
- they had assumed that England and France needed southern cotton
- it is not true as they could have gotten cotton from Egypt, India, parts of the Ottoman
Empire, and South America
- they had threatened England, and those people were angered about being pushed
around
- the English never felt that the south could win anyway
- sure, the south won quite a few battles, but they had never won a BIG battle
that could convince the English
- Lincoln’s maneuver ---- > Emancipation Proclamation
- it was issued when the south was still winning most of the battles
- it was a morale boost that was to rally the country
- it was not motivated by the morality of it --- > its goals were linked to winning
the war, and we know this because of the timing
--- > if he cared about the morality of it, he would have issued it as
soon as he became president; he cared about saving the union first, and then slavery, as seen by the fact that
he was only against further extension of slavery and not the abolition of it
- the Emancipation Proclamation declared that only the slaves living in
rebelling states (not the ones that were living in states that were allies of the north) were to be free
- also excluded states that the north had already conquered
---- > when the north wins, that means NO slaves get freed 
- it was mainly a morale boost
- wanted the slaves to fight, as they would have the most anger towards the southerners
- the war was now fighting for a Union without slavery
- blacks started to fight for the civil war now, and started fleeing to the north to fight
- it was now legally possible for blacks to fight in the army, though they had been
fighting from the beginning
- there was still a restriction on black officers
- permanently shuts the door on European aid, as they did not want to be on any one side of
slavery
---- > he was mostly saying ‘don’t have an uprising’, at least, on the surface
- under the surface, he was saying ‘have a rebellion’
- engage in some do it yourself abolition
- he brought the matter to their attention
---- > greatly applauded by the northerners, but some abolitionists who thought that this wasn’t far
enough
- farmers in the north or the west were not happy, as a lot of the slaves would escape up past the
36-30 and compete with them

---- > the south is mortified and enraged

------------------

- the war was first about the Union, but the north became to hate slavery as it strengthened the south
- so, the war became about a Union without slavery

------------------

- Northern democrats + working class men did not like the war
- most resented a war for black freedom
- feared competition for work
- immigrants were forced to go to war
- rich men could pay for substitutes
- the poorer classes were angered
- hated the war and even attacked blacks

Election of 1864 - RECONSTRUCTION

- re-election of Lincoln
- he was under a lot of pressure from his own party
- had been pressed to emancipate the slaves
- pressed to make the emancipation more powerful
- he was pressed for his taking of power in the war
- centralizing of power
- radical republicans were the bane of his existence
---- > easily re-nominated anyway

- in order to mollify the border states


- need war Democrats
- chose a Democrat as his running mate
---- > replaced him with Andrew Johnson
- had been a planter
- had been a senator of Tennessee (no longer a part of the Union, too)
- this was a real gamble, as the radicals in his own party went crazy

- the Democrats are a mess


- Steven Douglas is dead
- northern Democrats have no leader, and the southern Democrats are running the Confederacy
- they were seen as the party that appeased the south and therefore seen as the party that had led to the
breaking up of the south

---- > republicans were seen as the party that saved the Union and the democrats were seen as the ones who
caused the war
- they were divided philosophically as well
- war democrats
- peace democrats --- > want to end the war
- some want a settlement with the south, even if it means that they have to give up the
south
- some want to undermine the war and called it “Lincoln’s War” --- > Copperheads

- they nominated George C. McClellan


- extremely incapable
- his only qualification was that he was a general, who didn’t even know how to conduct war
- got outflanked by Lee on a general basis, didn’t know when to attack and went to
recede, etc.

- it looked in 1864 that Lincoln was going to lose, still


- if you looked at the percentages and the raw numbers, the north was losing in terms of battle ---
> the war was not going well, but the north had more people

- Grant strategy was that he was going to lose a lot of men, but the south would run out
- in the short run, this strategy was dangerous politically to the north
- all the people knew was that the north was losing battles and that we weren’t winning, and that
the cause was Lincoln
- they did not know of this strategy
- once we started winning some battles, the tide turned
- even then it was a close election
- McClellan was beaten thoroughly in the electoral votes, but popular vote was a 55-45 ratio.
- a lot of Union soldiers had to be brought up from the battlefield to vote and save
Lincoln

- with Lincoln’s victory, any hope on the part of the south for reconciliation is over
- he just wants to crush the south and bring them back
- this is the beginning of RECONSTRUCTION

- at the end of the war, the south will be physically destroyed


- Sherman’s march to the south totally wrecked the south
- infrastructure was ripped up, the economy was brought to a halt, cities were burned and
pillaged
- the only thing that the south had to respond to the north was its indignation

- for the north, there was a division of philosophies


- there were two distinct approaches to reconstruction
- Lincoln believed in forgiveness
- he believed in ‘with malice towards none, charity towards all’
- he never recognized their secession, still saw them as children of the Union
- the radical republicans (like Thaddeus Stevens) wanted to punish the south
- the south was to be treated as a conquered nation
--- > this difference in opinions leads to a difference in approaches

- Charles Sumner (who was beaten into unconsciousness) is back and pissed (another radical republican)
- he totally wants to revenge upon the south

- radical republicans want to destroy the cottonocracy, while protecting the freed men
- Lincoln was not so interested in protecting the freed men
- they believed that the blacks had been wrong and that this had to be fixed
- believed that if they empowered and gave rights to the blacks, they would get for the next ten
generations a new voting section for the republicans, as well as give a working force + industrial system to
benefit the Union
--- > like the American System
- -- > proves that giving the blacks rights was not just about morality, but was about politics and economics
as well

- as early as 1863, Lincoln proposes that the states could come back if at least 10% of the state takes the
loyalty oath, and if they freed their slaves
- the radicals thought that this was TOO soft

- Congress is now heavily influenced by Republicans


- they are not the majority, but were the loudest (e.g. Jacobins, Cromwell + group, Bolsheviks)
- Wade-Davis Bill was passed in response to Lincoln’s 10% decision by the Republicans
- they want 50% loyalty oath, but even this was too soft
- for you to take the loyalty oath, you may never have been in the Confederate Army
- if women were more than men, they couldn’t get the 50%
- an entire generation had to wait, and therefore was punishment
- their kids would only be able to generate the population
- it did not become law, but was just a symbol of how the Union was going
- it was not passed because the House + Senate have to pass the bill, and the president has ten
days to sign the bill in order to make
- if the president does not sign it in ten days, the bill automatically becomes law
- but, if the congressional session ends before the ten days are over, then it does NOT
become law
--- > the bill does not become a law, and is known as a pocket veto
- it was a way for the president to veto a bill without ever going on the record
- this pissed off the Congress
- Lincoln was very controversial
- took power
- was accused of supporting interracial marriage
- thought to be stupid and a backswood man by some

---- > when the delegates from the south came up to Congress, they were not seated

- when we get to the end of Lincoln’s first term, Sherman starts off in VA and rolls to the south flattening
everything in his path
- the south starts to try and want to negotiate with the north for their independence
---- > Lincoln says no, and says that they’ll only negotiate if the south gives in
- war resumes
- Sherman is flattening the south and Grant chases Lee
\
- Lincoln is re-elected and the war is won when Lee surrenders
- five days later Lincoln gets shot in Ford’s theatre by a Confederate from Virginia
- this was a part of a conspiracy to kill him, Johnson, and Seward
- three to four conspirators
- Lincoln was shot by booth, the guy who was supposed to kill Johnson got drunk and forgot, and
the guy who was supposed to kill Seward stabbed him over 80 times but Seward survived
- the family members of the victims went insane

- southerners rejoiced about Lincoln’s deaths


- there were rumors of a conspiracy by the south by Jefferson Davis, and the fact that the south
rejoiced made them more suspicious
--- > Johnson, though shared Lincoln’s belief in forgiveness, was not the same man
- he would not be as merciful
--- > the radical republicans used his assassination as a base to crush the south
---------- > Lincoln was a HUGE martyr

- Andrew Johnson assumes the presidency


- he does not have the same charm
- he is not politically savvy
- he is tactless and stubborn
- he was a heavy drinker and showed up at his second inaugural drunk
---- > believed in states rights!!!
- he alienated the south by staying loyal to the north
- because he was a southerner he was not accepted by the north
- he believed in the 10% plan as well
- forgiveness ftw
- the southern states paid off people to vote ‘sorry’
- Dec. 1865, and they were already re-unified

- the radicals said ‘not so fast’


- they feared a newly empowered white south
- if they were able to vote in Congress, they would be able to combine with the northern
democrats and obstruct the republicans’ plans
- the blacks were now seen as 5/5 of a person, and therefore the south would get 12 more
votes in Congress and 12 more presidential electoral votes

- the south had ‘The Black Code’


- made it hard for the blacks to vote, to get medical care, to get an education, etc.
- it was the south’s way of saying you got freedom but nothing else

- the republicans new that newly empowered south would make the civil war pointless

--- > open battle between Johnson and the Radical Republicans
- he said that the country was reconstructed, and the radicals disagreed
- Johnson did not seem to mind the Black Code, and this angered the radicals
- it was confirmation in their mind that he was a Confederate
- when the radicals attempted to pass Legislation to combat the Black Code (The Freed Man’s
Bureau)
- it was an agency designed to provide stuff to the blacks, to provide everything that was
not being provided by the Black Code
- Johnson opposed this and was eventually even able to torpedo the thing

- Johnson was probably a racist


- Lincoln probably would not have supported the Freed Men’s Bureau himself
- would have seen as risky alienating the south

----- > this all set off the radical republicans

- when the south congressmen went to Congress, they were not allowed to participate in Congress
- they remained ‘unreconstructed’
- radical republicans were stronger than Johnson and therefore they would get their way and he
would not
- they do not want anyone who served in the Confederate army or served in the
Confederate government to be a part of the Union
- would be up for taking their children in

- all of the house and one third of the senate is currently up for re-election

----- > Johnson infuriated the Congress

- Free Men’s Bureau was up for re-funding


- Johnson vetoed it
- to over-ride this, there would be needed a 2/3 majority of Congress
- was not over-ridden

- there was a Civil Right’s Bill to protect the freed men


- Johnson vetoed it
- it was over-ridden
- it was a matter of great conflict between president and radicals

- the president urged the south to not support the radicals


- 13th amendment prevents people from working against their will (it would be slavery)
- 14th amendment
- reverses the Dred Scott case, as well as restates the fifth amendment (protects
your life and property, but says that the federal government couldn’t take your stuff), but says that the state
couldn’t take your stuff
- if a black person couldn’t vote, then it would take away the voting rights away
from the whites
- if you were a Confederate, you could not come back to Congress, onoz!
- you could not get out of debts, nor could the south escape from their debts
from before/during the war

---- > Johnson saw this as the radicals as the stubborn ones, and that they should let the south come back to
give them the opportunity to back in
- he didn’t want them to make it so difficult that they won’t come back
- the 14th amendment gave blacks rights as well as punished the south, and this angered Johnson
- when he told the south to not support the radicals, they were furious

- by 1866, Congress has even compromised somewhat


- we’ll do 10% if you just accept the 14th amendment
- all southern states except Tennessee refused to accept

- now come the mid-term elections


- all of the House and 1/3 of the Senate is up for re-election
- Jefferson goes out and campaigns for the Republicans
- you don’t get involved in primary elections as if you told people to vote for/against
someone, and you were wrong, you’re screwed
- told people to not vote for radicals
- he didn’t realize that he didn’t have that much power, and his influence was not so great
- he was totally wrong and there was a majority of radicals in the house now

---- > there is a major change in policies

- military reconstruction!!!
- there are military districts in the south, but only Tennessee is not governed by the military
- whites could not vote
- they accepted the 14th amendment but at gun point
- once they accept, they were re-admitted into the Union

- the radicals wanted to make sure that the black people got to vote
-- > there was a de jure (by law) reality
- 15th amendment
-- > there was a de facto (in fact) reality
- for a time there were only blacks voting in the south
- the whites had been disenfranchised under military rule
- blacks were even being elected to power
- some were good, and some were corrupted
- the white south was offended
--- > the northerners that helped the blacks were known as ‘carpet baggers’
--- > southerners that helped the blacks against the whites were known as
‘scallawags’

- they took aim at Johnson (1866, and therefore has only two years in office)
- they passed the ‘Tenure of Office Act’
- made it illegal for the president to fire a member of the Cabinet without the Congress’
approval
- they knew that they had an ally in Cabinet, the Sec. of War, who had argued with
Lincoln, and hated Johnson
- they would use him to rile up Johnson to have him try and fire him, and then
they could impeach him

You could impeach a president upon the following:

* treason
* bribery
* other high crimes and misdemeanors

- high crimes can be loosely interpreted depending upon the circumstances


- radicals used that to their advantage
- if the president violated their laws, they considered it as a high crime
--- > to force the president to keep advisors who actively undermined his administration
was unreasonable, but Congress did not care
- the crime that Johnson really had committed was not even a crime
- all he had done wrong was being kind to the south, or disagreeing with the radicals
- it was not a crime but a disagreement of policy, yet the radicals wanted to impeach
them
--- > think back to Jefferson who wanted to impeach the midnight judges just because they were
federalists

Steps for Removal of Office:

- H. of R. takes up the matter first through the Judiciary Committee


- they draw up articles of impeachment and recommends them to the full house
- if the full house votes (yes a majority is required), the president has been impeached

--- > impeachment does not mean being kicked out, but merely means that you have been accused

- Why was Johnson impeached?


- right after the passage of the Tenure of Office act, he impeached Stanton, playing right
into their hands
- he was impeached upon the violation of the Tenure of Office act, yet was accused of
being mean to Congress

- after impeachment he goes to Senate for trial


- it becomes a jury
- 54 total votes (27 states)
- they had a trial and discussed his accusations and his defense
- to remove the president it was required to have 2/3 vote (36 people)
- 35 people voted to convict
- missed being tossed out of office by one vote
---- > he had cut a deal
- agreed to allow the radicals to have their reconstruction if he could just finish
his term
- the alternative to Johnson was not tasteful to the radicals anyway
---- > next in line is the Speaker of the House
- he was a radical but he was too radical (moderate
republicans and democrats were not happy with that)

- this politically emasculates Johnson


- in the long term, for the federal government, it means that if the Congress does not agree with
you, you can easily be kicked out
- Congress dominates the White House
- there is no reform as there is no leadership in the White House
- people are afraid to be president
\ ----- > there are no checks and balances now as one branch has been weakened
- also, by being so tough on the south, it has a long term negative affect on the freed men
- the north became tired of protecting the freed men
- slowly but surely they removed the troops
- by 1873 there were troops in only three states
- as these troops were removed the radical governments were replaced by
redeemer governments
- governments that redeem themselves for the south
- in terms of voting, when the troops leave blacks don’t vote anymore
- whites start to vote again and start voting democrat
- won the popular vote, but lost the electoral vote by ONE!
- the votes from the three states with the military control sent in two sets of
ballots
- each set won for democrats and republicans
- Rutherford B. Hayes ---- Republicans
- Tildon ---- Democrats

- the two sets of results are not clear (without those three states Tildon would have won)
- it was not sure who would count the votes as well
- leads to conflict
- a commission is set up to resolve the conflict
- 8 repulbicans, 7democrat, 1 independent
- voted purely on partisan views
- 8+1 to 7
--- > threatened Civil War
--- > Compromise of 1877
- the Republican ballots from the three states would be counted
- but democrats would be included in Hayes’ cabinet
- intercontinental line through Texas
- the troops would leave
---- > the freed men pay the price
- when the troops leave the last three states, the aftermath is that the Civil
Rights Act no longer had teeth
- declared that the 14th amendment does not protect slaves, but corporations

- the radical republicans came to be replaced by the solid south


- there are no longer any republican states in the south
- there were a few minor and incomplete sections, and reversed in 1968
- blacks were completely disenfranchised for a hundred years in the south

Methods by which Blacks couldn’t vote:

- KKK was formed initially to stand at the doors of court houses to prevent blacks from voting
- there was a literacy test by which African Americans and whites had to be tested on reading, and
if they could, they also had to interpret the 14th amendment
- poor whites and freed men were always failed
- there was a poll tax that the freed men couldn’t pay
- Grandfather Clauses --- > you could vote if your grandfather voted
- that wiped out everybody
- there were political parties (private entities) that said that the freed men couldn’t vote in the
primaries
- if you live in the south and the only party in town are the Democrats, and they
prevented you from voting, you couldn’t

Segregation in the South:

- Jim Crowe Laws


- complete division and separation of the two races

- Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Issue - Whether a black man was entitled to ride in the same railroad car as a white man? --- > Is
segregation illegal?
Rule - 14th amendment --- > declared that it said that you were entitled to LEGAL equality, but you weren’t
entitled to SOCIAL equality
Analysis - in terms of the 14th amendment, it is legal to have segregation (social inequality is not assured by
the 14th amendment)
Conclusion - the two races were separate but equal

- this was enforced brutally by the KKK


- lynching of blacks by regular white people
- blacks live in terror

Would the free men have been better off if the radicals hadn’t gone too far? If the south had been
destroyed? If Lincoln had lived?

United States and Native Americans:

- they had been the first occupants of North America


- at this point, though, almost all of America has been occupied by non-Americans
--- > most of the true Native-Americans lived on reservations
- when Columbus arrived there were about 4 million Native Americans in the US + Canada
- they had countless number of languages and customs
- for a living they were hunters and gatherers
- the one thing that differentiates the Native Americans from Europeans was the concept of
private land ownership, which the Native Americans did not believe in
- everything was communal and you moved on from place to place depending on what
you needed
- in European society they were known as squatters
---- > it sounded crazy to the Native Americans, except to the Pueblo farmers in the south west
- they were sedentary (not nomadic)
- distinct minority
- they were very close to nature
- ate the meat that was available
- west = buffalo; east = venison; coast = fish
- used what they found for shelter, clothing, etc.
- did not have horses till the Spanish brought them
- very respectful of the environment
- learned to distrust the explorers early
- when the Spanish arrived in South America they took their gold and often killed their leaders
- all of the Europeans brought diseases that wiped out whole communities
- had no immunities
- attacked the European settles (Powhatan Wars)
- continued throughout the 17th century on all fronts, cept in PA where the Quakers had
good relations with the Indians
- stories of atrocities by the Indians (cannibalism, murder) traveled back to Europe painting a
picture of the American Indian as a godless, barbaric savage
- didn’t even view them as human
- were originally enslaved and were worked to death
- then replaced by Africans
- a lot of the conflict with the Indians resulted over the fact that the English and the French used them in
their own conflicts
- initially the Indians aligned themselves with the French because the French respected their
territory
- they had not felt the need at the time to take over all of the Americas, whereas the
English were more and more expansive
- as the English gained the upper hand, the French were using the Indians to
destabilize the English
- scalping, murder, kidnapping, etc.
--- > encouraged this reputation of savagery
- the fear of this French-Indian menace led to the colonial unity
- the Albany Plan of Union
- after the French-Indian war got the English to realize that conflict with the Indians was trouble
and it led to the Proclamation Line

- after the French lose, the Indians have to change their alliance
- they have a choice between England and the colonies
- because England, through the Proclamation Line, the English prove that they respect
Native American territory
- therefore, for the most part, they helped England in the American Revolution
- after the Revolutionary War the colonials are settling the north west
- the colonists are growing in population and are outnumbering the Indians
- then comes the North West Ordinance, most of the land east of the Mississippi River
are now states
--- > there are Indian territories within these states, but they are doomed
- because of this threat of colonization, there are raids by the Indians on the Americans
- Americans were thus getting armed
---- > while we would buy territories from them for compensation, at the same time we
were warring with them
- Americans viewed them as hostiles
- frontiersmen hate them, religious men have a belief of Christianizing them (white man’s burden)
----- > not respective of Indian culture
- it was believed that they were godless, uneducated, and lawless
---- > NOT TRUE.
- Indian battles were central to the onset of the War of 1812
- the Americans knew that the English were using Canada as a base for attacking the Americans
with the Indians
- Tecumpsah’s Confederation threatened the Americans and at Tippacanoe they were crushed by
Harrison

- during the War of 1812, Jackson invaded Alabama and took Indian land away
-- also hanged Indian leaders in Florida

- after the War of 1812 we go into a new solution of trying to separate the Indians forever
- first proposed by James Monroe and John Quincy Adams
- was implemented by Andrew Jackson
--- > idea was to move them across the Mississippi River and they could have everything on that side
- those who resisted were forced or killed
- the Cherokees sued saying that they could not kick them out
--- > John Marshall supported them, but Andrew Jackson moved them anyway
- moved by General Winfield Scott across the Mississippi River (Trail of Tears)
- 15,000 people died
- other Native Americans went to Kansas and Nebraska, and then were moved to Oklahoma when
American settlers moved there
- owned by the US by the Louisiana Purchase but weren’t states
--- > this policy failed when the settlers moved into these areas
- the Americans found that these places were good farming territory
- once that happened the Indians were moved once more and this led to raids by the Indians
- treaties were made trading land for cash and supplies
- Indians often went uncompensated

Difference in the views of the Americans and the Native Americans:

- the Americans viewed the land as a home and a source for prosperity and economic development
- it showed that the Americans were more concerned with the pursuit of monetary, material
happiness
- the Native Americans viewed the land as a sacred place that linked them to nature and their past;
conservation was their goal
- it showed that the Native Americans were more concerned with aesthetic happiness that was
characterized by simplicity and taking only what one needed

Relations with Native Americans during the Civil War:

- some Indians fought for the Confederacy


- there was a great deal of fighting and expansion in the west
- the end of the civil war caused a change in policy
- no longer dealt with as separate nations
- caused the reservations

Reservations:

- certain areas blocked off for the Indians


- doomed their existence
- smaller land than promised and more and more was taken away
- the Americans were expanding
- conflicted with the Indians’ way of life
- they were nomadic but couldn’t roam the land to hunt/gather
- the buffalo were disappearing, over-hunting
- white Americans ate, hides, and hunt for sport
- reduced to almost extinction
- 1870s US had the upper hand, treated the Indians as conquered peoples
- still some free Indians in the northwest
- Montana gold rush tore up Indian burial grounds
- the last major battle, all Indians were outnumbered
- Wounded Knee Battle, 200 massacred Indians

Treatment of Indians by the government:

- Dawes Severalty Act, 1887 - kill the Indian, save the man
- transferred land ownership away from the tribes
- tribal ownership -- > family ownership
- much of their land was sold/given away to railroads
- money was to go to educating and civilizing
- education: American values, education
- women: make more chaste, etc…
- would gain citizenship through good behavior
- Roosevelt recognized forced assimilation was wrong
--- > Indian New Deal
- tribes govern themselves, preserve culture, spend money
1950s - urbanizing Indians
1960s - targeted reservation poverty
- much lower standard of life than the average American
- Reagan cut down funds to Native Americans

Indians on their own:

- tactics
- gain political position
- violence
- sue to get back land; compensation = money

---------------------------------

Industrialization and Expansion:

- impacted rural and industrial life


- farmed paid the price for industrialization
---- > Hamilton said that industrial would be the American way, and Jefferson said that it would come at
the cost of the farmers

- industry took the cities we had and made bigger cities, as well as made new cities in the west

- industrialization started with TRAINS

Railroad boom:

- after the civil war, there was a boom


- six times as many tracks as before
- on a transcontinental basis
- had been an issue before the Civil War
- Gadsen Purchase
- Kansas/Nebraska Act
- when the south had left the country, it made it easier for the north to decide where they wanted
the railroad
- Ogden, Utah -- > sealed with a golden spike
- by 1900 there were four other transcontinental lines

Had a tremendous impact on the US:

- tied the west coast to the rest of the Union


- facilitates trade with the west coast, as well as the west coast with Asia
- helps fill in the places in the central US
- the domestic market for US goods and raw materials grows
- become more of an integrated economy
- spurs the industrialization
- you need a lot of industrially produced goods for trains
* coal
* steel
- stimulates coal mining and steel production, but also agriculture
- farmers could now get the industrial resources that they need, and they can
also get their goods to the market much faster
- the impetus was the demand for faster transport by the farmer
---- > the farmer needs the train
- this was ironic as the train would become the scourge of the farmer
- the railroads created a second round of urbanization
- the first round was focused around the east coast and near the Great Lakes
- the second round was out west where there used to be nothing
- they also encouraged immigration
- the train helped them move about the US

- the government saw that the railroad would benefit the economy and infrastructure for the US
- land was practically given to the railroads
- shrunk the Indian reservations and handed that land over to the railroads
- railroad moguls had a financial advantage as they didn’t have to buy land
- therefore didn’t have to suffer the initial loss of buying land
- the railroads didn’t even use a lot of this land
- sold it for profit
- the fate of the frontier villages depended upon the railroad
- if the railroad did not go through, the town would fail
- the railroad therefore would blackmail the towns into getting the land for free

- Cornelius Vanderbilt modernized the train and improved it


- had an arrogant attitude
- when the public complained about railroad prices, he said that they could be
damned
- Credit Mobelier Co.
- they hired themselves as well as paid themselves a lot of money to build railroads
- Congress, in a very naïve way, told the company that they could go out and determine
how much money that they needed to lay a railroad
- they lied to Congress and told that they needed more money than they really
did
- this was tax dollars
- also paid the members of Congress to keep their mouths shut
- this scandal went so high that even the vice-president was on the payroll of Credit Mobelier

- the railroad was one of the four major ‘trusts’, but would also contribute to many of the major problems
of the age

- the next industry was STEEL


- steel is crucial for consumers
- it typifies heavy industry; a capital good
- used to make other goods
- e.g. trains!
- grew tremendously from 1870-1890
- right after the Civil War we were a total importer of steel
- whatever steel that we used, we got from other countries
- primarily from England
- by 1890, we produce 1/3 of the world’s supply of steel
- there was an improvement of the technology
- the Bessemer process
- greatly reduced the cost of producing steel
- we had an abundant labor supply
- population grows naturally
- immigration is incredible during those times
- we had the resources
- the US was rich in coal
- the industrial know-how
- the ability to know where to start a business, to know how to run a business,
and the willingness to take risks
--- > entrepreneurship

- the first real entrepreneur in the steel industry was Andrew Carnegie
- started at the lowest of jobs and worked his way up
- was efficient and tough
- though he wanted to build his business into a great power, he did not believe in having a
monopoly
- was rather philanthropic
- the greatest cost was paying for labor
- most people would reduce pay, and so did Carnegie, but he did gave a lot of money to
different organizations
---- > he did not see the contradiction
- saw pay-cuts as business, and saw charity it as the good for society
- saw giving work as helping the people enough, and expanding his business was
creating more jobs
- thought that enough
- Carnegie did pretty well
- by 1900 produced ¼ of the country’s steel
- produced 1/12 of the world’s steel

- in 1900 he sold Carnegie Steel to J.P. Morgan


- wanted to retire
- sold it for $400 million dollars

- next was BANKING


- located in Wall Street in NY
- finance the railroads, the steel companies, other banks, etc.
- heart of the banking system of the world
- critical to investment
- when the money is put in deposit, it lends it out to other people
- therefore they have to be careful who they lend money to
- industries tended to be the safest investments
- farmers were not good risks as their money depend on the markets
- mortgage rates were high anyway, and this would lead to foreclosures
in order to cut the loss of the bankers
- therefore Wall Street was hated by the farmers just as much as the US
Bank
- farmers demanded ‘sound money’ policies
- less money out there, so that it was more valuable
- wanted it to be based on some commodity that was hard to get
--- > gold
- J.P. Morgan was the giant of banking
- was a monopolist
- ruthless, but played by the rules as they existed
- also got involved in the public sector
- involved in the US economy, and therefore was involved in politics as well

- US went into an economic downturn


- part of the reason in 1894 was because there was a significant shortage of gold
- had impacts throughout the economy
- Morgan went and bought up gold from overseas and when he acquired this gold, he made it
available in the US economic system, at the request of President Grover Cleveland
- in 1907 he made certain stock purchases to ease depression, at the request of President Roosevelt

- although Morgan was near his retirement, he tried to fight the stock market crash (1929)

- next was OIL


- came up pretty suddenly
- black oil
- came out initially to the response in demand to light
- before the 20th century, when daylight ended, the day officially ended
- lamps were lit by oils that were smelly, dim, and dangerous
- Edwin Drake said that the black oil would be useful, but they had to find a way to get it out of the ground
- noticed that it burned hot, bright, and long
- worked on drilling methods
- the first drilling location in the world was Oil City, PA
- figures out the way to drill it out of the ground
-- > people thought him an idiot, who would want this stuff?
- ‘Drake’s Folly’

- the first use of this oil was for kerosene


- better than whale oil
- wasn’t as dangerous and didn’t smell as bad
- kerosene became the premier fuel for street lights until electricity came along
- the next use was in factories
- fuel
- kept the parts of the machines lubricated
- used in cars
- fuel
- lubrication

- John D. Rockefeller
- came from a modest beginning
- by 1877 controlled 95% of the oil refineries in the US
- the company he set up was Standard Oil
- made a LOT of money
- he made a high quality product, and made it for cheap
- influenced the market price as well, as he was the major player in the field
- cost of production was low as he lowered the wages
- philanthropist simultaneously, like Carengie
- method of drilling and refinery was efficient
--- > was very good at keeping the cost of production low, and the market price high
- he eliminated his competition by:

* He sold less than his competitors, even if it meant a loss.


- he had so many more centers so the loss in one place wouldn’t hurt
- the minute the competition was crushed he would put the prices up
* Economies of scale
- people who make a lot of something quickly and efficiently
* Stock markets
- bought the shares of the opposition company from their shareholders, therefore making the
opposition their company

- he had a business ethic that came to permeate the entire US economy


- the ethic of trust
--- > one company that had near complete dominance over an industry
- to destroy all competition at all costs
- it wasn’t good enough to make lots of money
- to win was to defeat
- interstate and yet couldn’t be touched by Congress
- oil is inelastic
- you could raise the price obscenely and people still bought it
--- > Rockefeller showed no mercy to the consumers, the competitors, or the workers
- the worker was squeezed as a laborer as well as a customer
- Rockefeller was the monopoly and therefore knew that they controlled labor
- the railroad was also squeezed
- got rebates for the freights
--- > Long Haul/Short Run; short run = more money, therefore effecting the
farmers and not the oil company
- are not making the money from the oil companies and therefore
squeeze the farmers

- there are several types of trusts going on here


- vertical integration
- instead of depending upon other companies for capital goods, buy those companies
- horizontal integration
- buying the company of the competitor within the same business
- conglomerate merging
- buying unrelated companies
- interlocking directory
- same directors run companies that are supposedly in competition
- plutocrats prayed to the gospel of wealth
- believed that God gave them their riches
- some distasteful aspects of that
- had utter contempt of the poor
- saw them as lazy
--- > most preached social Darwinism
- it’s only natural that some people are strong and some people are weak
- natural roadblock to social reform
- endorsed by the Supreme Court
- through the 14th Amendment
- through the Commerce Clause

----------------------------

ESSAY TEST:

Causes:

- concepts worksheet --- > listed the various causes


- timeline --- > STUDY IT  --- > pay attention to the time frame

Reconstruction:

- chart comparing Lincoln’s approach v. Radicals’ approach


- consequences for the blacks
- relationship between Lincoln and Congress

----------------------------

- externalities (economic side effects) on industrialization


- pollution
- crime (differences in wealth)
- poverty
- trusts
- stifled competition
- predatory
- hurt consumers
- high prices and bad goods because of no competition
- dominated the labor market
- could pay them and work them under conditions they wanted
- business cycle
- people out of work
- businesses closing
- leading to people rushing to get their money out of the banks
- banks run out of money, and then they close
- there was no insurance
- farmers got mortgages that they would pay off later
- debtors want an extension on their debt, or want it easier to
pay the debt
------ > they want green backs!

- want paper money to put into the system so that they can get what they are owed, and that they can pay
off their debts
- those who gave the loans (including Wall Street) did not want that, as they want what they paid
in gold, as they had paid in gold in the first place
- there was so much pressure on Congress that the Democrats ran in the mid-term elections in 1874 saying
that they would make silver available
- it was at least available
- in 1878 -- > Bland - Allison Act
- required that the government purchase a certain minimum amount of silver each year ($2-4
million)
- there was even a Greenback Party
- dedicated solely to the production of paper money
- Sherman Silver Purchase Act
- demanded an even greater purchase of silver

- two societies economically started forming


- those who wanted gold (sound money / hard money)
- those who wanted silver (soft money / easy money)
- the extremes wanted paper money
- by the late 1870s, the recession is going away
- things are returning to normal
- 1893 we hit another trough, onoz
- caused by over-building and over-speculation
- complicated by the silver purchase acts
- requires the govt. to buy silver and give up gold
- we have business failures, unemployed, and aimless hobos roaming the country
--- > Jacob Coxey organized a band of hobos (unemployed/tramps/etc)
- to go march on Washington and demand the govt. do something to help them
- the president was Cleveland
- responded to them as if they were radicals trying to take over the country
- had them dispersed by the army
- it was not to act on the benefit of the debtor, to make it easier to get money
- they wanted to make it back to hard money
-- > Sherman Silver Purchase act was repealed
- gold was to be re-inserted
- J.P. Morgan bought a lot of gold
- also discovered a lot of gold in Alaska
- there was a need in the late 1800s for reform
- it was to soften the blow of the business downturns
- lot of people are afraid of losing their jobs because they wouldn’t have any savings to rely on
- the bank could shut down, or they just might not have enough money anyway
--- > the only solution was having gold, but this hurt the debtors and the farmers
- benefited solely the easterners
- the railroads ripped the farmers off anyway
- when the states tried to regulate this, the courts said that this was not possible as this
was inter-state commerce
- it was up to Congress to regulate and they won’t do it
- finally in 1887 Congress took action
- Inter-State Commerce Act
- passed over Cleveland’s veto
- outlawed unfair trade practices
- like secret rebates
- where they would publicly charge everyone with the same price, but return the
money back to certain people
- created the interstate commerce commission (ICC)
- the first in a series of agencies designed to actually enforce the law
- this was very important as laws were shallow without enforcement mechanisms
- hired a lot of police officers and jailed/fined violaters
- to make sure that people weren’t charged different people different rates
- to make sure the long haul/short haul differential didn’t exist anymore
- to make sure that the farmers were treated fairly

--- > this was a nation-wide job


- they had to have enough staff, which they did not have
- it was not a perfect situation, but it was a good step
- wasn’t effective for the first twenty years of its existence

- enforcement against the trusts


- Sherman Anti-Trust Act
- first real legislation against the monopolies
- forbid the restraint of trade
- you can’t purposely kill off the competition
- it was kind of a judgment call
- there was a conspiracy requirement
- you had to show proof that people were working together to control a trade
- how would you prove?
- they had to scare one of the conspirators to reveal the others
- therefore hard to prove
- this was to be enforced, but it was hard
- there already was an enforcement agency for this
- Justice Department
- what if the Justice Department works for a president sympathetic to business?
- this cannot be enforced, and becomes a pyrrhic victory
- wasn’t a victory at all, for it didn’t work for 12 years of its existence
- it was actually misused

- the labor situation


- factories had long hours and bad conditions
- if they demanded better conditions, they would be fired and replaced easily
--- > immigrants
- made up the proletariat, and they keep coming
- the immigration situation therefore hurt the workers
- Triangle Company fire
- women had to jump out the window as they had been locked in, so as to escape the fire
- these very same women had complained about the working conditions
- very influential event

- because the immigrants were taking American jobs, the native Americans (including the immigrants that
currently lived there) hated the immigrants

- to benefit the workers


- skilled workers were able to leverage themselves into better positions
- because they were less in number and therefore there wasn’t much competition
- that was why there had been guilds in the past
- to protect the unskilled worker, to keep his wages high
- to limit the number of people hired
- only a union could do that
- unions were easier to form in Europe
- it was very difficult for unions to start in the US
- Americans have always been predisposed to distrust unions, as they had associated
unions with radical movements
- Karl Marx = unionism
- the overthrow of the existing system of the government
- redistribution of wealth
- violence
- strikes
- employers were much better organized than unions
- if people protested against their working conditions by going on strike, they could
easily be replaced and the strike could be made pointless
- the law was against the unions
- the courts were against the unions
- the unions went through several periods in the United States in which unions were illegal

1776-1840 - unions were illegal


- unfair restraint to trade, apparently
- if you successfully unionize, it could hurt production
- the employer may be restrained on how many people that could be hired
- that meant that the wages would be higher, and production would drop

1840-1935 - a court in Massachusetts ruled that you could not hold unions to be illegal
- were legal but not protected
- can no longer send them to jail, but you can fire them
- once you got fired, you got black-listed
- couldn’t be hired again
- whoever was hired in their place was made to sign ‘Yellow Dog Contracts’
- everyone was then made to sign that or quit, therefore promising that they would not
join a union
- if you caused too much trouble, you could even be locked out ‘a lock out’
- once you were let in, your wages could be lowered, your hours could be lengthened,
etc.
- if you lived in a company town, you got a sick twist of utopian socialism
- they would employ you, and you got paid in scrip, that was only good in a company
store

- right after the Civil War, four instances of violence really bothered people
1877 -

- B + O Strike
- Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
- was a wildcat strike, wasn’t even organized by a union
- President Rutherford B. Hayes said that they had to protect the railroad, as it was private property
- the strike was forcefully put down
- people were horrified at the workers

1886 -

- Haymarket Square, Chicago


- workers met to discuss how they could approach the employers to ask for better wages and conditions
and hours
- there were some radicals who believed they could get followers
- anarchists are there passing out literature
- there are Marxists there as well
- the police show up and someone throws a grenade
- President Grover Clevelend condemned the bombing as a work of the unions, the radicals, and the
Marxists

1892 -

- Homestead Steel Mills, western PA


- President Benjamin Harrison called out federal troops to protect private property once again
- a massacre occurs
- the public blames the workers, once again

1894 -

- Pullman Strike (railroad workers)


- Grover Cleveland was back in office
- he had his Justice Department put together an injunction against the strike
- was based on the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
- an act to prevent monopolies to protect trade
- was interpreted as to prevent labor unions from dominating labor
- this was the first instance of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act as being misused against unions
- would be used such all the way to 1913
- the federal troops and we had another bloody mess

- within the case of 17 years, the middle class blamed on the workers
- would not encourage unionization

- small scale attempts at unionization was crushed


- coal miners in eastern PA tried to organize
- Molly Maguires
- were arrested and trumped up charges for murder, and ten of them were hanged to
make an example of them
- the Knights of Labor
- an attempt to unify all skilled and unskilled in one mass union
- belief in the power of numbers
- the skilled workers did not want to be associated with the unskilled, however
- the Haymarket Square bombing came along and scared everyone
- there were too many unskilled workers and they could not be organized
- did not last long
- had given speeches about redistributing wealth, and scared away the rich people
- the American Federation of labor
- started by Samuel Gompers
- his goal was to make sure that only union workers were hired
- this was to make wages go up and conditions improve
- this was known as a ‘closed shop’ when an employer hired only union workers
- he took a different tact from the Knights of Labor in regards to wealth
- believed that the main purpose of unions was economic, and was ok with
compromise
- wanted to work within the system
- dissociated the association from socialists and radicals
- did not talk about taking away anybody’s wealth
- just better pay, better hours, and better terms and conditions of
government
- as a result, he was able to secure several million people in his organization
- mostly included skilled workers
- cared about organized strikes, and hated wild cat strikes
- had to make sure that the strike was well-funded
- the union would have funds to pay people while they were on strike so that
they won’t stop striking (after all, they are not working and not making money)
- was not radical, and therefore is still around today
- poverty in the cities
- fed by the mass immigration
- people from different countries moved into their own neighborhoods
- people tended to live in ‘ghettos’
- ‘separated by ethnic group’
- spoke in their own languages, printed newspapers in their own languages, and married
in their own cultures
- ethnically homogenous population
- there were tons of jobs in the cities
- urbanization
- there was a lot of culture
- however, there were tenements (dumbbell tenements)
- houses that were housed for the poor
- they were restrictive, crowded
- health issues
- crime rate increased
- fire hazards
- no running water
- no internal plumbing
- there were people not being able to find jobs because of immigration
- soup kitchens
- could get robbed/killed in their sleep

- the wealthy became hostile to the immigrants


- the original generation of Americans
- their ancestors had come from other countries as well, but they were hostile to immigrants as
they were Protestants and the immigrants were either Catholic or Jewish
- their ethnicity probably also bothered them, as they were from the west and northern
part of Europe, and the immigrants were from the East or Italy
- which means that they had different customs, practices, and spoke different
languages
- the immigrants needed friends
- the immigrants were aided by some individual efforts
- half-way houses
- today, back into society from crime/drugs
- then, to assimilate the immigrants into society
- Jane Addams
- established something called ‘Hull House’
- fed, clothed, educated the immigrants until they were ready to go out into the American
society
- she got the money for the CHEFS through fundraising
- she had a lot of support from the people, as she was the chic thing to support
- sort of like Utopian socialism
- it only works on a small scale
- many needs are unmet by the US as a whole for the immigrants
- most Americans don’t like them, don’t want them, and won’t help them
- they had to get help from local government officials
- mayors, city council men, ward leaders, etc.
- they were motivated as the immigrants were a useful tool
-- > support at election time, and not cause any trouble
- provide the immigrants with jobs working for the city
- provide services to people
- built hospitals
- called political machines
- help the immigrants with the law if they broke it
- if there was a death in the family, provided for the ceremony
- food, housing, clothing
- built parks and sponsored picnics on national holidays
--- > the political machine was an early welfare system
- provided a safety net that they wouldn’t have had as the whole of society was against them

- corruption of government
- at all levels
- the machines got votes by giving stuff to the immigrants, and didn’t have to address the poor
working conditions, the poor living conditions
--- > why? cause they got elected anyway
- took care of the individual problems, and therefore didn’t have to take care of societal problems
- it was called the gilded age
- tainted age, politically
- Credit Mobilier was the biggest scandal
- hired and paid themselves
- paid off Congress and even the VP to stay silent
- Grant was one of the worst presidents
- his term was rife with scandal
- couldn’t handle the economy
- he was not a crook
- he just surrounded himself with bad people
--- > spoils system is currently totally out of control
- when Jackson brought this system, only replaced 25% of the bureaucracy
- by the time of Grant, it was over three times that
- the worst part was that the standard by which you were hired
- if you were in charge of the National Sewage Inspection, you might not even know
anything about the sewage system as long as you supported the president in his campaign
- the whole federal and local governments are filled with people because of who they
know, not what they know
- there was talk of civil service reform as early as the 1870s
- even Grant supported it, but during his administration, he had no credibility
- Rutherford B. Hayes promised to bring reform
- promised that if he got elected, he would only serve one term
- once he won, people weren’t afraid of him because they knew that he would serve only
one term
---- > they ate him up, and there were plenty of people who wanted to maintain the old
system
* republicans
- divided into the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds
- Conkling, leader of the Stalwarts
- want Grant
- violently support the spoils system
- James G. Blaine, leader of the Half-Breeds
- only half-republican
--- > tore the republican party apart over the issue of civil service reform (bureaucracy, anyone
who was appointed, excluding the cabinet)

1880 -
- compromise between the two
- nominated Garfield
--- > was a moderate Half-Breed
- in order to keep the Stalwarts happy, they nominated as his running mate, Chester
Arthur, a tax collector who was a Stalwart

- the democrats went with a war hero, Winfield Hancock

- Garfield takes office 1881


- still under the age of the spoils system
- people are coming to the White House in search of jobs
--- > Guiteau comes in search of a job, but isn’t at all qualified
- had helped in the Garfield campaign
- doesn’t get the job, because Garfield is a Half-Breed and doesn’t care for the spoils
system
- three months later, the president is taking a business trip to New York City
- taking a train
- Guiteau shoots him
--- > “I am a Stalwart, and now Arthur is president”
- he is only wounded, but they couldn’t find the other bullet
- they operate four times and can’t find it
- he couldn’t endure the surgery and died
- Chester Arthur is the new president
- Stalwart
- was horrified by what had happened
- he was transformed into a Half-Breed
- Congress was also moved to do something about this
- the reaction is the Pendleton Act of 1883
- civil service reform as well as the rules for civil service appointment (excluding the
president’s cabinet)
- background check
- exam
- once you get that job you can’t be fired except for cause (a reason like incompetence,
insubordinate, etc.)
- cannot require people to make donations to the party in order to keep their job
- significantly addressed the issue of corruption at the federal level
- was still alive in the states (by the governors) and in the cities (by the
machines)
- what they needed was little Pendleton Acts

- Boss Tweed is a good example of an iron clad machine in New York


- started a machine nicknamed Tammany Hall
- dominated New York City politics
- when Grover Cleveland was elected in 1884
- Chester Arthur alienated himself from the Republican Party (Stalwarts don’t like him and the
Half-Breeds didn’t fully trust him)
- the next elections had Blaine as the Republican candidate (had a bad reputation for dishonesty)
- the Democrats had Cleveland had a bad marriage, and that was his only bad reputation
- first Democratic president since before the Civil War

- he was so pro-business that he out-pro-businesses the Republicans (who were typically pro-business)
- he was defeated when he ran for re-election, however
- Benjamin Harrison was now president, but he had been out-polled in the popular vote
- Cleveland lost over tariff issues
- industrial giants that supported high tariffs went behind Harrison
- Cleveland won again in 1892 against Harrison

- Cleveland was not much for unions, or aiding the poor


- he was the first guy to use the Sherman Anti-Trust Act against the labor unions
--- > the industrialization contributed to change in foreign policy
- more money/business makes it want to be a dominant power in the world
- more imperialistic and expansionistic

The Paradigm Shift:

Foreign Policy before the Civil War -


- to keep predators away
- those predators were from Europe
-- > Washington had set a significant tone
- Neutrality Policy
- up till now is kind of the default position
- let’s not get involved unless we absolutely have to
- had been issued to keep us out of war
- we were to help France with our alliance, but we would have lost the war
-- > Hamilton had been right to agree with Washington
- Citizen Genet was a good example of this
- this provided a good way of driving the point home to the Americans, and were then
convinced
- during Washington’s farewell address, he said
--- > US should forever avoid entangling alliances
- never get into a situation where you are forever bound to an ally, because if
their policy is inept/changes, then you’re screwed
-- > this was followed till NATO after WWII
- by the turn of the nineteenth century, the Americans all believed that Europe was bad
- to keep the Europeans away, we entered into a whole bunch of treaties
- the Treaty of Paris
- Jay’s Treaty
- Pinckney’s Treaty
- Louisiana Purchase
- War of 1812
- Adams/Onis Treaty
- Rush Bagot
---- > culminating policy was the Monroe Doctrine
- all of America is closed
- European predators were to stay away
- Americans wanted economic opportunity and freedom without interference
- the Europeans could still keep their colonies, but just couldn’t re-colonize places that were free
- eg. Cuba
- had been held by Spain and remained a Spanish colony
- that did not mean that imperialism did not exist before the Civil War in the US
- imperialism means running another people (anybody)
- colonization was a bit different from annexing
- you just tell them what to do, and take their resources
- hegemony was a very indirect way of imperialism
- getting people to do what you want them to do but through their BIG GUNS
- the US practiced all of those to some degree
- we annexed Texas, the Gadsden Purchase, the Mexican Purchase, moving the Indians
- we colonized your mom
- we had spheres of influence arguably in South America (sorta)

After the Civil War -

- there is industrialization
- immigration
- but we need more resources to run the factories
- we also need markets to sell our stuff
- industrialization has outgrown the American economy

--- > the reason we shift from isolation to imperialism, is so as to sell stuff / make stuff

- were lovers of liberty


- pure, spiritual, Christians
- want to make a Christian (Protestant) world
- God has ordained us to make sure that everyone is free and Christian
- natural selection -- > Anglo Saxons of the US
- just like the dinosaurs died out and the birds survived
--- > sounds like Hitler (Josiah Strong), but didn’t talk about killing everybody

--- > white man’s burden + social Darwinism


- Teddy Roosevelt loved this idea

Turner Thesis -
- the US is a country of frontier
- to get away from claustrophobic Europe
-- > had to keep expanding
- no further on land mass
-- > keep going
- sea to shining sea
- reservations all taken
- open land is being cultivated
- the pioneers who had been able to escape
- we no longer had a release valve

- this is the late 1800s


- when the Europeans are scrambling for Africa and Asia
- British India was formed
- Dutch in the East Indies
- etc.
- if the US wanted to compete with Europe, it has to colonize

- development of the sale of newspapers


- with the growth of our education system, there is a growth in the demand for newspapers
- as more and more newspapers are established, they compete
- got to get people to read your newspaper
- they sell sensational stories, regardless of whether or not they were correct
- the Yellow Press
- the Yellow Kid would go around the world spreading American values and saving the world
from evil (democracy + evil)
- it is excessive exaggeration
- some days they exaggerated and some days they lied

Alfred Thayer Mahan


- wrote a book ‘The Importance of Sea Power’
- mentioned the great civilizations
- said that it was their navy that made them superior
- people like Theodore Roosevelt fell completely this, as well as Henry Cabot Lodge

Lodge
- chairman of the foreign relations committee in the Senate
- believes what Roosevelt believes in social Darwinism, as well as in what Mahan says

- both men have strains of isolationism them, still

Imperialism:

- 1865-1989
- 1898 ---- >

1866 -

- several activities in 1865 show the birth of imperialism


- begins with the purchase of Alaska by William H. Seward
- higher law guy
- who ended up in Lincoln’s cabinet
- Johnson agreed to the purchase
- it was not liked by the American people at that time
- the Russians sold this because it was too far away
- it was a treaty
- needed just 2/3 of the Senate, and got it
- there were people in Congress who said that they should get the rest of the
land between Alaska and the US (part of Canada), but never happened

1880s -

- a conflict over Samoa with Germany


- leading to the acquisition of some islands there

- eleven Italian nationals are lynched in New Orleans

- several ships land in Chile


- sailors get off of the ships and cause problems
- police come and two sailors are killed
- the president of the US demands an apology

- conflict with Canada over seal hunting over the coast of Alaska

------ > we are getting a bit more feisty

1893 -

- Venezuela
- the border between Venezuela and British Guyana wasn’t clear
- there was a question as to whether British Guyana ended a bit further into Venezuela
- we were the protectors of Venezuela
- Cleveland was president then
- the Venezuelans are saying that the British are trying to colonize them
---- > violates the Monroe Doctrine
- the British said that it wasn’t a violation as that land had always belonged to them
- the president support British over them, because the British support was needed

- we declared that we are sovereign of the continent (including South America)


- declared that we were invincible

- that means that we actually now support Venezuela


- Congress was so whipped up we almost went to war with England, but the president calmed
them down
- ironic because the British had been the ones enforcing the Monroe Doctrine
- the British backed off
- the Kaiser was meanwhile building up his stuff in Germany
--- > shows a complete change in America’s attitude

1889 -

- met with the Latin America countries at a Pan-American Congress


---- > Organization of American States
- symbol of cooperation
- sign of America’s concern and assistance to Latin America
- later seen as a vehicle by which the US could dominate, to exercise hegemony
- to make use of their resources for our benefits and at their expense
- as we took more and more action with Latin America, we became seen as the bully

Hawaii -

- ‘Crossroads of the Pacific’


- we were Christianizing the ‘heathens’
- over time it became more of a business
- our views of the Hawaiians were patronizing
- social Darwinism in play
- through economic treaties we have an alliance, but we mocked them
- became a major shipping route
- the Queen did not want to let Hawaii become a puppet
- but US shipping interest grew significantly in Hawaii

1893 -

- when the new government under Sanford Dole in Hawaii


- immediately applied to be annexed
- Cleveland turned them down
- in his mind, since the Hawaiians opposed being annexed, it was immoral to take them
over against their will

- sparked a debate about the evils/virtues of imperialism as a whole

Cuba:

- goes all the way back to the 1820s when John Quincy Adams said that Cuba is a natural appendage to the
US
- we tried to purchase it from the Spanish (Ostend Manifesto)
- economic reasons (business interest in Cuba--- > sugar plantations, tobacco plantations) as well as a
growing Cuban independence movement
- caused by the poverty that the Cubans live under
- wrong end of the mercantile game
- was worsened by US tariffs
- they also want independence because Spain’s rule is particularly oppressive
- Valeriano Weyler’s Reconcentration Policy
- Cuban’s who spoke out were locked up in camps
- we were sympathetic to the Cubans as we too had been under an oppressive power

--- > Cuba has the triangles problem


- at the top of society was the Spanish, some US businesses, and a few Cubans (aristocrats)
- have all the wealth
- at the rest (bottom) was all the Cuban farmers (people who work on the plantations)
- have only a bit of wealth
- do not see the US businesses as their problem
- don’t even see their own aristocrats as the problem
-------------- > saw only the Spanish as the problem
- they scorched American plantations so that they would intervene
- to get them to get involved in Cuba
- the stories about the burnings and lootings, as well as the atrocities of the Spanish, were going
into the American public
- from the Yellow Press
- going into the 1880s, Cleveland is the president
- doesn’t like imperialism, as seen by when he refused to annex Hawaii
- does not want to get involved in Cuba
---- > both parties now supported Cuba over Spain, which is important to note as both
parties disagreed on so many things
- America is considering that Cuba was under the Monroe Doctrine
--- > flawed idea, as Spain owned Cuba before the Monroe Doctrine
- now the president changes in 1896
- William McKinley, imperialist
- sent the U.S.S. Maine into the Havana Harbor
- violation of their sovereignty
---- > Havana was the principal business interest, as well as the capital
- the Spanish is furious, and they are rather prickly anyway as their power had been
slipping at that time
- the Spanish minister, wrote a letter to a friend, Depuis de Lome
- the letter was stolen and held by the Cuban insurgent movement in the US until it could
most affectively be used
- 1898, was released
- said that the president was weak and bitter for the admiration of the crowd
- war monger
- having no backbone and giving into the war mongers of his party
---- > like Henry Cabot Lodge
--- > this is not true, as he was an imperialist
- he was just being pushed by the war monger in his parties

- this letter had such a negative impact as the people do not appreciate that they called the president names
- protective of their leader

- a week later something else exploded


- the U.S.S. Maine
- nobody knew why
- different reports came out
- the Spanish did their own research
- said that their boiler room blew up
- the Americans did their own research
- said the Spanish did it
---- > The truth was that the boiler room blew up.

- the Spanish said that they would deal with it with an arbitrator, that they would pay the families, and
would deal with the camps and treat the Cubans nicer
- but the Americans were whipped up and wanted war
- McKinley did not like war
- was worried what war would do to business
- would be bad for Wall Street
- distracts from other sales
- did not think that the Spanish would deliver their promises
- figured that war was good for the Republicans, and would make the Democrats look bad
- therefore went to war
- send that we went to war because
* to put an end to the barbarities of the Spanish
* owe it to our citizens in Cuba to afford them that protection (monetary
protection)
* the injury to our commerce/trade and wanton destruction of our property
(which was going on by the Cubans)
* we are spending a lot of money to keep Cuba in peace
* the U.S.S. Maine was blown up by a submarine mine (wtf)
--- > Congress declared war on April 11

- at the same time, passed the Teller Amendment


- a free Cuba after the war
- promise to the Cuban people that we would not turn around and try to make Cuba our own
colony
- we were technically heroes in Cuba

- proof that we were not interested in helping Cuba, as we first attacked the Spanish colony of the
Philippines
- Theodore Roosevelt ordered this attack
- Filipinos were running an independence movement at the same time
- led by Emino Aguinaldo
- we were able to destroy the Spanish boats protecting the boats, but could not root the
Spanish forts without Aguinaldo’s help
- Aguinaldo expected that once the Americans liberate them, they would also be
granted independence
- we then took over Guam, a Spanish protected thing
- we then annexed Hawaii
- Hawaii was a provisioning station now
- to calm the Hawaiians, they were granted immediate citizen status
- in Latin America, we attacked Cuba and Puerto Rico
- Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
- we suffered only a 185 casualties
- when the Spanish tried to retreat, they were hunted down and sunk
- Treaty of Paris, 1889
- purchased Philippines from Spain, as well as Guam and Puerto Rico
- they also had to free the Cubans

- left the US with many decisions


- what to do with the Philippines and what to do with Cuba
- we decided that the Philippines would remain an American colony
- shocked the world
- the Europeans had expected that we would liberate the Philippines, as did the Filipinos
- Aguinaldo now turned around and led an insurrection movement against the Americans
- engaged in a four year pacification movement
- to settle down the Filipinos
- we lost a lot more men/supplies in the pacification movement
- there was much opposition in the US
- Anti-Imperialism League
- all men of whatever race or color were entitled to the right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
- has a certain flavor of the Declaration of Independence
- don’t like the sacrifice of the American soldiers
- protested against the extension of American sovereignty
- pointed out the hypocrisy of the war
- we had fought off colonialism and were now colonizing another
- we can’t govern another without their consent

--- > oppose the pacification movement on purely moral grounds


- a real contrast to Reverend Josiah Strong
- not everyone was buying into imperialism
- doesn’t matter what they thought, however, as the president supported the Philippine acquisition

1898-1946 --- > Philippines was under us

- we had promised freedom to the Cubans after the war


- our troops didn’t leave right away after the war, however
- we said that we’d grant their independence but wait till their ready for it
--- > FOUR YEARS
- the thinking was that they would stick around until they could teach them how to be independent
- governance, business, infrastructure, etc.
- sounds all well and good, but the Cubans were chaffing under the rule of the Americans
- saw the Philippines and were unsure
- the Americans had a significant revision of their promise
- Plat Amendment
- Cuba can have independence but only if the new nation of Cuba inserts a
couple of provisions into their constitution
- Cuba may not give away any of its lands to anyone else (for
decolonization)
- required that they lease to us a certain portion of its land for a
military base
--- > we can colonize, but no one else can
- the Cubans could not operate their government in a way that they would have a deficit

Deficit - per annum


- expenditure exceeds income over budget
- took in $1000 in tax dollars (income)
- in expenditure, we spent $10,000
- we have a deficit of $9000

- the United States maintained the right to intervene in Cuba at


any time in which American life, liberty, or property was threatened
----- > there are businesses in Cuba
- there are a lot more, too, with the Spanish gone
- intervene could mean anything from sending in soldiers to overthrowing the
government
- the Cuban Congress discussed this with outrage
- refused to agree to this
- but by now it is Theodore Roosevelt, who said fine, then we won’t leave
- therefore accepted the Plat Amendment very bitterly
- the U.S. troops leave
--- > first instance of bad feeling towards the United States in Cuba

1905

- the Dominican Republic was an independent country that had borrowed a lot of money from England and
Germany
- arguably the two most powerful countries at that time
- they had borrowed so much money that they couldn’t make the payments
- went into default (where they couldn’t pay)
- usually, if it was a material good that had the loan, such a thing was taken away by the
bank
- the Dominicans were in bankruptcy
- they were on the brink of having their whole country foreclosed
- the English and the Germans were talking about coming over and running their
government and finances till they got paid back
- if they did so, that was pure take over
---- > violated the Monroe Doctrine
- Roosevelt says that it is time that we established our own policy to prevent this kind of intervention
- the Monroe Doctrine is just an underlying policy
- we need something to implement that
- we announced that the U.S. would go into the Dominican Republican and take over/run its
finances until the country can do it themselves
- we’ll write the checks to you and they’ll just owe it to us
- The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
- international police power to the U.S.
- all of South America would come to hate this
- we’ll only use this police power if your corruption/incompetence invites a violation of the
Monroe Doctrine
- it was put forth as an extension, but was really a radical change
- it had been to prevent other countries from take over (defensive)
- this invites intervention by the U.S. (more aggressive)

- we overthrow governments in Cuba until finally there was a family in power (Batista family) that stopped
this
- realized that they had to support American business and not do any land reform
- they had to work with the Americans to get them to stop doing it
- as multiple interventions took place, it created the notion of the Caribbean being an American Lake
- an area that we would dominate
- this was disliked in Europe and hated in Latin America
- but three presidents practiced this policy
- used the Roosevelt Corollary to justify intervention
Roosevelt -
- served from 1901-1909
- Big Stick Diplomacy
- our big stick was the navy
- 8x larger at this time
- mainly used to keep the Cubans in line
Taft -
- served from 1909-1913
- Dollar Diplomacy
- thought the Big Stick thing was too crude
- instead, he said, what we should do is encourage countries to support American
interests by making it worthwhile financially
- American businesses bring jobs
- it helps the local economy
- addict them to American businesses
- wanted to see as many American businesses as possible in Central America
- Nicaragua didn’t want American businesses
- all the land is owned by American businesses, onoz!
--- > triangles problem with American businesses on the top
- wanted land reform or tax the Americans
- although Taft didn’t believe in being a bully, he used Roosevelt’s method
- used troops to put down Nicaragua as it threatened American businesses
--- > did the same in Cuba, the Honduras, and in the Dominican Republic
- the same instance as in Cuba --- > only when a ruling family that understood
that they had to work with America if they wanted to stay in power

Wilson -
- advertised himself as being completely different
- from a different party (Democrats)
- condemned both Big Stick + Dollar diplomacy
- had an anti-imperialism flavor
- we had the Panama Canal now
- helped Congress pass a law for future Filipino independence
- he intervened in countries only on the basis of moral policy
- not for money, but for when the government is not moral
--- > not democratic countries
- when Wilson came to office, Mexico was being run as a republic
- and then the republic got overthrown by a dictator
- Wilson hated this
- he did everything he could to rally the enemies of this dictator
- even rallied other S. American countries
- gave arms to his enemies
- the ruling government in Mexico was a constitutionalist in name but not really
democratic
- he was a guy that did not want to just do whatever it was that Wilson said
- they kind of had a falling out in Wilson’s first term
- by 1916, another movement run by Pancho Via, wants to overthrow the government and instate
a dictatorship
- wants help from Wilson
- when he couldn’t get it, he crossed the border and killed some people
- Wilson ordered the Mexicans to hand over Pancho
- they refused, and sent in our commander and troops to go seek out Pancho Via
---- > nearly went to war, but we didn’t go because we went to war with
Germany just after
--- > moral foreign policy blew up in his face

Far East Policy:

- China -

- we had growing interests in China


- missionary in nature
- economic
- the difference from Latin American policies is that it’s reach in natural resources
- the Europeans know that, going back to the 1840s
--- > had spheres of influence in China
* Opium Wars, for example
- 1895
- China x Japan
- the Japanese industrialized very, very quickly (over 20 years)
- a military power far beyond their size would suggest
--- > Sino-Japanese War
- should have been one sided, since China was so much larger
- it was one sided, with JAPAN as the victor
- took some territory from China
- Korea
- exercised significant influence over Manchuria (which the Russians want)
- Japan wanted to be the dominant power in the Far East the way the U.S. was
dominating in the Western Hemisphere

- we already got some conflict between Japan/China/European countries that have spheres there
- the one country that got left out was the U.S.
- the U.S. only started becoming a world power recently, and their interests were rather restricted
to the Western Hemisphere
- but, due to the business interests in China, they did not want to leave it just to the
Europeans and the Japanese

- 1900
- during the McKinley Administration, they announced the Open Door Policy
- it came about as a result of a telegram sent to the capitals of the major European powers, as well
as Tokyo
- regard the condition of Peking as anarchy
- other countries that have spheres of influence cannot close trade throughout China
- everybody must trade freely
- the countries of Europe treated U.S. as if they didn’t have the place to do so, but it made the
U.S. a threat to anybody who has an interest in dominating China or Asia
- the Open Door Policy is automatically a conflict with Japan
- first step towards WWII with Japan
- who is going to dominate the Far East
- the U.S. has made a commitment through the telegram that we will bind ourselves to Chinese
territorial stuff
- respect Chinese sovereignty
- Japan would like to violate this, and get territorial gains from China
- we are Chinese protectors now --- > not an official alliance, but is a statement that has
some danger to it

- a rebellion breaks out in 1900 towards independence


- a boiling over
- after the Opium Wars, the treaties were very one-sided
- the Europeans had their own laws in China, even if they violated Chinese cultures/laws
- Boxer (Fists of the Righteous Harmony) Rebellion
- broke the rules of western diplomacy
- attacked western diplomats
- you never attack the diplomats
- scared foreigners
- our economic interests, as well as our very existence there, is threatened
- the US led a six nation force to put down the rebellion
- we invaded China to quell this disturbance
- a very brief rebellion
- once they were quelled, the six nation force sent them a bill for $333 million (?) --- > a lot of money
- anti-foreigner kind of thing for the Chinese
- had it with getting taken advantage of

- the Open Door Policy was to protect our interests


- we don’t really care for the Chinese, and therefore by putting down the rebellion we are still
protecting our policy
- but, we are now expanding the policy
- to protect the territorial integrity
- don’t anybody use the Boxer Rebellion to colonize China
- we are now on a collision course with Japan

- five years later, Russia x Japan fight over China


- the Russo-Japanese war
- over Manchuria
- the Japanese went to the U.S. for help
- 1905
- Teddy Roosevelt negotiates a treaty between the Russians and the Japanese
- in Portsmouth
- Roosevelt won a Nobel Peace prize for the Portsmouth Treaty
- the Russians felt that too much was given to the Japanese, and the Japanese felt that they didn’t
get enough for the military victory
- the Japanese had the hardest feelings of the two, and a lot of animosity brewed in their
country

- there are more troubles with Japan over the number of Japanese immigrants coming to the United States
- this is American racism
- the ‘Yellow Peril’
- it was one thing for Chinese workers to come and build railroads, but it’s another thing for
Japanese to come and ‘take’ American jobs
- the Japanese were offended that the Japanese were segregated
- Japanese children were sent to separate schools
- Gentleman’s Agreement said that the Japanese could go to school with white
kids, if Japan would slow down immigration
- this was put into reality

- Teddy Roosevelt built up the navy at this time


- he called it the ‘Great White Flight’
- was first sent to Japan to basically impress them with our new naval prowess
- one could also argue to intimidate them

- in 1908 the Secretary of State signed the Root Takahira Agreement


- the Japanese and the US would respect Pacific territories
- tells us that we didn’t have to make any agreements with the other European powers
- the threat of the Japanese continue into the Taft Administration
- he implied Dollar Diplomacy in the Far East
- tried to buy the Manchurian railroad
- when that didn’t work, he had more businesses invest in China
- potential conflict with the Japanese
- the conflict builds, leading up to Pearl Harbor

- the last thing that linked our interests in the American Lake with our interests in the Far East
- somehow to get there faster
- Suez Canal, something like that
- they want to make something at the isthmus
- try to dig a canal
- it took too long to go around
- the navy is putting pressure on the government
- Roosevelt thinks it is a good idea
---- > Panama Canal