Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment The experimental, or inductive method, was championed in the 16th century by: Which

of the following cannot be said of the 18th century Enlightenment: Johannes Kepler improved upon the heliocentric theory by: The majority of victims of the European witch craze were: Seventeenth-century rulers supported the development of scientific academies primarily because rulers: Many European intellectuals viewed Frederick the Great of Prussia as an enlightened despot because of his: In The Wealth of Nations (1776), Adam Smith strongly advocated a policy of: A moderate proposal which called on France to adopt a political system similar to Great Britain was an element espoused by Montesquieu in: Rousseau can be called an advocate of democracy and an apologist for dictatorship because: All of the following is true about the 18th century French philosopher Voltaire except: Locke’s Two Treatises on Civil Government posited approval of revolution provided that: The “idols” of Francis Bacon, as explained in his Novum Organum, were: The Royal Society of London, founded in 1662, was one of the first: Rousseau’s concept of the ideal government was centered around: “The prince is to the nation he governs what the head is to the man; it is his duty to see, think, and act for the whole community, that he may procure it every advantage of which it is capable. He must be active, possess integrity, and collect his whole powers, that he may be able to run the career he has commenced.” This concept of the obligations of the ruler would best reflect the views of: In his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, John Locke held that human knowledge was derived from: Which of the following conclusions is false? Scientific research conducted in the 17th and 18th centuries: All of the following statements are in accord with the theories of the deists except: Which of the following is the best characterization of the Enlightenment in Europe: “Politics, religion, philosophy, news: nothing was excluded. Her circle met daily from five to nine. There one found men ranks in the State, the Church, and the Court, soldiers and foreigners, and the leading writers of the day.” What is being described: What was the main cause of the conflict between Copernicus and the Roman Catholic Church: What did John Locke mean by the term, tabula rasa: Which of these statements expresses a fundamental difference between the philosophies of René Descartes and Francis Bacon: At first ignored, the work of Copernicus was validated by: In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes argues that the absolute sovereignty of a government will: Galileo’s accomplishments included:
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Which of the following words least applies to the scientific outlook: Which of the following statements is true of Isaac Newton: The primary importance of Francis Bacon to the Scientific Revolution was: Pierre Bayle’s Critical and Historical Dictionary: The model of the universe which resulted from the scientific work of Galileo and Newton embraced: “Men being by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate and subjected to the political power of another without his own consent, which is done by agreeing with other men, to join and unite into a community for their comfortable, safe, and peaceable living in a secure enjoyment of their properties.” The quotation above is from a work by: The philosopher who first doubted all but he power of his own reason and deduced the existence of God was: “When popes and priests define their dogmas and discipline their followers, corruption is the rule and abuse is the result. ‘Crush the infamous thing!’ The simple beauty of Christ’s message has been lost in ignorance and encrusted with superstition.” A philosophe of 18th century France would: “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains...How did this change come about? I do not know. What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer.” These words began the famous work, treating the nature of the social contract, by: “His enthusiasm for scientific method, his belief that everything could be reduced to mathematics, and his insistence on systematic doubt of all earlier theories left a profound mark on the thinking of scientists in the next two centuries.” Sir Isaac Newton’s discoveries helped to convince most French Enlightenment thinkers that: 18th century popularizers of the 17th century Scientific Revolution would most likely have agreed with which of the following statements: “Sincerely influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, this monarch abolished capital punishment, established equality before the law, freed the serfs, created a system of primary education, established religious toleration, and tightened the control of the state over the established church.” “And new Philosophy calls all in doubt, The element of Fire is quite put out; The Sun is lost, and th’Earth, and no man’s wit Can well direct him where to look for it.” Poland disappeared as an independent nation in the 18th century due to all the following reasons EXCEPT: It “outshines everything” since the birth of Jesus and reduces the Renaissance and Reformation “to the rank of mere episodes, mere internal displacements, within the system of medival Christendom.” “I believe in the equality of man; and I believe that religious duties consist in doing justice, loving mercy, and endeavoring make all our fellow creatures happy...All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian, or Turkish, appear me no other than human inventions, set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.” The physiocrats believed that economic progress could best be achieved by: Which best characterizes enlightened despotism: to to

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