dq0 transformation applied to asymmetrically

fed electrical machines

By

Johan Christian Lamprecht

Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the Baccalaureus Technologiae in Electrical Engineering
at the

SUPERVISOR: E VOSS
NOVEMBER 2010

DECLARATION
I hereby submit this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree
Baccalaureus Technologiae to the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Cape
Peninsula University of Technology.
I declare that this is my original work and that it has not been submitted in this or a
similar form for a degree at any other tertiary institution.

Candidate

…………………………………………………………………..
J.C. Lamprecht

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ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the analysis of asymmetrical faults of the supply to a reluctance synchronous
machine. By applying the dq0 transformation the fundamental variables will be transformed from a
stationary time dependent system (stator) to a rotating but time independent system (rotor). These stator
quantities ir , iy, ib can be transformed by means of a Park’s transformation matrix into three individual
rotor quantities id , iq, i0. The dq0 transformation is a fictitious mathematical transformation of the stator
currents on to the rotor currents. Various case studies are dealt with to find a comparison regarding
these dq0 currents.
Index terms- Reluctance synchronous machine, dq0, stator, rotor, and matrix

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• My classmates and friends for their help throughout the year. • My family for their encouragement and support. Provider and my Consoler for making this possible. 4 .ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to the following people: • God my Creator. • Mr. Egon Voss for his guidance and support during this research. Saviour.

... 19 B.............................................................................................................................. 24 TABLE IV........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 CASE B ....................................................................... 31 VI.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 14 III.................................................................................................... .......... Magnitude asymmetry in one phase ........................................................................................................... 22 TABLE III................................................................................................................................................................................ 8 LIST OF SYMBOLS .... 20 TABLE II........................................... Analysis of Results ............... References ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Conclusion ....... ................................................................................................................ 32 5 .............................................. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................ 11 II... 17 A.................................... ........................................................................................................................................................... 17 TABLE I............................................................... 30 CASE C .............................................................................................................................................. .................................................................... 4 LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 I.................................................................... 28 TABLE VI...........TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION ........................... 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................................................ Symmetrical system...... 23 D................................................................................................................. Results ............................................................................................................................ 27 F......................................................................................................................................................................... 2 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................... Magnitude asymmetry in all phases ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 30 CASE D ......................... 25 E..................................................................................... ............................................................................................. 30 CASE E ................................................. Angle asymmetry... 30 CASE A ................................................................ Methodology ................................................................................................................................... Introduction ........................................................................... 7 LIST OF TABLES............... 21 C.................................................................................................................................................... 29 IV...................................................................................................................... Angle and magnitude asymmetry in all phases ..... 30 CASE F ............................................................... Angle and magnitude asymmetry in one phase .... 31 V................................... 26 TABLE V..................................................................

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-1: Figure 1-2: Figure 1-3: Figure 1-4: Figure 2-1: Figure 2-2: Figure 2-3: Figure 2-4: Figure 3-1: Figure 3-2: Figure 3-3: Figure 3-4: Figure 3-5: Figure 3-6: Figure 3-7: Figure 3-8: Figure 3-9: Figure 3-10: Figure 3-11: Figure 3-12: Figure 3-13: Figure 3-14: Figure 3-15: Figure 3-16: Figure 3-17: Schematic of the cross-section of a traditional three-phase synchronous machine Equivalent d-axis circuit Equivalent q-axis circuit Equivalent 0-axis circuit Threé phase current system Phasor diagram for wt=0° Phasor diagram for wt=10° Space phasor diagram Phasor diagram at wt=0° and x0=0° Phasor diagram at wt=30° and x0=0° Phasor diagram at wt=0° and x0=30° Threé phase current system at x0=0° Threé phase current system at x0=30° Phasor diagram at wt = 30° and x0= 0° Threé phase current system at x0= 0° Phasor diagram at wt = 30° and x0= 0° Threé phase current system at x0= 0° Phasor diagram at wt = 0° and x0= 0° Threé phase current system at x0= 0° Phasor diagram at wt = 0° and x0= 0° Phasor diagram at wt =3 0° and x0= 0° Threé phase current system at x0= 0° Phasor diagram at wt = 0° and x0= 0° Phasor diagram at wt = 30° and x0= 0° Threé phase current system at x0= 0° 7 .

LIST OF TABLES Table I: Table II: Table III: Table IV: Table V: Table VI: Symmetrical system Magnitude asymmetry in one phase Magnitude asymmetry in all phases Angle asymmetry Angle and magnitude asymmetry in one phase Angle and magnitude asymmetry in all phases 8 .

LIST OF SYMBOLS Is id iq i0 Current space phasor Direct current Quadrature current Zero sequence current 9 .

zero currents direct axis quadrature axis magneto motive forces 10 .LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Dq0 d-axis q-axis mmf Direct. quadrature.

which are rotating together with the rotor of the machine: • the direct (d) axis • the quadrature (q) axis. 11 . produced by the current in the stator windings. The dq0 reference frame is an “at the system frequency rotating” reference frame. INTRODUCTION As it is difficult to measure rotor currents the dq0 transformation is applied which was proposed by RH Park in 1929[1]. These axes (dq) guide the magnetic flux.I. that in effect “pulls” the rotor along the stator. this magnetic flux. which is commonly used in order to simplify the analysis of synchronous machine equations [2]. Consequently. located 90 electrical degrees ahead of the d-axis [1]. and cause the rotor to move in the direction of the stator phase sequence which finally reaches the speed synchronous to that of the stator frequency. produces the RSM’s torque. two axes are defined in a synchronous machine. Figure 1-1: Schematic of the cross-section of a traditional three-phase synchronous machine As shown in Figure 1-1.

Equivalent circuits of the dq0 axis are illustrated by Figures 1-2 to 1-4 [3]. Figure 1-2: Equivalent d-axis circuit Figure 1-3: Equivalent q-axis circuit Figure 1-3: Equivalent q-axis circuit 12 .

[5]. The faulted windings will produce stronger space harmonics in the air-gap magnetic field. Moreover. vectors over the rotating dq0-axes will remain constant in time. while the q-axis current component is used for torque control. This implies that all higher space harmonics produced by the machine windings. the projection of the r. 13 .b. [4]. the stator mmf is negative and causes demagnetization of the magnets. which is commonly used in the analysis of synchronous machine equations [2]. the armature or stator current produces an mmf around the air gap that tends to supplement the permanent magnet flux. Their value will depend on the angle between the rotating axis and the time reference. Therefore. The d-axis stator current component controls the air gap flux. are neglected. If id is negative.y.Figure 1-4: Equivalent 0-axis circuit The d-axis represents the rotor magnet flux axis and the q-axis is in quadrature to the daxis. the symmetry between the machine windings will no longer be present. except the fundamental one. If id is positive or the phase advance angle is negative (phase lag). The dq0 reference frame is an “at the system frequency rotating” reference frame. However. the conventional dq0 model is not suited to analyze internal faults [6]. By changing the frame of reference to one rotating synchronously at angular speed w. an internal fault in the stator windings will break the sinusoidally distributed characteristic of the windings. It is well known that the corresponding dq0 model of a synchronous machine is derived from the assumption that the machine windings are sinusoidally distributed.

Figure 2-1: Threé phase current system The phasor diagrams (Figure 2-2 & 2-3) show a system which is fixed to the rotor. The three phase current system in Figure 2-1 can be described as: ir = irmaxcos(wt). Figure 2-2 illustrates the situation for wt=0° el and Figure 2-3 illustrates the situation for wt=10° and it can be seen 2 that the current space phasor I s = (ir + α i y + α 2ib ) has turned through an angle of exactly 10°. METHODOLOGY Every machine with asymmetry (either in the stator. iy=iymaxcos(wt-120°). the rotor or in both) offers two coórdinate systems.II. (1) 3 Figure 2-2: Phasor diagram for wt=0° Figure 2-3: Phasor diagram for wt=10° 14 . ib=ibmaxcos(wt+120°) with ir being reference and the coordinate system fixed to the stator (namely to coil “R”)[7] .

The transformation from the stator system to the rotor system can be shown to be: id     iq  = i   0    cos( x) cos( x − 120°) cos( x + 120°)   ir  2   − sin( x) − sin( x − 120°) − sin( x + 120°)   i y   3 1 1  1   ib    2 2  2  ( 2) where x=x0+wt with x0 being the angle between the axis of phase R and the d-axis at wt=0°. Is= ir The space phasor Is can be represented by two components which are 90° apart. In the case of asymmetrically built machines these components are called “d” (for direct) and “q” (for quadrature).Important to notice is that at wt=0°. As can be seen from Equation (2). The physical picture behind this transformation is that one can imagine one coil wound around the daxis and another around the q-axis as represented by Figure 2-4 [8]: Figure 2-4: Space phasor diagram 15 . under symmetrical conditions i0 ill be zero because the three currents sum up to zero [7].

Both systems r. 180°and 270° magnitudes are negatively equal peak magnitude magnitudes are equal 16 . Only the rotor quantities are taken into consideration as we are dealing with the dq0 transformations. Because the rotor-and-stator systems represent the same current space phasor the d-and-q axis currents can also be obtained by applying Pythagoras [7]: I s = I dq = (i 2 d )  iq + iq2 ∠ arctan  id     (3) This technique provides very good results for detecting 3 three phase balance faults with detection times that are almost immediately since it allows the control scheme to a balanced three phase system as a DC quantity [9]. 0 must represent the same space phasor at the end. 4 pole. Legend wt and x0 at 90°. b and d. q. A 3-phase. After each case study a table has been drawn up firstly varying wt and keeping x0 constant and then varying x0 and keeping wt constant. y. A legend has been drawn up to illustrate some similarities between the rotor currents.By using the transformation the currents in the coils of the d-and q-axis can be calculated. 380V machine with single layer windings was kept at a constant rms value of 16 A and modelled using a finite element software.

Figure 3-1 illustrate the phasor diagram with peak values for ir = 16A∠0°.63∠0° A 17 (3) (2) . Figure 3-1: Phasor diagram at wt=0° and x0=0° Is = 2 3 ( 2 *16 − 2 * 8∠120° − 2 * 8∠ − 120° ) (1) Is = 22.62  Is = 22.63 A iq = 0 A i0 = 0 A I s = I dq = (22.62 2 )  0  + 0 2 ∠ arctan   22. iy=16A∠-120°.63∠0° A    cos(0°) cos(−120°) cos(120°)   2 * 16∠0°   id     2   iq  =  − sin(0°) − sin(−120°) − sin(+120°)   2 * 16∠ − 120°  i  3  1 1 1   2 * 16∠120°   0    2 2 2   id = 22.III. Symmetrical system A symmetrical system was analysed to establish a reference. ib=16A∠120° at wt = 0° and x0= 0°. RESULTS A.

Figure 3-4: Threé phase current system at x0=0° Figure 3-5: Threé phase current system at x0=30° It can be seen that as x0 changes the dq currents changes in magnitude. 18 . but remain constant.Figures 3-2 and 3-3 illustrate how the current space phasor changes as a function of the angle between the red phase and the d-axis. Figure 3-2: Phasor diagram at wt=30° and x0=0° Figure 3-3: Phasor diagram at wt=0° and x0=30° Figures 3-4 & 3-5 represents the space phasors taken over a period of 360° and plotted as a function of time.

33 +14.63 0 0 11.60 11.31 -19.63 0 0 0 +22.74 -22.63∠350° 22.63∠90° 22.60 0 x0=130 x0=140 -14.63 0 0 19.63∠0° 22.63 0 0 0 0 -17.31i wt=160 wt=170 22.63∠270° 22.33 -14.54 14.74 -21.63∠0° 22.63∠0° 22.31 0 x0=40 x0=50 17.6i wt=310 wt=320 22.54 -17.33i wt=240 22.63 0 0 -22.93 -7.31 19.6 -11.63∠130° 22.28 + 3.31 +19.26i wt=120 22.26 0 0 x0=300 11.63 22.74 0 0 x0=210 -19.63 0 x0=280 x0=290 3.26 22.28 21.28 – 3.28 -21.63∠0° 22.74 +21.54 +17.93 -7.63∠190° 22.74 22.63∠70° 22.28i wt=270 22.63∠330° 22.54 17.00 -22.60 11.33 -14.63∠140° 22.74 -3.63 22.63∠0° 22.22.93 -22.63∠0° x0=30 19.33 17.63∠160° 22.93 7.28i wt=90 22.74 +21.63 0 0 0 0 7.63∠0° 22.33 14.28 0 0 x0=270 0.00 22.63∠0° 22.63 – 0i 22.63∠260° 22.63∠0° 22.63∠0° 22.6 +11.60 0 x0=250 x0=260 -7.63∠0° 22.6i wt=130 wt=140 22.63 0 0 0 0 17.28 – 3.6 +11.54 -14.63 22.31 -19.93i wt=360 22.26 -22.63 0 0 0 0 21.63 0 0 22.28i -7.26 22.63 0 0 0 0 -3.63∠0° 22.63 0 0 0 0 -7.31 -19.63∠320° 22.31 -19.63 22.63 0 0 19.63 22.93 +22.63 – 0i 22.63i wt=100 wt=110 22.54 17.63∠50° 22.63 22.26i -3.63 22.74 0 0 22.74 3.74 -21.63∠230° 22.28 + 3.63∠0° 22.54i wt=330 22.28 21.63∠100° 22.63∠0° 22.63∠0° 22.63∠120° 22.63∠0° 22.54 +17.54i -14.63∠210° 22.54 0 0 x0=330 19.93 -21.33i -17.63∠0° 22.63 + 0i wt=190 wt=200 22.93 0 0 x0=180 -22.63∠300° 22.74 -3.31 0 x0=340 x0=350 21.63∠0° 22.63∠340° 22.28 -21.93 .26 – 7.63∠110° 22.33 -14.26 -22.63 0 0 22.63∠0° 22.63∠220° 22.33 -17.63∠360° 19 wt=0° iq i0 Is 22.63∠290° 22.63∠0° .63∠0° 22.63∠0° 22.63∠0° wt=10 wt=20 22.63∠0° 22.63∠0° 22.63∠0° 22.60 0 x0=310 x0=320 14.33i 17.6i wt=250 wt=260 22.60 0 x0=70 x0=80 7.63∠200° 22.63∠0° 22.63∠30° 22.63∠250° 22.63 0 0 -0 -22.33 +14.31 +19.63∠0° 22.63 0 0 0 0 14.33 0 0 x0=240 -11.26i wt=300 22.26 + 7.54 -17.63∠10° wt=30 22.60 -11.31 0 x0=160 x0=170 -21. Symmetrical system x0=0° id iq i0 Is Is wt=0 22.93i -21.28 -7.54 -17.54 -17.63 0 0 0 0 -21.54i wt=150 22.93 7.63 0 0 0 0 -22.26i 3.63∠0° 22.28 7.93 +22.26 + 7.31i wt=340 wt=350 22.63∠40° 22.33 0 0 x0=60 11.28 0 0 x0=0 x0=10 x0=20 id x0=90 0.63 0 0 0 0 -14.00 0 x0=190 x0=200 -22.31 0 x0=220 x0=230 -17.63 22.63∠60° 22.63 0 0 0 0 22.63 22.93 21.63i wt=280 wt=290 22.63∠0° 22.74i 22.63 0 0 -11.63∠0° 22.33 14.28i 7.63 0 0 11.93i wt=180 22.63 22.26 0 0 x0=120 -11.63∠0° 22.63∠0° 22.63 0 0 -11.TABLE I.33 -14.63∠0° 22.54 0 0 x0=150 -19.60 -11.74i -22.63 0.26 3.63 22.63∠0° 22.63 0 0 -19.74 3.93i 21.63 0.63∠0° 22.31 19.93 0 0 x0=360 22.00 0 22.63 0 0 0 0 3.74i 22.6i wt=70 wt=80 22.33i wt=60 22.63∠170° 22.63 0 x0=100 x0=110 -3.63∠180° 22.54i 14.63∠80° 22.31i wt=220 wt=230 22.63∠280° 22.31i wt=40 wt=50 22.63∠0° 22.63 0.63 0 0 -19.74i wt=210 22.63∠150° 22.6 -11.26 – 7.63∠0° 22.00 0 22.63∠20° 22.63 22.26 -3.63∠310° 22.63∠240° 22.

ib=16A∠120° at wt = 30° and x0= 0°. Figure 3-6: Phasor diagram at wt = 30° and x0= 0° Figure 3-7: Threé phase current system at x0= 0° By having an asymmetrical system the sum of the phase currents will not equal zero and this result in a zero component i0. It can be seen that Is do not move along the reference axis (wt). 20 . Magnitude asymmetry in one phase In this case study the red phase current is reduced. The phasor diagram is illustrated in Figure 3-6. iy=16A∠-120°.B. ir = 10A∠0°. Figure 3-7 represents the current system.

80 -14.97∠0° 16.48∠-122.97 + 0i -16.83 22.93i 16.54i 19.91 -2.91 -2.45 2.29 -2.97∠0° 16.66 -14.82 2.46 0 -0.29 2.21 21.33i x0=50 10.31 -2.83 17.49 -19.79 -2.45 -2.97∠0° .41 -0.6i -10.43° 22.00 -2.26i x0=60 x0=70 8.70 13.91 +17.71 -2.82 8.48∠-57.71 – 3.83 -2.36∠-113.97∠0° 17.17∠13.95 -2.28i x0=90 x0=100 0 -2.63 -2.54i wt=330 wt=340 18.97∠0° 16.95 8.97∠0° x0=350 16.47∠-82.97∠0° 16.38 19.97∠0° 16.2° 18.95 -8.95 -2.46 0.95 -22.55∠-37.79 2.93i x0=170 -16.63 22.95 -16.97∠0° 16.38 17.97∠0° 16.45 2.79 -1.97 -16.79 2.97∠0° 16.97∠0° 16.80 -15.63 1.83 -2.45 -1.36∠113. magnitude asymmetry in 1 phase x0=0° id iq i0 Is Is wt=0° id iq i0 Is wt=0 wt=10 16.00 -8.00 -2.97∠0° 16.8° x0=210 x0=220 -14.83 wt=90 wt=100 22.97∠0° 16.97∠0° 16.97 0 -2.79 1.11° 18.95 -2.83 wt=230 20.73∠-154.71 + 3.79 -16.17 13 -14.49 -10.83 -2.97 -16.95 -2.21 20.74i x0=200 -15.7 -11.38 19.97 -5.33i 20.95 -5.71 + 3.31i 13 +14.82 10.83 -2.55∠142.83 -2.95 + 7.83 16.95 -2.97 16.97∠0° wt=50 20.49 10.97∠0° wt=200 17.04∠74.97∠0° 16.6i 5.71 -2.70 -13.00 10.28i x0=80 2.63∠-90° x0=260 -2.43° 17.97∠0° 16.TABLE II.55∠-142.83 16.7 +11.45 -1.26i wt=260 22.48∠57.8° 18.97 – 0i 21 16.83 wt=350 17.97∠0° 16.97 0 0.31 -2.83 x0=240 x0=250 -8.04∠-105.97 5.91 -13.54° 22.83 wt=290 21.70 -15.66 15.79 -2.95 – 7.97 0 -0.8 -21.97 -1.49 +19.83 -2.63 22.5∠48.97 0 -2.97∠0° 16.49 5.81° 21.14 -0.19° 19.17 -13 +14.46° x0=270 x0=280 0 2.33i x0=120 x0=130 -8.97∠0° 16.8 +21.80 -2.97∠0° 16.00 8.97∠0° 16.97∠0° 16.58° x0=290 5.93i wt=360 16.29 2.63 1.97∠0° 16.49 -2.97∠0° 16.49 -5.17 -14.97 16.83 wt=80 22.74° 21.91 -17.26i x0=110 -5.83 wt=110 21.55∠37.74i 17.95 16.54° 22.97∠0° wt=20 17.33i wt=240 wt=250 21.83 wt=320 19.83 x0=360 16.49 0 +22.42° 20.14 -0.97∠0° 16.97∠0° 16.97 -8.79 -1.97 2.6i -5.97∠0° x0=0 x0=10 16.97 – 0i 16.93i x0=180 x0=190 -16.97 17.71 0 2.83 -2.95 + 7.83 19.91 +17.66 14.31i 15.91 13.71 -2.95 – 7.70 15.83 22.41 -1.5∠131.83 wt=30 wt=40 18.04∠105.80 -2.97∠0° 16.97∠0° wt=170 17.63∠90° 22.95 -2.49 -10.46 0 -0.31i -13 -14.79 16.71 2.45 -2.19° 21.71 -2.45 2.46° 22.70 15.74i x0=150 x0=160 -14.23° 16.17∠-13.57° x0=320 13.5∠-48.49 2.83 wt=180 wt=190 16.36∠66.82 2.83 -2.00 -2.95 -2.71 – 3.17 14.74i x0=20 15.14 0 0.97 -2.72∠-25.83 -2.83 -2.74° 22.97 2.21 20.82 -8.04∠-74.97∠0° 16.45 2.95 -2.79 1.14 0 0.7 -11.48∠122.29 -2.54i x0=140 -13.28i 17.95 +22.89° x0=330 x0=340 14.83 wt=210 wt=220 18.97∠0° 16.97 -1.83 wt=140 19.49 -5.70 -15.00 -10.91 -2.81° x0=300 x0=310 8.79 16.82 -0.83 wt=150 wt=160 18.82 -2.95 +22.42° x0=230 -10.95 -16.83 20.97∠0° 16.95 16.97 2.82 -10.49 5.82 0.58° 22.6i 10.97 0.49 0 -22.00 -2.31i -15.82 -2.71 -2.45 -2.31 2.91 -14.21 21.97∠0° 16.97∠0° 16.23° 17.63 -2.83 -2.45 -2.70 -13.97 8.97 -0.80 -2.63i -2.97∠0° 16.26i wt=300 wt=310 21.97 17.57° 19.83 -2.97 2.63i 2.46 0.77° 17.83 -2.26° 21.83 16.45 1.49 -19.5∠-131.82 1.79 -16.47∠97.66 -15.41 1.11° 17.45 1.83 wt=60 wt=70 21.28i wt=270 wt=280 22.17∠-166.72∠25.70 13.47∠-97.91 -2.47∠82.80 14.91 14.38 17.95 -22.2° 20.54i x0=30 x0=40 14.73∠154.17∠166.80 15.97 -2.49 +19.31 2.83 2.41 0.95 5.83 16.83 16.83 wt=120 wt=130 21.97∠0° 16.8 +21.36∠-66.49 10.82 -1.8 -21.89° 18.91 -17.77° -16.80 -2.7 +11.71 0 -2.26° 22.

iy=6A∠-120°. Figure 3-8: Phasor diagram at wt = 30° and x0= 0° Figure 3-9: Threé phase current system at x0= 0° It can be seen that the dq0 currents peak at different angles than the previous case study. Magnitude asymmetry in all phases In this case study the current in the red phase and yellow phases are reduced causing an imbalance in the magnitudes.C. ir = 10A∠0°. 22 . ib=16A∠120° at wt = 30° and x0= 0°. Figure 3-8 illustrates the phasor diagram and Figure 3-9 represents the current system.

13 12.6° 15.74∠5.08i 16.24i 12.45 14.47 -0.04 17.08 -4.47 10.27 -8.87i 11.77 -0.17∠15.00 -3.53∠23.94 3.17∠15.99° 12.17∠15.17∠15.03i 15.47 -0.57 -13.47 -0.17 0.17∠15.31 1.6° 15.47 15.08 -0.25° 11.07 16.82 -3.6° 15.19∠49.48 -1.54i 18.61 -4.6° 14.45 -14.70 -0.56 +16.26° 16.09∠75.01° 17.03i 15.70 -3.12° 17.84 +15.27 -8.06∠-136.6° 15.48 -1.00 -4.61 + 4.6° 15.19∠-130.77 -14.70 3.47 -1.25 2.17∠15.27° 18.16 +13.24 2.69∠-148.72i -15.08 -14.61i 1.31° 14.17∠15.49° 15.00 3.10 13.47 -12.68∠84.68 -0.61 -0.68 0.56i 14.61 -0.34 + 1.10 -8.24 2.56 -0.24i 12.81° 18.17 1.17∠15.95° 18.29i -8.84 -0.04∠-71.98∠-38.43∠173.17∠15.84 -15.17∠15.32∠-112.28∠61.28° 11.6° 15.56 -4.82 +13.61 + 4.61 + 4.61 -10.51i 18.34 13.10 -15.17∠15.47 -0.98 -1.08 -0.30 3.22i 11.48 1.47 -0.24 -12.6° 15.84° 13.43 -13.77 14.17∠15.34 -13.54i 18.7 -11.84 -15.10 13.87i 11.17∠15.61 -0.82 3.79 -2.52 -14.47 -4.84 15.10 -15.6° 15.22° 12.6° 15.17∠15.47 -0.56i 14.6° 15.17∠15.27 8.88° 17.25 2.02° 10.99° 17.1 + 6.48i -13.22i 11.19 1.92 -2.57 -0.17∠15.17∠15.95 0.17∠15.52 +14.10 15.77 -10.51° 15.69∠31.79 -2.6° 15.16i 18.63 -10.61 4.56 12.83 6.13 12.05° 18.17∠15.82 -3.47 15.98° 10.48 -14.47 13.26 6.57 – 6.17 -0.30 -3.17∠15.61i -1.51i 18.17∠15.47 14.47 -14.29i 8.47 14.77 +11.10 15.08 -4.57° 19.TABLE III.01° 12.61 4.61 -0.08 0.17∠15.82 -12.47 -0.92∠-124.61 10.22° 13.43 13.43i 11.08 -0.6° 15.35 4.6° 15.68 -4.82 -4.45 -2.6° 15.57 + 6.83 +16.63 1.6° 15.31i 19.1 – 6.17∠15.43 -1.73° 18.6° 15.77 10.16 -15.43∠-6.01i -6.47 3.02 19.56 -16.17∠15.56 -12.98 -1.47 12.61 – 4.27∠95.68 -8.08 14.26 -6.34 – 1.47 -14.84 -0.43 1.17∠15.6° 15.55∠-142.74∠-174.08i Is 15.47 15.52 -0.86 -1.04 17.82 12.47 -3.16° 13.83 -16.68 – 1.68 -0.47 -8.47 -0.77 -11.16 -0.52 -6.83 6.43° 19.17∠15.17∠15.6° 15.78° 12.34 -13.38 2.47 14.63 -3.47 -13.99 3.82 3.53∠-156.08i 16.21∠124.45 3.68 -0.00 -3.47 -10.17∠15.08 +15.61 4.17∠-164.82 2.17∠15.82 12.08 4.86 -1.47 -14.13i -12.84 10.17∠15.6° 15.27 – 9.92 -2.52 -0.34 13.38 2.6° 15.6° 15.13i 12.57 -0.47 4.7 +11.32i 14.95 -0.70 -0.24 12.08 -15.16 -0.99 -3.6° 15.56 -4.27 + 9.78° 13.68 1.68 -1.68 4.6° 16.43∠-21.08 4.32∠67.00 4.68 8.63 3.13 1.6° 15.24 -2.47 -10.17 -1.84 -10.6° 15.17∠15.15 10.27 8.35 4.17∠15.61 – 4.13 – 9.48i 13.6° 15.13 -0.72° 11.32i 14.63 10.17∠15. magnitude asymmetry in all phases x0=0° wt=0 wt=10 wt=20 wt=30 wt=40 wt=50 wt=60 wt=70 wt=80 wt=90 wt=100 wt=110 wt=120 wt=130 wt=140 wt=150 wt=160 wt=170 wt=180 wt=190 wt=200 wt=210 wt=220 wt=230 wt=240 wt=250 wt=260 wt=270 wt=280 wt=290 wt=300 wt=310 wt=320 wt=330 wt=340 wt=350 wt=360 id iq i0 Is 14.68 + 1.31 1.47° 19.09∠-104.04∠108.17 -0.63 -1.82 -12.47 -0.6° 15.19° 18.48 +14.16 15.6° 15.13 -1.48 1.4° 16.6° 23 wt=0° x0=0 x0=10 x0=20 x0=30 x0=40 x0=50 x0=60 x0=70 x0=80 x0=90 x0=100 x0=110 x0=120 x0=130 x0=140 x0=150 x0=160 x0=170 x0=180 x0=190 x0=200 x0=210 x0=220 x0=230 x0=240 x0=250 x0=260 x0=270 x0=280 x0=290 x0=300 x0=310 x0=320 x0=330 x0=340 x0=350 x0=360 id iq i0 Is 14.17∠15.82 -2.17∠15.13 -0.47 10.98∠141.83 -6.43 3.83 -6.00 3.01i 6.21∠-55.68∠-95.45 2.06∠43.6° 15.07 16.08 -0.47 -0.69° 14.77 -0.17∠15.31i 19.15 10.6° .92∠55.24 -2.08 -0.27∠-84.74° 16.6° 15.6° 15.6° 15.52 6.16 -13.82 -4.43∠158.10 8.82 -13.6° 15.47 -6.47 -0.6° 15.13 + 9.17∠15.61 4.94 -3.47 -15.17 0.53° 19.47 8.6° 15.43i 11.19 1.45 -3.75° 11.28∠-118.47 -0.02 19.47 6.56 -0.57 13.17∠15.61 4.6° 15.16i 18.43 -3.17∠15.55∠37.47 1.72i 15.

ib=16A∠150° at wt = 0° and x0= 0°. ir = 16A∠0°. The dq0 angles are dependant to the angular velocity and the angle between the red phase and the d-axis.D. Figure 3-11 represents the current system at x0=0° Figure 3-10: Phasor diagram at wt = 0° and x0= 0° Figure 3-11: Threé phase current system at x0= 0° It can be seen that the dq0 angles are not dependent of these stator angles. Angle asymmetry In this case study the stator current angles are changed with respect to the red phase their values are. 24 . iy=16A∠300°. but only their magnitudes (Figure 3-10).

78 x0=80 20.53 -10.78 -5.67i wt=20 22.24∠75.67∠-91.24∠45° 25.59 – 2.05 -14.31 – 6.8° 15.78 x0=180 x0=190 -17.53 -24.7 -10.24∠45° 25.78 x0=60 x0=70 24.44 -14.52 -5.27 2.24∠-135° 26.9° 13.81° 20.1 -20.95° 18.07 16.59 + 2.53i -13.19° 25 25.44 -15.85 15.73° 20.27 8.07 -24.24∠45° 25.24∠45° 25.2i wt=140 10.43 3.87 4.38i 3.38 +20.85 20.39 -4.84 – 6.24∠45° 17.83 +22.85 -20.07° x0=330 x0=340 6.76 -1.24∠45° 25.78 x0=170 -14.24∠45° x0=20 22.78 4.27 17.52 5.53 8.78 4.53i 13.23 wt=360 17.53 10.14∠-98.39 4.61∠-171.61∠111.85i -17.20 25.06∠98.1° 13.78 4.78 Is wt=0° id iq i0 Is x0=0 x0=10 17.48 -17.99 5.43 17.83∠-110.87 -6.53 2.2i wt=330 wt=340 11.53 -2.77∠-9.48 4.42 11.24-104.76 1.96 8.53 10.67 4.53 4.27 8.14 4.85 14.85 17.81∠64.23 -6.67 -14.24∠45° 25.00 4.78 4.85i 25.1° 18.85 -17.19 -17.78 x0=210 x0=220 -24.85 14.96 11.24∠45° 25.78 x0=30 x0=40 24.82 -14.08 -5.38i -11.24∠45° 25.84 + 6.78 x0=230 -25.24∠45° 25.78 25.85 15.76 +17.06∠21.77∠-50.69 6.61 -5.9° 18.68∠31.43 17.31 + 6.38 22.48 4.14∠-141.6° 27.85 +17.36 -25.24∠45° 25.06∠-158.38 22.24∠45° 25.TABLE IV.24∠45° 25.67i wt=300 wt=310 11.78 4.67i wt=270 wt=280 17.78 x0=270 x0=280 -17.85 -14.71 +10.99 0 -0.14 4.06∠-81.14 -2.07 11.42° 25.85 4.53 -4.26° 25.31 10.27 14.71 -10.00 4.89 2.67 4.78 x0=300 x0=310 -6.07 +24.61 5.78 x0=110 10.22 -3.81° 13.44 15.20 -25.36 +25.85 20.48 20.14i wt=230 25.38 -25.48 4.20 24.19 17.79° 15.38 25.78 x0=290 -10.24∠45° 26.53 -10.87 4.61∠-68.81∠-115.20 4.81∠55.69 16.14i wt=60 wt=70 24.38i 11.14 -6.67° 26.14∠38.08 5.78 4.44 14.23 -18.76 3.78 -4.24∠45° 25.77∠170.39 4.23 6.24∠45° 25.99 0 0.76 3.78 25.85 -14.67i wt=170 15.19° 13.24∠45° 25.55 -16.31 10.78 x0=240 x0=250 -24.53 -0.74° x0=350 14.78 25.01° 27.67 4.67 14.76 -3.53 +24.24∠45° 25.24∠45° 25.69 16.82 +14.07 16.24∠45° 25.53i -17.2i wt=150 wt=160 11.15∠60.51 -22.43 3.61 -1.78 4.87i wt=30 wt=40 24.24∠45° 25.05° 18.20 4.69 6.06∠150° 13.19 -9.38 25.96 -11.14 2.20 4.53 0.38 -20.22.38i -3.89 -2.48i wt=290 13.67∠88.45 + 2.85i -5.67i wt=350 15.14 6.78 x0=200 -22.53 4.24∠45° 25.21° 15.4° 27.76 3.78 x0=260 -20.27° 20.14i wt=50 25.24∠45° .87i wt=260 20.1 +20.2i wt=320 10.24∠45° x0=360 17.85i 5.67 -24.25.53 -2.31° 28.07 11.67 4.87i wt=210 wt=220 24.58° 25.99° 27.9 +25.89 15.78 4.24∠45° 25.99 -5.14i wt=240 wt=250 24. Angle asymmetry x0=0° id iq i0 Is wt=0 wt=10 17.67 4.78 18.87 6.67 4.14∠81.22 2.78 4.87 4.38 25.85 4.78 4.96 -8.85i 17.87 -10.27 14.24∠45° 25.61 1.08 -2.78 25.53i 17.00 14.39 -4.42 11.20 -24.78 4.67 -22.51 +22.48i wt=110 13.48i wt=180 wt=190 17.61∠8.15∠-119.24∠45° 25.85 17.85 +17.38 25.83∠50.67i wt=120 wt=130 11.78 20.24∠45° 25.67 22.99∠° 23.20 4.48 4.42 6.87 4.24∠45° 25.67 -17.87i wt=80 20.33° 26.38 22.24∠45° 25.69° 28.67 17.53 2.78 x0=320 2.67 24.01° 23.78 x0=90 x0=100 17.14 4.24∠45° 25.55 16.53 8.85 -20.06∠-30° 13.55 -0.00 14.24∠45° x0=50 25.68∠-148.83∠-129.48 17.53 4.48i 23.87 10.83∠69.38 22.85 20.78 4.22 3.27 2.08 2.2° 15.42 6.48 -20.78 5.78 x0=150 x0=160 -6.19 9.38 -22.7 +10.22 -2.85 17.24∠45° 25.67i wt=90 wt=100 17.78 x0=140 -2.38 -22.24∠45° 25.55 0.85 17.27 17.24∠45° 25.31 13.77∠129.83 .93° 23.9 .67i wt=200 22.24∠45° 25.76 -17.67 4.38 -25.45 – 2.14 4.78 4.81∠-124.24∠45° 25.31 13.24∠45° 25.85 20.67 4.89 -15.78 x0=120 x0=130 6.05 +14.

Angle and magnitude asymmetry in one phase In this case study the current in the red phase is reduced and the angles of the blue and yellow phases are changed. Figures 3-12 and 3-13 illustrates the phasor diagrams at different angles. 26 . ib=16A∠150° Figure 3-12: Phasor diagram at wt = 0° and x0= 0° Figure 3-13: Phasor diagram at wt =3 0° and x0= 0° Figure 3-14 represents the three phase current system for this investigation.E. Figure 3-14: Threé phase current system at x0= 0° One can see that by having angle asymmetry the peak values of Is is much higher that magnitude asymmetry. iy=16A∠300°.ir = 10A∠0°.

19 -15.95 1.26 -0.19 -17.41 -0.68° 26.72 -25.98 6.19 14.63 14.38i 7.51 -22.48 -14.94 -1.96 22.90 -2.13 1.86 8.56 -25.2i x0=300 x0=310 -9.38 2.62∠55.13 -21.69 1.95 wt=320 7.2i x0=140 2.07 3.67° 21.62∠55.63° 26.14i x0=210 x0=220 -19.13 1.67° 27 21.2i x0=120 x0=130 9.62∠55.78∠-102.62∠55.37° 22.37 -3.96 22.38i -7.4 +10.92∠86.82° 24.92∠-93.75° 21.62∠55.2° 13.63∠122.67° 21.53i 12.95 16.67° 21.95 wt=170 9.76 2.94 17.35 1.67° wt=20 17.8° 13.72 +25.25 -2.08 4.40 3.62∠55.74° 25.14i x0=30 x0=40 19.84 -19.71 1.94 11.55 20.85 15.95 1.2i x0=320 -2.95 + 2.62∠55.85i 21.43° 10.67° 21.19∠-12.52 -20.52 14.95 wt=300 wt=310 9.67i x0=260 -19.41 0.95 -2.66∠60.90 19.87i x0=20 17.57° 10.95 wt=110 12.06 -0.53i -12.67° 21.95 16.62∠55.67° 21.36∠40.64° 10.95 – 2.67° 21.66° 18.48 -20.95 wt=200 17.17∠65.62∠55.03 8.67i 21.95 wt=90 wt=100 17.84 19.56 1.85 -15.56 1.46 1.6 -20.57 +22.98 6.95 wt=210 wt=220 20.62∠55.36 -1.06∠-81.42 1.62∠55.67° 21.51 +22.21 1.34 -3.10 8.79° 15.94 11.67° wt=360 12.95 wt=180 wt=190 12.33° 23.66∠-119.60 17.93° 20.06∠98.78 3.95 21.40 -12.95 1.81 1.35 21.95 wt=330 wt=340 7.95 wt=50 22.95 1.34 3.90 1.26 0.89 -11.95 wt=240 wt=250 22.49 + 6.52° 12.62∠55.67° 21.62∠55.68∠91.67i x0=150 x0=160 -1.08 6.27∠-71.67° .48 +14.95 21.11 – 2.28 11.62∠55.67i x0=80 19.57 -22.85 1.95 wt=60 wt=70 22.60 1.85i -4.26° 25.11 + 2.69 1.95 wt=140 7.10 1.6 +20.90 -19.85 1.19∠167.89 11.60 1.78 -10.33° 16.67° 21.34 2.63∠-57.95 1.95 1.63 -5.67i x0=180 x0=190 -12.69 8.67° 21.62∠55.48° 12.36 5.85i -11.36° 10.48i x0=90 x0=100 17.48i 19.67° 21.67° 21.38i 1.56 12.36 -5.48i x0=170 -8.19 15.62∠55.40 -3.62∠55.62∠55.95 wt=150 wt=160 7.10 2.70 17.26 -3.62∠55.25∠73.14 21.87i x0=60 x0=70 21.19 17.24° x0=350 8.71 -1.06 0.67° x0=0 x0=10 12.62∠55.95 wt=120 wt=130 9.83 0.14i x0=230 -21.31 -0.07° 20.34° 18.00 11.17∠-114.66∠-98.93 6.05∠69.51 2.67° 21.35 1.76 2.69 -8.67° 21.94 + 6.19 17.95 1.90 1.52 14.62∠55.67° 21.25∠-106.85 15.67° 21.76 +17.63 5.95 1.47° 11.19 14.10 1.18 +24.78∠77.62∠55.85 15.19 15.81 1.46 1.53° 11.51 -2.61∠28.67° 21.84 1.60 -17.67° 21.67° 21.71∠142.10 2.53i -9.7 +24.19 +17.63 5.18° 24.85i 11.62∠55.10 8.76 -10.21 -1.67° 21.85 -15.85 18.48 20.94 1.62∠55.03 8.37° 26.86 -8.67° 21.90 8.33∠-168.19 -15.18 3.94 1.81 -9.67i x0=290 -12.62∠55.93 -6.81 9.67° 23.31 0.07 -3.48 20.78 10.94 1.18 -24.56 +25.67° 21.TABLE V.56 -12.85 18.55 -20.08 4.95 wt=30 wt=40 20.53i 9.36∠-139.4 -10.51 1.27 -9.27 9.62∠55.7 -24.48i x0=270 x0=280 -17.00 11.95 wt=270 wt=280 17.85i 4.67° 21.10 17.85 15.67° x0=360 12.61∠-151.95 wt=80 20.62∠55.33∠11.95 1.95 2.62∠55.62∠55.95 1.29° 19.62∠55.62∠55.05∠-110. angle and magnitude asymmetry in 1 phase x0=0° id iq i0 Is Is wt=0° id iq i0 Is wt=0 wt=10 12.70 17.51 1.62∠55.67° 21.76 2.67° 21.52 +20.95 wt=290 12.10 -17.67° 21.38 -2.25 4.78 16.67° 21.62∠55.87° 25.67i 16.21° 15.95 wt=260 20.48 -20.67° 21.28 -11.12∠-130.62∠55.26 3.90 2.67° 21.44 12.55 -20.14i x0=50 21.95 1.90 8.07 8.14 21.49 – 6.71∠-37.36 1.32° 26.76 +10.46 -12.76 -2.62∠55.46 12.38i -1.18 -3.35 -21.40 12.84 -14.62∠55.08 6.25 2.55 20.19 +17.78 16.37 -5.27∠108.66∠81.95 wt=230 22.94 17.95 12.25 4.12∠49.36 5.95 21.37 3.67° 21.36 -5.07 8.87i x0=200 -17.44 -12.94 – 6.62∠55.62∠-124.13° 25.84 1.62∠55.13 21.63 14.42 -1.67° 21.95 wt=350 9.67° 21.84 +14.68∠-88.71° x0=330 x0=340 1.76 -17.87i x0=240 x0=250 -21.78 -3.67i x0=110 12.34 2.37 5.62∠55.63 -5.83 -0.63° 22.95 1.

Angle and magnitude asymmetry in all phases In this case study the stator currents in the red and yellow phases are reduced and the angles of the yellow and blue phases. 28 . ir = 10A∠0°.F. Figures 3-15 and 3-16 illustrate the phasor diagrams at different angles. ib=16A∠150° Figure 3-15: Phasor diagram at wt = 0° and x0= 0° Figure 3-16: Phasor diagram at wt = 30° and x0= 0° Figure 3-17 represents the three phase current system for this investigation. Figure 3-17: Threé phase current system at x0= 0° As the magnitudes of the stator currents are decreased so will the magnitudes of the dq0 currents decrease. iy=6A∠300°.

10 -0.48 -0.03∠43.42 5.40 20.55 13.99∠-121.08 13.40 20.45i 6.75 8.82 1.4° 19.25° 13.31 -10.03∠43.19 2.40 20.81∠-130.03∠43.32 -10.21° 18.55 -0.40 20.96 4.1i 8.36∠4.68i 18.19 -0.76 -0.30 5.76i 20.21∠-133.6∠158.91 8.55 13.71 11.03∠43.62° 13.77 -1.40 14.1 +11.03∠43.03∠43.25 3.12 -16.4° 20.65° 21.55 -0.4° -19.27 -1.4° -19.40 20.14 10.03∠43.95 20.31∠39.40 20.03∠43.40 20.39 11.03∠-136.95° 5.73 + 5.56 7.4° -16.32 -1.32 +10.40 20.07 13.06 -0.40 -14.03 -16.77 -0.59i 8.67 -1.65 -0.91 -8.40 20.21 0.4° 8.4° 20.03∠43.31∠-140.99 +17.72 -19.22 1.4° 20.55 -13.76 -0.72 -0.31 -0.32 3.37 1.55 13.48 -7.89 19.65 4.82 +13i 1.03∠43.19∠-124.40 -0.03∠43.19 -0.83i 16.55∠73.55 +13.93 -14.45i 4.4° -11.13∠34.76 18.4° -18.31∠98.99 -0.27∠-117.03 16.22 + 8.4° .03∠43.17 14.40 -0.08 -1.4° -1.66 -0.4° -16.40 20.03∠43.4° 2.62i -11.22i 6.76 18.4° 11.82 -13i -1.03∠43.03∠43.22.4° -17.25 3.55∠-106.72 -0.66 0.95 20.55 13.03∠43.4° 7.13 .08∠67.38 -19.58∠124.51 -1.31i 21.35 10.03∠43.17 0.54° 6.08 -13.23 -1.03∠43.4° 20.62i -13.99° 8.64° 14.42 5.40 20.6.76 -0.0.40 14.03∠43.75° 13.4° 17.16 11.91 -0.03∠43.12 +16.96 -4.94 + 6.54° 19.71 -0.38° 10.77 -1.3.4° 20.03 -0.03∠43.62i 11.47i 21.4° -11.36∠-175.83 1.21 -0.23 1.4° 20.32° 18.03∠43.21° 4.77 0.19 -19.76i 18.89 -19.27∠62.96 -17.34 .08 -13.19 19.76 -0.19 -0.30 5.01° 8.85 14.61∠-151.79° 29 wt=0° x0=0 x0=10 x0=20 x0=30 x0=40 x0=50 x0=60 x0=70 x0=80 x0=90 x0=100 x0=110 x0=120 x0=130 x0=140 x0=150 x0=160 x0=170 x0=180 x0=190 x0=200 x0=210 x0=220 x0=230 x0=240 x0=250 x0=260 x0=270 x0=280 x0=290 x0=300 x0=310 x0=320 x0=330 x0=340 x0=350 x0=360 id iq i0 Is 14.31∠-81.40 -0.43i 21.8.4° 19.38 6.99 1.89 19.63 -0.47 10.03∠43.40 20.4° 14.4° 16.40 -0.40 20.4° 20.22i 8.39 11.21i 19.77i 13.93 14.38 19.19∠55.40 20.22 .22 + 9.54 -0.22 -14.42i -6.93 16.96 4.40 -0.25i 16.19 1.38° 13.07 9.85∠83.45° 16.4° -8.68i -14.38 19.42 -16.55 -16.40 -0.36° 20.25i 16.83i 16.71 -11.77i 13.47 10.32 1.55 -15.99 -0.01 14.85 13.42 +16.03∠43.55 +15.40 20.37 5.76 -0.96 -4.03∠43.76 -11.03∠43.21∠46.59i 8.03∠43.79° 18.31i 21.68° 18.05° 5.19 1.45° 20.34 + 0.40 -0.36 -0.53i 10.79 8.98° 11.4° 20.05 0.03∠43.91∠19.37 5.08 -0.56 7.03∠43.38 -6.40 -0.4° 18.94 3.94 .01 12.81∠52.55° 16.42i 6.63 14.03∠43.03∠43.03∠43.10i -8.96 -0.22 -1.90 6.63 0.4° 11.01 -14.2.03∠43.65 4.26 -17.90 6.01 12.40 20.1 -11.99 -17.55 13.19 -0.26 13.77 -1.40 20.10 0.93 -14.31 -0.85∠-96.6∠-21.38 -19.13∠-145.5.4° 17.03∠43.36 0.65 -0.81∠-127.43i 21.16 -11.40 20.9.40 -0.48 7.TABLE VI.33° 9.67 1.03 -0.29 + 3.40 20.37 -1.76i 20.29 .62i 13.94 -3.08∠-112.61∠28.95 -0. angle and magnitude asymmetry in all phases x0=0° wt=0 wt=10 wt=20 wt=30 wt=40 wt=50 wt=60 wt=70 wt=80 wt=90 wt=100 wt=110 wt=120 wt=130 wt=140 wt=150 wt=160 wt=170 wt=180 wt=190 wt=200 wt=210 wt=220 wt=230 wt=240 wt=250 wt=260 wt=270 wt=280 wt=290 wt=300 wt=310 wt=320 wt=330 wt=340 wt=350 wt=360 id iq i0 Is Is 14.46° 6.4° -2.47i 21.03∠43.40 20.96 17.19 -2.4° 20.40 20.40 20.75 -8.44° 6.76 0.4° 8.4° 20.27 1.22 +14.03∠43.48 -0.35 -10.30 -5.95 13.06 -0.67° 9.32 -3.63 -14.35° 21.51 -1.4° -7.6° 17.96 -0.81∠49.02° 11.46° 19.07 9.71 -0.40 20.07 -13.4° 1.26 +17.26 13.31 10.13 + 2.54 0.91∠-160.56° 6.77 1.30 -5.91 -0.55° 20.40 20.03∠43.03∠43.53i 10.21i 19.05 0.83 -1.73 .89 -19.36 +17.36 -17.76 11.62° 10.99∠58.40 20.99 -1.40 -0.4° 20.79 8.40 20.72 19.08 1.55 +13.4° 16.14 10.03∠43.65 18.65 -18.82 -1.40 -0.58∠-55.

i0 and Is stays constant. the current space phasor (Is) stays at the reference angle but is not at its maximum. The current space phasor has the maximum magnitude. id peaks. An important observation can be seen that as id peaks iq=i0=0. it can be seen that id first reaches its peak at 90° and then peaks every 180° afterwards. iq peaks 90° after id. iq peaks 90° after id. iq peaks 90° after id peaks. CASE E For angle and magnitude asymmetry in 1 phase. Now this all starts again and keeps on going for the duration of the asymmetry in the one phase. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS CASE A Under symmetrical conditions and for x0=0° the magnitude of the current space phasor (Is) and “direct “current (id) are equal and constant independent of wt. By varying x0 and keeping wt=0°. i0 stays constant. iq peaks 90° after id. It can be seen that iq peaks 45° before id. The current in the quadrature axis (iq) peaks 45° before and after id peaks. i0 peaks at 50° and then every 180° subsequently.IV. iq and then i0 peaking at 180°. The “direct” curent peaks every 180° starting at 0° and it can be seen that iq peaks 90° after id. As can be seen that firstly i0 peaks at wt=0°. id peaks at x0=0° and then every 180° subsequently. By varying x0 and keeping wt=0°. Because of the asymmetry a zero sequence current is present and peaks every 180° starting at 0°. starting now id peaking. id peaks at 20° and then subsequently 180°. iq peaks at 10° and then every 180° subsequently. After the first 90° of rotation this sequence change. id peaks at 45° and every 180° after that. CASE D For angle asymmetry it can be seen that iq does not peak 90° after id. 45° later id peaks at 45° and another 45° later. there will be a current induced into the quadrature axis (iq). As the angle (x0) between the red phase and d-axis changes. Is and id will peak (minimum and maximum) at the same angles but will fluctuate in magnitude elsewhere. i0 and Is are constant and it can be seen that Is are not on the reference angle. By changing x0 and keeping wt=0°. Because of the symmetry in the system there will be no zero sequence currents. iq starts peaking at 0° and then every 90° subsequently. id peaks at 45° and then every 180° subsequently. and iq=i0=0. CASE C When magnitude asymmetry in all phases occurs. CASE B For asymmetry in one phase and for x0=0°. i0 and Is stays constant. As can be seen from the table. when id peaks iq is equal to zero and visa versa. iq peaks at 0° and then every 180° subsequently. 30 . By varying x0 and keeping wt=0°. i0 peaks at 30° and then peaks 180° subsequently. id first peaks at 50° and then peaks 180° subsequently. id peaks at 60° and then every 180° after that. id peaks at 60° and then every 180° subsequently.

By varying x0 and keeping wt=0°. for any type of asymmetry. a pulsating torque is produced by the motor [10]. id peaks at 40° and then every 180° subsequently. i0 peaks before iq at 70°. iq peaks 90° after id. iq. Without a q-axis current the net torque of the motor will be zero. i0 and Is stays constant. V. At this stage it is very difficult to determine any resemblance between angle asymmetry and angle with magnitude asymmetry. 31 . When angle asymmetry and angle with magnitude asymmetry occurs the angle between the peaks for id. E and F). iq peaks at 170° and then every 180° subsequently. To distinguish between magnitude and angle asymmetry. id peaks at 40° and then every 180° afterwards. with magnitude asymmetry the angle between the peaks for id and i0 are 180° and iq are 90° (Case B and C). and i0 are all 180° (Case D. Firstly. Since the d and q currents are not constant. One can see that when angle asymmetry occurs the dq0 current peaks are much higher in the case of a symmetrical systm.CASE F For angle and magnitude asymmetry in all phases. CONCLUSION After investigating the various case studies it was shown that the dq0 gives various results. there will be a zero sequence current produced and the current space phasor will not move with respect to the reference angle (wt).

P. Dessaint a. (February 2008).com/machines [5] M. [online] www.VI. Available: www. “COGGING TORQUE. L. Tu a.∗. REFERENCES [1] Anon. faculty of electronics. on behalf of IMACS. Kovacs. “MODELING RELUCTANCE-ASSISTED PM MOTORS”. [online] www.” OHIO State University.com/machines 32 .wikipedia.com/dq0-transformation. Machine Department [online]. Department of Energy. El Kahel b.sciencedirect. “Synchronous Machine Modelling: Derivation of the dq0 Equations of an Idealized Three-Phase Synchronous Machine. “Modeling and experimental validation of internal faults in salient pole synchronous machines including space harmonics”. 12th edition.S. Birkhauser Verlag Basel und Stuttgart. Available: www. 2010 [8] K. U. Helsinki University of technology.akronuniversity. “ Study of static transfer switches”. Published by Elsevier B. FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies. “ Symmetrische Komponenten in Wechselstrommaschinen”. M. [online] www. Barry c. Demiray (March 2006).com/machines/derivationofthedq0equations [4] M.ohiostate. EE-2G. The Graduate Faculty of The University of Akron. Aguinaga. The Voss lectures on electrical machines IV. Comparison of Phasor Dynamics Approach to different Modeling Techniques in a common Simulation Framework.V. [online] www.oakridgenationallaboratory.R. Cape Peninsula University of Technology. DQ0 transformation.(Feb 2010) [2] T.com/ Modeling and experimental validation of internal faults in salient pole synchronous machines including space harmonics [7] E.com/permanentmagnetmotors [6] X. Olszewski (January 2006).EEH .-A. (Version 10) [online]. Islam (May 2009). Voss.com/ Comparison of Phasor Dynamics Approach to different Modeling Techniques in a common Simulation Framework [3] Professor Ali Keyhani ( March 2010). 1962 [9] J. TORQUE RIPPLE AND RADIAL FORCE ANALYSIS OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES”. (2006). A. Wikipedia.Power Systems Laboratory.helsinki. communication and automation. Availible: www.

[online] www. Welchko* Jackson Wai Thomas M.com/Machinedrives 33 . “Magnet Flux Nulling Control of Interior PM Machine Drives for Improved Response to Short-Circuit Faults”. Jahns Thomas A. Lipo. (October 2004). 2004.[10] Brian A. IEEE IAS. Rec. in Conf.sciencedirect. October Seattle.

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