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Yannie S.

Gomez PSYCHO 20 – J511

BS Accountancy 3rd Year Professor Luz Doce
First Prelim Exam

1. Explain how individual differences in personal characteristics influence job


Differences in Personal Characteristics and its Influence on Job Performance

An individual is a unique blend of physical characteristics, abilities and

personality. These are his/her own personal characteristics, which make him a whole
person. As a physical person, each individual vary in race, gender, size, age and
characteristics. As a person with a range of abilities, aptitudes, skills and talents, differ
from one another. As a person with a personality, each has a particular kind of
temperament and attitudes. These differences in individual personal characteristics bear
significant influence over actions and responses to all the events occurring in his/her
environment, especially in the workplace.

a. People differ in job performance. No two persons are alike in every aspect. They
grew up under different influence, family and environment. While growing up
these differences grow more numerous. Each undergo different training and
therefore they have differences in morality, attitudes, interests, ideals, habits and
behavior. The degree of importance attached to one’s job is not the same for every
one. Each has different reasons and motivations for working. Even if persons of
relatively similar background are under the same department at work, one cannot
expect them to perform equally.
b. Persons differ in ability and talent. Intellectual, physical and social abilities vary
among individuals. Some persons have higher intelligence levels. It may be
because of their educational training. Persons who are physically strong are best
for jobs that require physical strength. Persons who are good in communication
skills are suitable for jobs that involve contact with many persons. Those who
have the technical know-how can do the job related to machines and application
of technology. Those with potentials to lead might make good administrators if
trained. It is very important that a person’s work is properly matched with his/her
skills and abilities so that job performance is good.
c. People differ in the importance they attach to internal job rewards. They have
different motivations. Some persons try to do their job to impress their bosses.
Others work hard because they need to provide for their families. Fear of losing
ones job results to performance of minimum productivity. It is because fear tends
to make workers ill at ease. Some people want to earn higher pay and incentive so
they tend to be active on the job. Others just do what should be done without
conscious effort to improve, “they do a good day’s work for a good day’s pay”. A
good pay and reward system can affect job performance. People will give the
required attention and performance level when they know what is to be gained.
d. People differ in the style of leadership that they prefer and need. If a boss is
autocratic, he/she obliges the employee to obey all the time or otherwise get
penalized. Workers therefore just follow orders and are not given the chance to
improve. If administrators were money oriented and gives primary importance of
providing for employee benefits and securities, employees may perform passively.
They tend to rely on what they will surely receive as compensation, whether they
do the job at a satisfactory level or not. If leaders make employees feel important
in the organization, develop partnership with them and build a community of
trust, employees will have awakened drives and will try to be responsible at work.
They become committed, motivated and disciplined because a wide range of their
needs are met. How employees perform on the job is relative to the leadership
styles incorporated by their administrators.
e. People differ in their need for contact with other people. There are many traits
and attributes that compose a person’s personality. They differ in the extent to
which they believe that their behaviors influence what happens to them. There
persons who prefer to do things on their own. There are also persons who tend to
be shy and work in quiet concentration and are contented even if they are alone.
Still, there are others who are outgoing and enjoy functioning in a social
environment (around people). They are people who feel more secured working
with others. Among individuals, varying degrees of need for contact with people
exists. This need for contact is also relative to the situation one may face
f. People differ in their amount of commitment and loyalty to the firm. If the work is
interesting, the pay is fair, the promotional opportunities are good, the supervisor
is supportive and the co-workers are friendly, then it is safe to conclude that job
performance is good. There are persons who treat their job as a symbol of their
status in life. The importance they attached to it makes them committed so they
tend to do better in their job. But there are also those who find their jobs
monotonous so their initiative and enthusiasm is eroded, leading to absenteeism
and unnecessary turnover. Under this situation, job performance is not optimum.
A worker satisfied with his/her job is more likely to be creative, flexible,
innovative and loyal.

2. What are two occupations you think require a very high degree of problem solving

Being a teacher and being a manager, these are two occupations that require a
high degree of problem solving ability. For managers, it is not just to solve financial and
technical problems. For teachers, it is not just how to teach. It is also dealing with people
who bring their needs, personality and distinct differences.

People problem may arise. Some people don’t do what is required; some arrive
late for work or do not come at all. People sometimes make mistakes and others just don’t
care about a lot of things. In a classroom, students have different mental capacities.
Others comprehend faster and others slower. Each has needs that should be given
attention. People, either students or workers, are rational beings with a complex
personality that is often hard to understand. They are the most important element of any
social system or organizations.

Effective problem solving, when it comes to dealing with people, avoids creating
more problems while finding a solution to the existing one. As effective problem solver
resolves problems correctly, without creating such complications as hostility, emotion,
defensiveness and resistance.

3. Can you think of a fairly high level occupation that probably does not require a high
degree of intelligence?

Globalization and modernization ahs made a lot of changes in this world. The use
of technology is widespread. A high-level occupation, in today’s standards, almost
necessarily requires high degree of intelligence. For instance, a manager of a firm that is
involved in the manufacture of medicinal drugs needs knowledge about how matters
related to medicine industry works. But no person is born with this high-level
intelligence, it is earned and learned. A person may take on a challenging job with only
his/her potentials as back up. Through training and experience, these potentials may be
developed. When it is developed into its full capacity, intelligence level is also increased.